Biology 102103 Lab 6 Taxonomy Solution

INSTRUCTIONS:

• On your own and without assistance, complete this Lab 6 Answer Sheet electronically and submit it via the Assignments Folder by the date listed in the Course Schedule (under Syllabus).
• To conduct your laboratory exercises, use the Laboratory Manual located under Course Content. Read the introduction and the directions for each exercise/experiment carefully before completing the exercises/experiments and answering the questions.
• Save your Lab 6 Answer Sheet in the following format: LastName_Lab6 (e.g., Smith_Lab6).
• You should submit your document as a Word (.doc or .docx) or Rich Text Format (.rtf) file for best compatibility.


Pre-Lab Questions

1. Use the following classifications to determine which organism is least related out of the three. Explain your rationale.
Table 2: Classifications
Classification Level American Green Tree Frog European Fire- Bellied Toad Eastern Newt
Domain Eukarya Eukarya Eukarya
Kingdom Animalia Animalia Animalia
Phylum Chordata Chordata Chordata
Class Amphibia Amphibia Amphibia
Order Anura Anura Caudata
Family Hylidae Bombinatoridae Salamandridae
Genus Tursipops Bombina Notophthalmus
Species cinerea bombina viridescens


2. How has DNA sequencing affected the science of classifying organisms?




3. You are on vacation and see an organism that you do not recognize. Discuss what possible steps you can take to classify it.





Exercise 1: Dichotomous Key Practice
A dichotomous key is an identification tool that starts with broad defining characteristics and splits into two options until an organism can be identified. In this exercise, you will identify organisms by their binomial nomenclature using a dichotomous key.
Materials
Dichotomous Key
Images of Organisms





Procedure
1. Start by observing organism i (Figure 2). Once you have taken notice of its physical characteristics, use the dichotomous key (Figure 3) to identify the organism.
2. Start at number 1 on the key and decide if the organism has feature “1a” or feature “1b”.
3. Whichever option you choose, follow the dotted line over to the next step that will state “Go to #”.
4. Go to that number and again decide between the two options.
5. Eventually you will wind up at a two name scientific name.
6. Once you have identified organism i, record your finding in Table 3.
7. Repeat Steps 1 - 6 for all of the organisms in the dichotomous key (Figure 3).








Figure 2: Organisms to be identified









Table 3: Dichotomous Key Results
Organism Binomial Name
i
ii
iii
iv
v
vi
vii
viii
ix
x
xi
xii
xiii


Post-Lab Questions
1. What do you notice about the options of each step as they go from number one up?


2. How does your answer from Question 1 relate to the Linnaean classification system?










Exercise 2: Classification of Organisms

Materials
Use Table 4 below as well as the "tree" (Figure 4; located at the end of this procedure)




Procedure
1. Select the first organism from Table 4 (E. coli).
2. Using the “tree” (Figure 4; located at the end of this procedure) start at the top, and answer each question until the organism reaches the end of a “branch”. Write the organism’s name in the red box.
3. Repeat this for the remaining organisms.
4. After classification, fill in Table 4 with the correct domain and kingdom (when applicable) for each organism.
Table 4: Key Characteristics of Some Organisms
Organism Kingdom
Domain Defined Nucleus Motile Cell Wall Photosynthesis Unicellular
E. Coli n/a Yes Yes
Protozoa Yes Yes No Yes
Mushroom Yes Yes
Sunflower Yes No Yes Yes
Bear Yes Yes

Figure 4: Exercise 2 - Classification of Organisms Flow Chart



Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment
Table 2: Key Characteristics of Some Organisms
Organism Kingdom
Domain Defined Nucleus Motile Cell Wall Photosynthesis Unicellular
E. coli Yes Yes
Protozoa Yes Yes Yes
Mushroom Yes Yes
Sunflower Yes Yes Yes
Bear Yes Yes





Post-Lab Questions

1. Did this series of questions correctly organize each organism? Why or why not?

2. What additional questions would you ask to further categorize the items within the kingdoms (Hint: think about other organisms in each of the kingdoms and what makes them different than the examples used here)?

3. What questions would you have asked instead of the ones that you answered above when classifying the organisms?
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