HSA 535 midterm exam part 2

1.       In the Yearly Mortality Bill for 1632, consumption referred to:    2.       Cyclic variations in the occurrence of pneumonia and influenza mortality may reflect:    3.       John Snow, author of Snow on Cholera:    4.       Which of the following is not usually an aim of epidemiology?    5.       Which of the following activities characterizes a clinical approach (as opposed to an epidemiologic approach)?    6.       The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) is responsible for (give the best answer):    7.       Which of the following activities characterizes an epidemiologic approach (as opposed to a clinical approach)?    8.       In 1900, the death rate per 100,000 members of the population for influenza and pneumonia (I & P) was 202.2; it was 22.4 in 2003. How much did the death rate due to I & P decline?    9.       Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by immunization against rubella    10.   Increases in lung cancer mortality, especially among women, illustrate which of the following trends in disease occurrence?    11.   Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by half-way houses for persons recovering from addiction    12.   Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by pasteurization of milk    13.   The difference between primary and secondary prevention of disease is:    14.   Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by screening for breast cancer    15.   To express the burden or extent of some condition or attribute in a population. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data?    16.   The fundamental tool for etiologic studies of both acute and chronic diseases. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data?    17.   An epidemiologic survey of roller-skating injuries in Metroville, a city with a population of 100,000 (during the midpoint of the year), produced the following data for a particular year:
 Number of skaters in Metroville during any given month12,000Roller-skating injuries in Metroville600Total number of residents injured from roller-skating1,800Total number of deaths from roller-skating90Total number of deaths from all causes900
 
The cause-specific mortality rate from roller-skating was:  18.   Determining workload and planning the scope of facilities and manpower needs, particularly for chronic disease. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data?    19.   The risk of acquiring a given disease during a time period is best determined by:    20.   An epidemiologic survey of roller-skating injuries in Metroville, a city with a population of 100,000 (during the midpoint of the year), produced the following data for a particular year:
 Number of skaters in Metroville during any given month12,000Roller-skating injuries in Metroville600Total number of residents injured from roller-skating1,800Total number of deaths from roller-skating90Total number of deaths from all causes900
 
The proportional mortality ratio (%) due to roller-skating was:    21.   Blood pressure measurements on adult males 30-39 years of age were obtained in a survey of a representative sample of Twin Cities households. To compare the frequency of hypertension in the white and non-white population surveyed, the most appropriate measure is the:    22.   To provide a direct estimate of the risk of developing a disease. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data?    23.   The use of GIS may be thought of as following the heritage of:    24.   A null hypothesis is most similar to which of the following?    25.   Which of Mill’s four canons suggests that there is an association between frequency of disease and the potency of a causative factor?    26.   Descriptive epidemiology has the following characteristics (Choose the incorrect
option):    27.   Studies of nativity and migration have reported that:    28.   According to classic studies, age-standardized morbidity rates in the United States for acute conditions, chronic conditions, and disability due to acute conditions show the following sex differences:    29.   Which of the following statements most accurately expresses the breeder hypothesis for schizophrenia?    30.   Which of the following statements most accurately expresses the downward-drift hypothesis for schizophrenia?        Question 1 of 25
Which of the following is not usually an aim of epidemiology?
A.To describe the health status of the population 
B.To fund new public health programs 
C.To explain the etiology of disease 
D.To predict the occurrence of disease 
E.To control the distribution of disease 

Question 2 of 25
The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) is responsible for (give the best answer):
A.tracking down unusual disease outbreaks in the United States and foreign countries

B.collecting epidemiologic intelligence for local health departments 
C.disseminating epidemiologic information to members of the community 
D.reporting suspicious epidemiologic agents to governmental agencies 
Question 3 of 25
Which of the following activities characterizes a clinical approach (as opposed to an epidemiologic approach)?
A.Description of specific signs and symptoms 
B.Description of seasonal trends in disease occurrence 
C.Examination of disease occurrence among population groups 
D.Demonstration of geographic variations in disease frequency 
Question 4 of 25
Indicate the level of prevention represented by screening for breast cancer
A.Primary Prevention Active 
B.Primary Prevention Passive 
C.Secondary Prevention 
D.Tertiary Prevention 
Question 5 of 25
Cyclic variations in the occurrence of pneumonia and influenza mortality may reflect
A.seasonal variations in cases of influenza 
B.the fact that influenza is a disappearing disorder 
C.long-term changes in mortality trends 
D.both A and B 
Question 6 of 25
Which of the following terms is expressed as a proportion (as distinguished from a ratio)?
A.Male Births / Female Births 
B.Female Births / Male + Female Births 
C.Female Births / Male Births 
D.A and C 
Question 7 of 25
The risk of acquiring a given disease during a time period is best determined by
A.the mortality rate from that disease in the 0-4 age group 
B.a spot map that records all cases of the disease in the past year 
C.the period prevalence for that disease during the past year 
D.the incidence rate (cumulative incidence) for that disease in a given period of time


Question 8 of 25
An epidemiologic survey of roller-skating accidents in Metroville, a city with a population of 100,000, produced the following:
Number of skaters in Metroville during any given month: 12,000
Roller-skating accidents in Metroville: 600
Total number of residents injured from roller-skating:1,800
Total number of deaths from roller-skating:90
Total number of deaths from all causes:900
The cause-specific mortality rate from roller-skating was:
A.90/600 × 100,000 
B.90/100,000 × 100,000 
C.90/1,800 × 100,000 
D.90/900 × 100,000 
Question 9 of 25
The use of Geographic Information Systems may be thought of as following the heritage of
A.Graunt 
B.Snow 
C.Koch 
D.Semmelweis 
Question 10 of 25
As a characteristic of persons, age is perhaps the most important factor to consider when one is describing the occurrence of virtually any disease or illness, because
A.older people are more health conscious 
B.older people seek medical treatment more often 
C.there is a greater variance in age-specific disease rates than in rates defined by almost any other personal attribute 
D.there are more numbers in ages than in geographical places or diseases in a population 
Question 11 of 25
What factors should be considered in measuring long-term changes in disease frequency over time?
A.Changes in diagnostic criteria 
B.Changes in the age distribution 
C.Changes in the fatal course of the condition 
D.All of the above 
Question 12 of 25
According to the natural history of disease model, the time before the precursors of disease and the host interact is called the period of
A.Prepathogenesis 
B.Pathogenesis 
C.Primogenesis 
D.B and C 
Question 13 of 25
Which form of prevention takes place after the precursors of disease interact with the host?
A.Tertiary 
B.Secondary 
C.Primary 
D.Both A and B 
Question 14 of 25
In 1900, the death rate per 100,000 population for influenza and pneumonia (I & P) was 202.2; it was 22.4 in 2003. How much did the death rate due to I & P decline
A.74% 
B.1000% 
C.89% 
D.9% 
E.None of the above 
Question 15 of 25
Blood pressure measurements on adult males 30-39 years of age were obtained in a survey of a representative sample of Twin Cities households. To compare the frequency of hypertension in the white and non-white population surveyed, the most appropriate measure is the
A.incidence rate 
B.prevalence 
C.race-specific prevalence 
D.race-specific incidence rate 
Reset Selection
Question 16 of 25
Incidence and prevalence data have different applications in public health. Prevalence data is used:
A.For estimating the frequency of exposure 
B.To express the burden or extent of some condition or attribute in a population 
C.To provide a direct estimate of the risk of developing a disease 
D.A and B 
Question 17 of 25
The incidence of a disease is five times greater in men than in women, but the prevalence shows no sex difference. The most likely explanation is that:
A.the mortality rate is greater in women. 
B.the case fatality rate is greater in women 
C.the duration of the disease is greater in women 
D.women receive less adequate medical care for the disease 
Question 18 of 25
High rates of mortality from hypertension found among African Americans may be due to
A.Dietary factors 
B.Exposure to stress 
C.Obesity 
D.All of the above 
Question 19 of 25
According to classic studies, age-standardized morbidity rates in the United States for acute conditions, chronic conditions, and disability due to acute conditions show the following sex differences:
A.Rates for males are higher than rates for females. 
B.Rates for males are equal to the rates for females. 
C.Rates for females are higher than rates for males. 
D.Females have higher rates of hearing impairment than males. 
E.B and D 
Question 20 of 25
Descriptive epidemiology characterizes the amount and distribution of disease within a population to enable the researcher to
A.make direct tests of etiologic hypotheses 
B.generate testable hypotheses regarding etiology 
C.evaluate trends in health and disease within a population 
D.All of the above 
E.B and C only 
Question 21 of 25
Studies of nativity and migration have reported that:
A.admission rates of foreign-born persons to mental hospitals were lower than for native-born persons 
B.diseases found in less developed regions are no longer a problem in the United States 
C.some migrants have inadequate immunization status with respect to vaccine-preventable diseases 
D.immunization programs in developing countries have been highly successful

Question 22 of 25
Identify the incorrect option. Case clustering:
A.is of indeterminate significance for rare diseases, because clusters may occur by chance alone 
B.suggests common exposure of a group of people to an etiologic agent 
C.is called temporal clustering for geographic concentrations of cases 
D.has been shown for angiosarcoma and vaginal carcinoma 
E.None of these are correct 
Question 23 of 25
Which of the following reasons might account for place variation in disease
A.Concentration of racial or ethnic groups within an area 
B.Genetic and environment interactions 
C.Influence of climate 
D.Presence of environmental carcinogens 
E.All of the above 
Question 24 of 25
Which of Mill’s four canons suggests that there is an association between frequency of disease and the potency of a causative factor
A.Difference 
B.Agreement 
C.Concomitant variation 
D.Residues 
Question 25 of 25
Using epidemiology for operational research involves:
A.study of community health services 
B.study of risks to the individual 
C.study of disease syndromes 
D.All of the above
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