BEHS 364 Final Examination A++ RATED

BEHS 364 SEC 6382 SEM 2152                                                      Final Examination

 

Alcohol in U. S. Society                                                                     UMUC 2015

 

 

Match Questions – 4 points each

 

The public response to excessive drinking has been a mix of two general approaches:Directly reduce drinking + restrict availability/raise prices
Indirectly reduce drinking + increase availability
Directly reduce drinking + lower price
None of the above
 

The “neo-prohibitionists”:Are comprised of economists, epidemiologists, and other scientists doing research on the causal effects of alcohol-control measures on drinking, abuse, and consequences
Present the case that the price and availability of alcohol affect the amount of alcohol-related harm to society
Both a and b
Neither a or b
 

Early in U.S. history, Alexander Hamilton proposed a ____________ to decrease heavy drinkingProhibition
A whiskey tax
Abstinence
None of the above
 

During the 1930’s a new scientific understanding of alcoholism shifted the focus to:Alcohol itself
Morality
The small fraction of the population vulnerable to alcoholism
None of the above
 

Dr. E. M. Jellinek was a researcher that:Is considered the godfather of the alcoholism movement
Identified small portions of the population vulnerable to alcohol
Suggested that someone with the innate propensity for alcoholism would actually develop the disease depends in part on living in an alcohol wet or dry environment
All of the above
 

 

Just like tobacco:A small increase in tax would have a small effect on the public health
A large increase in tax would have a large effect on the public health
Both a and b
Neither a or b
 

 Drinkers are:Better educated, richer, less ambivalent
Poorly educated, poorer, ambivalent
Exactly the same
None of the above
 

Prohibition or the 18th Amendment:Promoted a substantial reduction in drinking
Was a political failure
Was repealed by Constitutional Amendment
All of the above
 

Federal funding for research and treatment of alcoholism expanded and became institutionalized with the creation of :Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)
National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA)
Narcotics Anonymous (NA)
None of the above
 

Today, the American public is mostly drinking:Liquor
Beer
Wine
All of the above equally
 

Today, the “neo-prohibitionist” label suggests people that:Are moralistic and naïve
Seek to reduce alcohol abuse by advocating controls on supply and higher taxes
Promote deregulation
Both a and b
 

The first internal revenue measure instituted by the 1st United States Congress was a tax on:Wages
Liquor
Land
Tea
 

 

At the time of the Civil War liquor was used for:Drinking
Fluid for lamps
Industrial products
All of the above
 

The most politically effective organization working for Prohibition was:Alcoholics Anonymous
Anti-Saloon League
League of Women Voters
Al-Anon
 

The national prohibition was popularly known as the:Volstead Act
Wilson Act
Webb-Kenyon Act
Reed Act
 

The Volstead Act banned the ________________ of alcohol.Purchase
Possession
Consumption
Manufacture and sale
 

Enforcement of the Volstead Act was done by:Congress
President
Treasury Department
Homeland Security
 

The economist Clark Warburton claimed that during Prohibition there was a reduction in he overall consumption of ethanol coupled with a substitution of liquor for beer based on :Agricultural sources
Death rates from alcohol related causes of production
Arrests for drunkenness
All of the above
 

The class of people that maintained the same level of drinking throughout Prohibition was:Middle and Upper class
Working class
Poor
None of the above
 

 

Under the 21st amendment the states took the lead in regulating alcohol:Excise taxes
Tax collection
Distribution and sales
Both a and b
 

The most successful self-help organization of our time is:Alcoholics Anonymous
Narcotics Anonymous
Al-Anon
Marijuana Anonymous
 

The co-founders of Alcoholics Anonymous were:Bill Wilson and Dr. Bob Smith
Carl Jung and William James
John D. Rockefeller Jr. and Pierre S. DuPont
None of the above
 

E. Morton Jellinek:Identified 5 varieties of alcoholism
Wrote “The Disease Concept of alcoholism”
Offered a science-based understanding of alcoholism
All of the above
 

Jellinek reserved the disease label for those alcoholics:Who evidenced dependence by an inability to stop drinking once started
Who had an inability to refrain from starting to drink
Who practiced controlled drinking
Both a and b
 

______________ was another proponent of the disease model who suggested that uncontrolled, maladaptive ingestion of alcohol is not a disease in the sense of a biological disorder; rather alcoholism is a disorder of behavior:George Vaillant
E.M. Jellinek
Stanton Peele
Herb Finagarette
 

A procedure reserved for those that require medical help to mitigate severe withdrawal symptoms is:Relapse prevention
Detoxification
Liver transplant
None of the above
 

 

The case for a genetic basis to alcoholism is strengthened by the observation:Identical twins are more alike with respect to the presence or absence of alcoholism than are fraternal twins
Fraternal twins are more alike with respect to the presence or absence of alcoholism than are identical twins
Identical and fraternal twins are equally alike with respect to the presence of alcoholism
Identical and fraternal twins are equally alike with respect to the absence of alcoholism
 

Inpatient rehabilitation programsAre the most costly and highly structured
Traditionally last 28 days
Include group therapy, individual therapy, and education
All of the above         
 

Project Match was an evaluation study that:Involved a 12 week period of individual outpatient sessions
Randomly assigned patients to 1 of 3 approaches
Evaluated cognitive-behavioral, motivational enhancement, and 12 step facilitation therapies
All of the above
 

The alcoholism movement engendered a research program that:Seeks to identify individual characteristics that create susceptibility to alcohol problems
Develop effective treatments
Obtain federal funding
Both a and b
 

An intrinsic limitation to the medical approach is that:It is not only alcoholics that cause and suffer abuse by their drinking
No treatment requires voluntary compliance
Prevention drugs are always effective
All of the above
 

Quantification is essential to:Assessing the scope, pattern, and trends of drinking
Evaluating particular interventions intended to reduce problematic drinking
Both a and b
Neither a or b
 

 

 

 

From a population-health perspective:Data on overall alcohol sales is irrelevant
Data on the entire distribution of consumption is of interest
Neither abstinence or heavy drinking have health implications
All of the above
 

80 proof whiskey is:8% alcohol
80% alcohol
40% alcohol
100% alcohol
 

Generally, it is easier to estimate ____________ consumption with some degree of accuracyIndividual
The distribution of individual drinking
Aggregate
None of the above
 

Problems with using tax records as the basis for estimating alcohol consumption include:No account of wastage
Illicit production for sale (moonshine)
Tourists
All of the above
 

The 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) provided an estimate of pro capita consumption that vis about __________ of recorded pro capita sales:Half
Double
Equal
None of the above
 

Prudent users of survey data:Check data with other surveys, sales data, and other benchmarks
Trust but verify
Proceed with certainty in their data alone
Both a and b
 

The prevalence of drinking peaks in the early ________ for both males and females:Teens
20’s
30’s
40’s
People in _______ health are more likely to drink:Poor
Fair
Good
All of the above
 

In classical liberal thought, a choice is of greater public concern if the resulting harm is to:The person making the choice
Bystanders
Society overall
Both a and b
 

The public health perspective attempts to:Distribute specific benefits to identified individuals
Improve the level or rates of health among the entire population or specific groups
Both a and b
Neither a or b
 

Public health stands closer to a __________ ethic of social justiceCommunication
Individualistic
Liberal
Conservative
 

The sale of cold beer to drivers generates a ________ externality to the extent that it increases the chance that people who share the road with the beer buyer ( and drinker while driving) will collide with the buyer:Neutral
Positive
Negative
Zero
 

A wide array of experiments document that ____________ of consequence occurrence  seems to contradict the presumption of a rational choiceSeverity
Timing
Order
Lack
 

Self control is a matter of:Willpower
Experience
Technique
All of the above
The liberal tradition embodied in the harm principle claims to promote the greatest good by:Leaving the adult individual free to make his own choices as long as others are not harmed
Promoting improvement of choices by government regulation
Denies the intrinsic value of freedom
None of the above
 

_____________ measures are aimed at reducing the harmful consequences of some unhealthy or unsafe activityGovernment regulation
Harm reduction
Public policy
Abstinence
 

Information provision includes:Warning labels on alcoholic beverages
Public service ads on television and radio
Alcohol curriculums in school health classes
All of the above
 

The Cost of Illness (COI) method:Is the norm in government reports
Distinguishes between direct costs and indirect costs resulting from loss of productivity
Is implicitly based on the maximization of society’s present and future production
All of the above
 

The Willingness to Pay (WTP) method contends:The value of a persons life and health is measured by the value placed on enjoying a safe environment
Enjoyment is subjective and involves decisions that require judgment about the value of small increases or reductions in the probability of death
Both a and b
Neither a or b
 

Among the causes of death and disability associated with drinking,  __________ disproportionally young adultsHeart disease
Cirrhosis of the liver
Traffic accidents
Brain damage
 

 

 

The beer industry contends that it:Directly and indirectly employs approximately 1.78 million Americans with 54 billion in wages and benefits
Has an economic ripple effect that benefits packaging manufacturers, shipping companies, agriculture, and other business’s that depend on it
Both a and b
Neither a or b
 

The brewing industry actively supports a rollback of the 1990 excise tax increase to:Provide relief for the lower and middle classes
Allow brewers and wholesalers to expand and hire more workers
Boost the American economy
All of the above
 

The economist Gary Beaker defined the optimal crime rate as:Zero crime
The rate associated with a balancing of marginal costs and benefits of law enforcement
Both a and b
Neither a or b
 

An example of a harmful consequence of alcohol misuse beyond the reach of a targeted  consequence oriented approach is:Organ damage from chronic excess drinking
Drinking while driving
Domestic violence
Child abuse
 

In reference to alcohol control measures, the federal government:Licenses and collects excise taxes from importers and manufacturers
Monitors product purity
Polices illegal production and trafficking
All of the above
 

America is predominately a __________ drinking country.Beer
Wine
Liquor
None of the above
 

In 2005, the Supreme Court ruled that states could ban direct shipment of wine:For out of state producers only
For in state producers only
For out of state producers only if they did the same for in state producers
None of the above
A surprising feature of government in the liquor trade is:18 states continue to control wholesale distribution as a public monopoly
5 states monopolize the retail sale of package spirits
Both a and b
Neither a or b
 

Taxes have unique advantages as alcohol-control measures since they:Help control alcohol abuse and its consequences without a direct restriction on freedom of choice
Provide a possibility for a calibrated response to the cost of alcohol related problems by being set high, low, or anywhere in between
Enhance public revenues
All of the above
 

In recent years the U.S. Congress has set alcohol taxes:Far lower than previously
Far higher than previously
About the same as previously
None of the above
 

Federal and state excise taxes:Are unit taxes defined in terms of volume rather than product value
Are paid by the manufacturer or distributor
Have no automatic inflation protection
All of the above
 

Unintended consequences of increased taxes and price include:Substitution from alcohol to other drugs
Creation of a black market for alcohol
Both a and b
Neither a or b
 

A number of empirical studies have found that alcohol and marijuana are:Substitutes
Complements
Not related
All of the above
 

In youths the use of one illegal substance results in greater interest and opportunity to try other substances and is known as __________ phenomena:Co-op
Either –Or
Gateway
Challenge
 

 

Alcohol taxes are “regressive” taxes in that:On average a larger percentage of the income of poorer households goes to pay this tax than in richer households
On average a smaller percentage of the income of poorer households goes to pay this tax than in richer households
On average the same percentage of the income of poorer households goes to pay this tax than in richer households
None of the above
 

In the public health framework an increase in alcohol taxes is justified by:A reduction in morbidity and mortality
No decrease in overall employment
Impact on alcohol industry products
None of the above
 

A 1985 literature summary concludes:Most drinkers prefer beer and those drinkers are more likely to drink/drive
Beer is disproportionately preferred by higher risk groups
Both a and b
Neither a or b
 

Alcohol control is:All or nothing
A continuum of possibilities
Both a and b
Neither a or b
 

In addition to alcohol control there are two other vital approaches for public intervention:Time, place, and circumstances + harm reduction
Time, place, and circumstances + abstinence
Alcoholics Anonymous + Disease Model
None of the above
 

Time, place, and circumstances:Include efforts to motivate people to refrain from drinking when it is likely to cause damage
Matters are largely dealt with through counseling and private authority
May require government authority for intervention in some areas
All of the above
 

Harm reduction:Helps make the world safer for drunks
Has goal to ease some of the natural consequences of excessive drinking
Demands total abstinence
All of the above
In public opinion surveys, a large majority of the public indicate support for increasing alcohol taxes provided:The revenues be used for targeted and preventive programs or some other good use
The revenues are a  preventative measure in themselves
The revenues go into the general fund for all to use
None of the above
 

The federal government has pushed for additional restrictions on youthful drinking by:Requiring campuses and military installations to enforce the minimum legal drinking age laws
Having states adopt zero tolerance for teen drivers
Both a and b
Neither a or b
 

 

True or False Questions – 2 points each

 

 

During the last half century, the public policy to reduce excessive drinking has largely neglected restricting availability and raising the price of alcohol. TRUE
 

Mothers Against Drunk Drivers (MADD) has been an ineffective influence on policy change referencing drunk drivers. False
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