# COSTS OF PV TECHNOLOGY GENERATIONS

COSTS OF PV TECHNOLOGY GENERATIONS (1 point possible) (Note: due to requests from many students, to clarify the exercise and enhance the differences between the two options, the efficiency of the first generation module was changed from 17% to 18%. The correct answer to AQ1.1.3 remains the same as before). We are going to build a PV system on a roof of 10m2, and we have two possible PV modules: (1) A first generation module with efficiency η=18%

and cost of 0.80€/Wp. (2) A second generation PV module with efficiency η=10% and cost of 0.40€/Wp. The non-modular costs are 100€/m2. Note that the irradiance under standard test conditions is 1000W/m2. What is the cost in € of implementing a PV system for the entire roof using first generation technologies? SHOW ANSWER You have used 3 of 3 submissions AQ1.1.2 COSTS OF PV TECHNOLOGY GENERATIONS (1 point possible) What is the cost in € of implementing a PV system for the entire roof using second generation technologies?

CHECKYOUR ANSWER SAVEYOUR ANSWER You have used 0 of 3 submissions AQ1.1.3 COSTS OF PV TECHNOLOGY GENERATIONS (1 point possible) If the power demand is 700Wp, which will be the most cost-effective (or cheapest) option? (Note that for meeting the power demand, you may not need the whole roof area.) First generation technologies Second generation technologies Both options have exactly the same cost FINAL CHECKYOUR ANSWER SAVEYOUR ANSWER You have used 0 of 1 submissions AQ1.2.1 RENEWABLES IN GLOBAL ELECTRICITY SUPPLY

MIX (1 point possible) The worldwide installed wind power in 2012 was 280GW. Assume that the total electricity generation worldwide is 20200TWh per year, and a capacity factor for wind power of 30%. What percentage of the total electricity generation worldwide was covered by wind energy in 2012? CHECKYOUR ANSWER SAVEYOUR ANSWER You have used 0 of 3 submissions AQ1.2.2 RENEWABLES IN GLOBAL ELECTRICITY SUPPLY MIX (1 point possible) The same question for solar power. The worldwide installed solar power in 2012 was

102GW. Assume the same total electricity generation worldwide that was given in the previous question. Assume a capacity factor for solar power of 15%. What percentage of the total electricity generation worldwide was covered by solar energy in 2012? AQ1.3.1

POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY AND PHOTON FLUX (1 point possible) Solar simulators are used to study the performance of solar cells and modules. A solar simulator is a lamp which has to simulate the solar spectrum under standard test conditions (STC). The figure below

shows the spectral power density of a solar simulator. The spectral power density is divided in two spectral ranges: P(λ)=4∗1015λ−1.2∗109 Wm−2m−1 for 300nm<λ<800nm P(λ)=5.2∗109−4∗1015λ Wm−2m−1 for 800nm<λ<1300nm Where the wavelength λ is expressed in meters.

As we saw in block 1.6, the irradiance can be calculated via the spectral power density as: I=∫λ0P(λ)dλ Calculate the irradiance of the solar simulator in Wm−2 - CHECKYOUR ANSWER SAVEYOUR ANSWER You have used 0 of 3 submissions AQ1.3.2 POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY AND PHOTON FLUX (1 point possible) The photon flux can be calculated by integrating the spectral photon flux over a certain wavelength range: ϕ=∫λ0Φ(λ)dλ=∫λ0P(λ)λhcdλ What is the photon flux of the solar simulator in 1021m−2s−1? - CHECKYOUR ANSWER SAVE YOUR ANSWER You have used 0 of 3 submissions AQ1.4.1 PV POTENTIAL AROUND THE WORLD (1 point possible) The table below shows the total area, sun hours per day and energy consumption of five different countries: the United States, India, Brazil, Spain and the United Kingdom. Country Area (km2) Sun hours per day Energy Consumption (MWh/year) United States 9,826,675 4 3,886,400,000 India 3,287,263 5 959,070,000 Brazil 8,515,767 4.5 455,700,000 Spain 505,992 4.5 267,500,000 UK 243,610 2.5 344,700,000 If a PV system of 270Wp is installed in each of these locations, in which country would be best to place the panels to obtain the maximum output?

and cost of 0.80€/Wp. (2) A second generation PV module with efficiency η=10% and cost of 0.40€/Wp. The non-modular costs are 100€/m2. Note that the irradiance under standard test conditions is 1000W/m2. What is the cost in € of implementing a PV system for the entire roof using first generation technologies? SHOW ANSWER You have used 3 of 3 submissions AQ1.1.2 COSTS OF PV TECHNOLOGY GENERATIONS (1 point possible) What is the cost in € of implementing a PV system for the entire roof using second generation technologies?

CHECKYOUR ANSWER SAVEYOUR ANSWER You have used 0 of 3 submissions AQ1.1.3 COSTS OF PV TECHNOLOGY GENERATIONS (1 point possible) If the power demand is 700Wp, which will be the most cost-effective (or cheapest) option? (Note that for meeting the power demand, you may not need the whole roof area.) First generation technologies Second generation technologies Both options have exactly the same cost FINAL CHECKYOUR ANSWER SAVEYOUR ANSWER You have used 0 of 1 submissions AQ1.2.1 RENEWABLES IN GLOBAL ELECTRICITY SUPPLY

MIX (1 point possible) The worldwide installed wind power in 2012 was 280GW. Assume that the total electricity generation worldwide is 20200TWh per year, and a capacity factor for wind power of 30%. What percentage of the total electricity generation worldwide was covered by wind energy in 2012? CHECKYOUR ANSWER SAVEYOUR ANSWER You have used 0 of 3 submissions AQ1.2.2 RENEWABLES IN GLOBAL ELECTRICITY SUPPLY MIX (1 point possible) The same question for solar power. The worldwide installed solar power in 2012 was

102GW. Assume the same total electricity generation worldwide that was given in the previous question. Assume a capacity factor for solar power of 15%. What percentage of the total electricity generation worldwide was covered by solar energy in 2012? AQ1.3.1

POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY AND PHOTON FLUX (1 point possible) Solar simulators are used to study the performance of solar cells and modules. A solar simulator is a lamp which has to simulate the solar spectrum under standard test conditions (STC). The figure below

shows the spectral power density of a solar simulator. The spectral power density is divided in two spectral ranges: P(λ)=4∗1015λ−1.2∗109 Wm−2m−1 for 300nm<λ<800nm P(λ)=5.2∗109−4∗1015λ Wm−2m−1 for 800nm<λ<1300nm Where the wavelength λ is expressed in meters.

As we saw in block 1.6, the irradiance can be calculated via the spectral power density as: I=∫λ0P(λ)dλ Calculate the irradiance of the solar simulator in Wm−2 - CHECKYOUR ANSWER SAVEYOUR ANSWER You have used 0 of 3 submissions AQ1.3.2 POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY AND PHOTON FLUX (1 point possible) The photon flux can be calculated by integrating the spectral photon flux over a certain wavelength range: ϕ=∫λ0Φ(λ)dλ=∫λ0P(λ)λhcdλ What is the photon flux of the solar simulator in 1021m−2s−1? - CHECKYOUR ANSWER SAVE YOUR ANSWER You have used 0 of 3 submissions AQ1.4.1 PV POTENTIAL AROUND THE WORLD (1 point possible) The table below shows the total area, sun hours per day and energy consumption of five different countries: the United States, India, Brazil, Spain and the United Kingdom. Country Area (km2) Sun hours per day Energy Consumption (MWh/year) United States 9,826,675 4 3,886,400,000 India 3,287,263 5 959,070,000 Brazil 8,515,767 4.5 455,700,000 Spain 505,992 4.5 267,500,000 UK 243,610 2.5 344,700,000 If a PV system of 270Wp is installed in each of these locations, in which country would be best to place the panels to obtain the maximum output?

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