Introduction to Criminal Justice


Complete the following exam by answering the questions and compiling your answers into a word-processing document. When you’re ready to submit your answers, refer to the instructions at the end of your exam booklet.

Part A: Answer each of the following questions in one or more complete paragraphs. Each answer is worth 10 points.

 1. How does the ChicagoSchool of thought explain the causes of crime by making an analogy to ecology?

 2. Explain Cesare Beccaria’s theory of criminology.

 3. Explain the differences between a complaint, an information, and a grand jury indictment.

 4. Identify ways in which inquisitorial systems differ from adversarial systems.

 5. What are the different philosophical rationales or justifications for punishment? 

Part B: Answer each of the following questions in about five to seven sentences. Each answer is worth 5 points.

 1. Explain how guidelines are used to help judges and juries decide whether the death penalty should be imposed in a given case.

 2. How does the right to have your appeal heard in an inter mediate court of appeal differ from The right to have it heard in a court of last resort ?

1 2

Last, analyze the issue(s) presented in each article.  Be sure to address all of the following questions for each article:

  1. Do you agree with the writer or the outcome? Why or why not?

  2. Are any questions left unanswered by the article? How would you answer those questions?

  3. Is the article presented in a fair and unbiased manner?

If not, from what position do you believe the author is writing the article?

Include a copy of each article with your written summary and analysis when you submit the project for grading. Make sure your name, student number, and project number are included on all files submitted.

Penn Foster Inc. | Essentials of Psychology Essay Instructions

Good morning or afternoon. This is the Essentials of Psychology overview of your essay assignment. To be successful in this course, you must write an essay based on information found in your textbook, Psychology  in Your  Life by Robert S. Feldman. The textbook is your only source of information as far as definitions go for this course and this assignment.

So where is this essay assignment? If you go to your dashboard, you' re going to find on your Assignment page that it' s number 13 in your list of assignments. You' ve already watched the little video, or you' re watching it right now. When you' re finally ready to make a decision, you' re going to click on the study unit and read the information that I' m discussing right now. And then once that is read and you understand what you' re doing and you' ve written your paper, you' re going to click on the Take Exam button. And we' re going to go into that more thoroughly.

As I said, the great thing about this assignment, and as soon as you open that study guide, is you' re going to see there is no outside research. This is not a research paper. You may use quotations but you' re not going to use anything other than your textbook. And you' re going to present a discussion based on the topics that are given in this presentation and in your study guide. The minimal for this, since people like to understand that there' s a minimum, is 750 words. There' s no way that you could successfully do this paper under 750 words. You may go over the 1,000 words but no more than 500.

If you' re going to use any exact word of the authors found in your textbook, you must use quotation marks and cite the information properly. Remember, again-- and I keep saying this and I' m going to say it all throughout this presentation-- the only source for this paper is your textbook. If you do use a direct quotation for a definition or explanation, which would be the only reason you would use a quotation because sometimes it' s just-- they say it best in the text, the only author you will be citing-- which I spelled wrong-- is Feldman not any of the authors he quotes from in the textbook. You did not read the quotations in the original source from the original author, you' ve only read Feldman.

Now, how do you have knowledge? You may say, according to Jones as noted in Feldman. So you' re acknowledging Jones said it but you read it in Feldman. And then you' re going to put parentheses, the date of publication, comma, quote mark, your quote, you' re going to end your quote, and put parentheses, p for page, 256, end your quotation, period. That' s how you do an in text citation in APA format.

If you have any questions about how to do this-- because of course I' m telling you but it' ll be a while before you write it-- please go to the LongIslandUniversity.edu site. If you do a Google search for Long Island University APA, this will show you how to do that citation for in text and the reference page. If you use a quote, you must have a reference page. And the reference page you' re going to use the chapter of a book.

Well, now you understand where to find your assignment, and you' re going to learn that we have given you three topics to choose from because we understand not everyone has the same interest. So you' re going to begin by reviewing chapter five which began on 162 where the chapter discussed classical conditioning and the experiments of Ivan Pavlov, operant conditioning and B.F. Skinner' s contribution, particularly reward and punishment, or, what came later in the chapter, which has Bandura' s social cognitive theory of learning. So you' ve got a choice of three different theories of conditioning.

Now, that' s one thing you have to decide. Which one do I like the best? Which one fits my mindset the best? Now, why do you need to pick one? Because we also give you choices within the option. Your topic is conditioning, now you have two choices and you' re going to only pick one.

The first option is to choose one of the conditioning learning styles discussed and tell us how it could be applied to child rearing, in particular, by creating a plan to get a child to clean his or her room. You' re basically training the child using conditioning. So what you' re going to do for this essay is you' re going to start off with your chosen style learning theory or conditioning method and then you' re going to apply that method by showing us that you can create a plan using elements of that theory to get a child to successfully clean his or her room.

Let' s say you don' t want to train the kid. You don' t believe that kids should clean their room. Maybe you' re into animals. The text discussed pros and cons of punishment and why reinforcement beats punishment. This is in particular the operant conditioning mode. Conditioning plays a part in the role of punishment. So you need to first explain the theory behind the phenomenon of conditioning using rewards and punishment reinforcements and give an example of your understanding by showing us-- again, creating a plan-- that you have trained an animal to do something.

Whether that animal you' re training is to sit and hold one of those little bones on his nose or whether it' s to roll over or whether it' s not to jump up on people when they walk in the door or whether it' s to be potty trained to go outside. You need to follow through with your conditioning and using elements of conditioning, paying particular attention to the role of reinforcement in this paper.

All right. Let' s say you' re not real excited about training anything, whether it' s a human or an animal. The next chapter-- the next topic we give you a choice of is memory. Memory is on page 200, it' s where it begins in chapter six. The entire chapter discusses how the brain processes information and explains the process involved in memory as well as the role of forgetting information. Memory is deeply entrenched with the process of gathering information, but making room for new information or, through interference, forgetting the information we' ve gathered.

The second part of the chapter discusses how we as humans think, reason, solve, and problem solve, and the role our brain plays in developing language. So what do you think your two choices are going to be? Your first option is to discuss the process of memory, define it, and then discuss each and every type of memory and the process of forgetting as listed in your textbook. Not only though are you going to give me definitions, you' re going to apply those definitions by showing me you understand the meaning of them and relating them to a memory, a personal experience that matches that particular memory type.

If you don' t want to do memory, we also said the textbook and this chapter discussed language acquisition. As our country becomes more multicultural and we see more and more different languages being spoken, you may want to learn another language. Discuss all of the theory-- there were three-- of language acquisition, and then choosing one, state why you feel this one would be best. But apply it as well by saying you' ve used it or you' re going to use it with your child.

You don' t like conditioning and you don' t like memory. Our third topic, motivation and emotion. Notice there is two of them there. You' re going to have two choices again. Chapter seven began on page 243 and it talks about how we as humans are born to be motivated to satisfy our needs. And it discusses why some of us seek out more sensation and thrills than others. There are those people that want to ride that roller coaster constantly while some of us just want to ride the little train around the park. What makes each of us different? What makes somebody want to ride the roller coaster versus riding the train?

The other item that was discussed is how emotions and the need for power rule some of us. And finally, the chapter ended with a discussion on how culturally-- the differences in our culture, they format how we and what expressions of emotions that we show.

Choices. Option one, according to Maslow, our motivation progresses up a pyramid. You have to discuss his theory and give your opinion on whether or not you agree with it giving concrete examples in relation to the hierarchy as to your opinion. For example-- and this is one I do not want you to miss-- under physiological, Maslow claims we need to breathe, we need food, we need water, we need sleep, we need to have a comfort zone, which is homeostasis, and we need to excrete in order to continue as humans. And I don' t think anybody' s going to disagree with that.

Maslow also states we must have sex as a biologic imperative to survive. I agree. At one point in time when the humans needed to populate the earth, we needed to have sex. However, Maslow states, you must have sex before you can move on to feeling safe, getting employment, getting a family, and being healthy, and obtaining property.

Is that necessary in today' s world? Is it even possible? Since many people choose never to have sex-- they either be celibate or they choose not to have sex until they are married which is the third part of the pyramid, family, sexual intimacy-- how can you have-- is sex and sexual intimacy the same thing? And if you' ve chosen to wait until you' re married, how can you pass up to the love and belonging when you can' t get to safety, according to Maslow.

Lots to discuss here.

If you don' t like that one, you can discuss the models of emotion. There were three theories of emotion outlined in your textbook. The James-Lange theory, the Cannon-Bard, and the Schachter Two-Factor Theory. What I would like you to do in this choice, this option, is to first define all three-- James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, Schachter in a sentence or two, you' re going to define each one. A sentence for each theory.

Then you' re going to choose the model that best describes how you have dealt and deal with crises in your life.

And of course, because you' re talking about you, you have to give specific examples that illustrate you fit into the Cannon Bard theory or you fit into the Schachter two-factor theory.

OK. Wow. You made a choice. We like to give you choices. A big buffet here at Penn Foster. Now you need to actually start filling out and writing your paper. Even though we tell you this is an APA formatted paper, it' s strictly not an APA formatted paper because we' re giving you our version of a cover sheet which is not an APA formatted cover sheet.

We also do not want you to write a summary or an abstract. We don' t need you to have a running head. What we want you to use the APA formatting is for the in text citations and the Works Cited page. If you have citations. So that means you would have a cover sheet, a body, and a Works Cited page. But you' re not going to upload three separate documents, you' re going to connect them all in one. It' s your cover sheet followed immediately by your body followed immediately by your Works Cited page.

That first page, which is your cover sheet, you' re going to give us the title of your chosen topic. So let' s say you' re going to say, Motivation and Emotions, colon, Maslow' s Theory. Or Motivation and Emotion, colon, How I Deal

With A Crisis. That' s the title. Then you' re going to have your name and your student ID-- and they should actually be on two separate lines-- the current date, acknowledge that this is Introduction to Psychology, in the essay assignment number. That' s found right in your study guide.

The body of your paper is, again, 750 to 1,500 words based solely on the information from your textbook and your input about your application of what you' re writing about. All papers should be formatted in a standard font such as Times New Roman or Calibri only. Nothing else. No bold, no italics, no handwritten kind of information. And it should always be 12 point font. You don' t want anything smaller, it makes it too hard to read. Anything bigger, it just looks like you' re trying to take up space. 

You' re going to have the margins set at the standard one inch on all sides. That usually the default on your word processor. But what isn' t the default on your word processor and something you need to set, is double space.
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