PHL 320 Week 1 Knowledge Check

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PHL 320 Week 1 Knowledge Check

1.

The bandwagon effect is a common bias,
which refers to

§  A.

the tendency to align one’s thinking
with the underdog

§  B.

the tendency to align one’s thinking
with a negative advertisement

§  C.

the tendency to align one’s thinking
with cognitive dissonance

§  D.

an unconscious tendency to align one’s
thinking with that of other people

 

2.

Some cognitive biases involve heuristics,
which are

§  A.

general rules we unconsciously follow in
estimating probabilities.

§  B.

the probability of an event happening
based on personal experience

§  C.

the probability of an event happening
based on family experience

§  D.

the probabilities of an event happening
based on science

3.

The in-group bias is characterized by

§  A.

a rational evaluation of those in other
groups

§  B.

conclusions supported by data

§  C.

accepting individuals from other teams
and groups

§  D.

believing that the achievements of the members
of my group are a result of hard work

4.

The premise of a good deductive
argument, if true

§  A.

does not prove or demonstrate its
conclusion

§  B.

proves or demonstrates its conclusion

§  C.

supports the conclusion

§  D.

does not support the conclusion

5.

If we know that an argument is weak,
then we know that the conclusion

§  A.

is false

§  B.

is true

§  C.

may or may not be true

6.

“The ensemble played an encore at last
year’s concert, and I’m pretty sure they played one the year before as well. So
they will most likely play an encore at this year’s concert.”



This argument is best taken as

§  A.

inductive

§  B.

deductive

§  C.

simplistic

§  D.

argumentative

7.

Critical thinking involves

§  A.

blindly acting or reacting

§  B.

making wise decisions and coming to
correct conclusions

§  C.

basing decisions on emotion or greed

§  D.

basing decisions on intuition or a gut
feeling

8.

In decision making, critical thinking
will help increase the validity of your decisions by

§  A.

incorporating logical flaws

§  B.

ignoring viewpoints that are contrary to
your own

§  C.

basing the decision on your opinions and
the opinions of celebrities

§  D.

determining what information is or is
not pertinent

9.

Arguments whose premises are intended to
provide absolutely conclusive reasons for accepting the conclusion are deductive.

§  A.

inductive

§  B.

deductive

§  C.

premise

§  D.

opinions
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