# (Psyc 354) Exam 1 Study Guide

**Study Guide: Exam 1**All exam questions are taken from Modules/Weeks 1 and 2, Nolan and Heinzen. There is no SPSS content. The study guide is organized by topic.

**Populations and Samples:**Define what a sample is and identify the sample in a research scenario. For example, in a study with 15 student participants who have a mean SAT score of 678, what is the sample? 1. What is the letter used to identify the sample size? In other words, the number of participants in a study is represented by what letter?

**Explain the difference between a sample and a population. Why are samples used more often than populations in research**

*n***Descriptive and Inferential Statistics:**Define a descriptive statistic and give an example. Be able to identify a descriptive statistic in a research scenario. For example, in a study with 15 student participants who have a mean SAT score of 678, what is the descriptive statistic? 1. Define inferential statistics and explain how they are used by researchers.

*Inferntial statistics use sample data to make general estimates about the larger population. To infer or to make an intelligent guess about the population.*2. Understand that the main difference between these two types of statistics (descriptive vs. inferential) is that one describes and summarizes the data set while the other uses the data to draw conclusions about a larger population.

**Variables and Levels of Measurement:**1. Define a variable.

**2. Define a value or score.**

*Variables are observations of physical, attitudinal, and behavioral characteristics that can take on different values.***What is the relationship between a variable and a value?**

*Numbers that are given to a specific variable.***In this list, which is the variable and which is the value? a. IQ score**

*Value is given to a variable.***b. 120**

*(Variable)***3. What is the difference between a discrete variable**

*(Value)***and a continuous variable**

*(can take on only specific values)***? Can you give an example of each one and identify why one is discrete while the other is continuous?**

*(can take on a full range of values)***4. What are the 4 levels of measurement?**

*DV: 1, 4, 7; how many times a week CV: 1.2, 1.34, 2.684; how many seconds***Often, two of these levels are combined into one level. What is it called, and which 2 original levels are represented by it?**

*Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio.***5. List the 4 levels of measurement and describe whether they are discrete or continuous. Some can be both discrete and continuous.·**

*Scale/Ratio and Interval***·**

*Nominal- always discrete, never continuous***·**

*Ordinal- always discrete, never continuous***·**

*Interval- sometimes discrete, sometimes continuous*

*Ratio- seldom discrete, almost always continuous***Independent and Dependent Variables:**1.

**2.**

*An independent variable has at least two levels that we either manipulate or observe to determine its effects on the dependent variable.***3.**

*A dependent variable is the outcome variable that we hypothesize to be related to, or caused by, changes in the independent variable.***4. ?**

*We conduct research to see if the independent variable predicts the dependent variable.***5. A very basic example of an IV and its levels:**

*Ability to change the variable (male to female)*
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