RES 320 Week 5 Final Examination

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RES 320 Week 5 Final Examination
Review the readings and lecture notes to prepare for the comprehensive Final Examination
RES/320 Week Five Final Exam
In an experimental study looking at classical music exposure and reading ability in children, the researcher divided the children into two groups (Groups A and B). In Group A, the children listened to Mozart for one hour every day for one month. In Group B, parents were instructed to refrain from playing classical music around the child for one month. At the end of the month, all children were given a reading comprehension test. Those who listened to Mozart daily (Group A) scored significantly higher on the reading test.  What is the independent variable? What is the dependent variable? Please explain your response.
1.   Blinding may be used to
  A. control subjects’ knowledge of whether or not they were given a            particular treatment.
  B. control the unconscious influence of researchers.
  C. control effects of extraneous variables.
  D. all of the above.
  E. none of the above.
2.   What is a theory?
3.   A hypothesis serves several important functions. What are they?
4.   Through exploration researchers develop concepts more clearly, establish priorities, develop operational definitions, and improve the final research design. Which of the following are included in the exploratory stage:

q  Published studies
q  Focus groups
q  Secondary research
q  Interviews
q  Group discussions
q  Primary research

5.   Data mining involves a five-step process. What are the steps?
6.   What is the definition of ethics?  How would you manage the following situation?
7.   What is a pilot test? Give an example of how it would be used?
8.   An attitude:

A. is open to direct observation and measured by direct means.
B. is always measured by the rating method.
C. cannot be measured using physiological measures.
D. is always a hypothetical construct.
E. none of the above.

9.   What is a research design? The essential details of a research design include which of the following:

q  Plan based on a research question
q  Information on the researchers who will conduct the study
q  A framework for specifying the relationships among the study’s variables
q  A guide for selecting sources and types of information.
q  Step-by-step instructions for conducting the research study

10. What are the differences or similarities between an experience survey and a focus group?
11. What is qualitative research? Give at least two examples.

What is quantitative research? Give at least two examples.

12. What is the value of self-administered questionnaire? Which of the following are   problems with a self-administered questionnaire:
q  The wrong address, e-mail or postal, can result in non-delivery or non-return.
q  It will resemble a contest entry to win a million dollars a year for life.
q  The wrong person may open the questionnaire and fail to call it to the attention of the right person.
A participant may find no convincing explanation or inducement for completing the survey and thus discard it.
q  Tells the researcher what problems there are with his or her survey.
The concept of “demand characteristics”:

     A. refers to behavioral traits of respondents who ask a researcher certain questions.
     B. is another term for the guinea pig effect.
     C. refers to aspects of an experiment that provide unintentional hints about the experimenter’s hypothesis.
     D. provides an excellent example of the sample attrition effect.
 In direct observation, if the observer is subjective in the recording of what is occurring,
       the study is said to have:

     A. systematic bias.
     B. observer bias.
     C. demand characteristics.
     D. human error.
     E. response latency.
14. List five advantages of experiments:
15. Determining the best for the population and providing greater transferability.
16. In a focus group, the moderator’s job is to prepare a standard set of questions to ask each group member. (True or False)

17. wever, to interpret the findings of research, we need a measure of how closely the sample represents the population.

18. What are the differences or similarities between validity and reliability?
19. What is the Likert scale? Provide an example of a Likert Scale question.
20. What is an unstructured response question? Give an example.  What is a structured response question? Give an example. What factors does the researcher consider in determining which of these types of questions to use.

21. Coding involves assigning numbers or other symbols to answers so that the responses can be grouped into a limited number of categories. There are two type of coding. What are they? Define each one and describe at least two benefits for using each one:
22. Which of the following is not a common problem with secondary data?

     A. outdated information
     B. variation in definition of terms
     C. differing units of measurement
     D. takes too long to collect
     E. All of the above are common problems.

23. One study found that passengers flying on Boeing-747s preferred them to L-1011s, while passengers flying on L-1011s preferred them to Boeing-747s.  This is an example of:
A. random sampling error.
B. social desirability bias.
C. administration error – sample selection error.
D. response bias.
24. What is a Management Research Report? Which of the following items are included in the report:

q  Executive summary
q  Research hypothesis
q  Research design
q  Research objectives
q  Research theory
q  Interviews conducted
q  Problem statement

25. If the research question were defined as “will buyers purchase more of a product in a blue colored or silver package?” the most appropriate type of research would be:

A. exploratory
B. descriptive
C. causal
D. associative
E. none of the above

26. The concept brand loyalty may be operationalized as

     A. sequences of brands purchased.
     B. number of different brands purchased.
     C. amount of brand deliberation.
     D. all of the above.
     E. The concept cannot be operationalized.
27. When framing response alternatives to dichotomous or multiple choice questions, the alternatives must be mutually exclusive. (True or False)
28. An analysis of the basic cross-tabulation for each level of another variable, perhaps a subgroup, is called elaboration analysis. (True or False)
29. If you wanted to present a great deal of numerical information, you might decide to use a:

     A. Pie chart.
     B. Table.
     C. Descriptive statistical array.
     D. Line graph.
     E. Bar chart.

30. In general, it is preferable in fixed alternative questions that the responses not be:

  A. mutually exclusive.
  B. collectively exhaustive.
  C. structured in an unvarying order.
  D. numbered.
  E. All of the above are preferred.

31. There are two major alternative sampling plans: probability techniques and systematic techniques. (True or False)
32. Which of the following sample types would allow a researcher to assess the degree of random sampling error most accurately?
  A. convenience
  B. judgment
  C quota
  D. snowball
  E. stratified
33. List five disadvantages of experiments:

34. A distortion of measurement resulting from the cognitive behavior or actions of the witnessing observer is called observer bias. (True or False)

35. With a technically proper random probability sample, statistical errors can be eliminated. (True or False)
36. The right to privacy is absolute and cannot be waived by anyone under any circumstances. (True or False)
37. Which of the following is an advantage of a depth interview?

        A. high degree of structure
        B. valuable insights into motivation
        C. need for a skilled interviewer
        D. inexpensive
        E. quickly and easily completed.

38. When a decision must be made about a specific real-life problem, we would conduct __ research.

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