BUSI 340 quiz 3 Liberty University complete answers

BUSI 340 quiz 3 Liberty University complete answers

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Question 1

According to expectancy theory, providing counseling and coaching to an employee who lacks self‑confidence is most likely to increase the employee's:

Question 2

Which of the following theories suggests that employee motivation is influenced by what other people contribute to and receive from the organization?

Question 3

ABC Corporation recently held a "Vision Day" event in which all of their employees formed teams to develop 60‑second videos for management around how the company is making lives better. Shortly after, their CEO was quoted as saying "We try to get the best out of everybody." In order to get the "best out of everybody," ABC Corp. must maintain high levels of:

Question 4

Goal setting is most effective when:

Question 5

Which of these is one of the factors in the expectancy theory model?

Question 6

The desire to seek approval from others, conform to their wishes and expectations, and avoid conflict and confrontations is referred to as the need for:

Question 7

Self‑concept, social norms, and past experiences help us to:

Question 8

According to expectancy theory, an outcome that opposes our values has:

Question 9

What are some of the drivers of employee engagement discussed in the text?

Question 10

Effective feedback:

Question 11

If Jill wanted to increase P‑to‑O expectancies, what should she do?

Question 12

An individual's perceived probability that a particular level of effort will result in a particular level of performance is referred to as the:

Question 13

In repetitive jobs, the positive effect of higher proficiency is easily offset by the negative effect of lower attentiveness and motivation caused by:

Question 14

According to the self‑leadership model, which of the following is true about positive selftalk?

Question 15

Which of the following minimizes health risks from repetitive strain and heavy lifting because employees use different muscles and physical positions in the various jobs?

Question 16

The characteristic of a job that refers to how much the job can be performed using known procedures and roles is known as:

Question 17

Which of the following dimensions is possessed by employees, when they feel empowered, care about their work, and believe that what they do is important?

Question 18

A large retail organization previously divided work among its four employee benefits staff into distinct specializations. One person answered all questions about superannuation (pension plans), another answered all questions about various forms of paid time off (e.g. vacations), and so on. These jobs were recently restructured so that each employee benefits person answers all questions for people in a particular geographic area. For example, one staff member is responsible for all employee benefits inquiries from anyone in a particular geographic region.

This job restructuring is an example of:

Question 19

Which of the following type of reward systems uses job evaluations?

Question 20

Gainsharing plans tend to:

Question 21

Which of the following elements does self‑leadership include?

Question 22

Which of the following is true about skill‑based pay plans?

Question 23

A cable TV company redesigned jobs so that one employee interacts directly with customers, connects and disconnects their cable service, installs their special services and collects overdue accounts in an assigned area. They also decided to do away with scripted customer interaction manuals and allow each employee to determine how best to interact with each customer. Previously, each task was performed by a different person and the customer interacted only with someone at the head office. This change most likely increased each employee's _______________.

Question 24

Which of the following steps occurs in self‑leadership immediately after identifying goals that are specific, relevant, and challenging?

Question 25

A mid‑sized city introduced a reward system whereby employees would find ways to reduce costs and increase work efficiency. Every employee would receive a portion of the surplus budget resulting from these cost savings. Which of the following reward systems is this city using?

 

Question 1 According to expectancy theory, an outcome that opposes our values has:

Question 2 Which drive in the four-drive theory is reactive rather than proactive?

Question 3 Expectancy theory helps us to predict an individual's:

Question 4 Which of the following statements is true about the innate drives of people?

Question 5 Which of the following needs is the strongest according to Maslow's needs hierarchy theory?

Question 6 Which of the following is the highest level need in Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

Question 7 Which of the following statements is consistent with the observations of Maslow?

Question 8 Self-concept, social norms, and past experiences help us to:

Question 9 The desire to seek approval from others, conform to their wishes and expectations, and avoid conflict and confrontations is referred to as the need for:

Question 10 According to expectancy theory, a skill-development training program would:

Question 11 The optimal level difficulty of a goal:

Question 12 When people experience procedural injustice, they tend to:

Question 13 _____ is the degree to which employees can tell how well they are doing on the basis of direct sensory information from the job itself.

Question 14 Katie decided to do a more enjoyable task after completing a task that she disliked. This instance is an example of:

Question 15 Which of the following are "golden handcuffs" that potentially increase continuance commitment?

Question 16 _____ is the degree to which the job affects the organization and/or larger society.

Question 17 Which of these performance-based rewards tends to create a connection between the employee's work effort and the reward received?

Question 18 According to the survey reported in the text, what percentage of Americans say their pay is "variable, such that a portion is dependent upon your individual performance/productivity" targets?

Question 19 Gainsharing plans tend to:

Question 20 The characteristic of a job that refers to how predictable job duties are from one day to the next is called:

Question 21 Which reward system tends to discourage poor performers from voluntarily leaving the organization?

Question 22 A large retail organization previously divided work among its four employee benefits staff into distinct specializations. One person answered all questions about superannuation (pension plans), another answered all questions about various forms of paid time off (e.g. vacations), and so on. These jobs were recently restructured so that each employee benefits person answers all questions for people in a particular geographic area. For example, one staff member is responsible for all employee benefits inquiries from anyone in a particular geographic region. This job restructuring is an example of:

Question 23 Which of the following are included under constructive thought patterns in self-leadership?

Question 24 The process of influencing oneself to establish the self-direction and self-motivation needed to perform a task is known as:

Question 25 Which of the following dimensions is possessed by employees, when they feel empowered, care about their work, and believe that what they do is important?

 

Question 1

Expectancy theory helps us to predict an individual's:

Question 2

Which of the following statements is consistent with the observations of Maslow?

Question 3

In expectancy theory, valence refers to the:

Question 4

ABC Corp. brought in a performance-based reward system that accurately identified employees who performed better than others. This practice improves employee motivation by:

Question 5

Which of the following is applied by supervisors when they stop criticizing employees whose substandard performance has improved?

Question 6

The best reinforcement schedule for motivating employees is a(n) _____.

Question 7

In the four-drive theory, the drive ______ is most closely associated with the need for relative status and recognition.

Question 8

Four-drive theory recommends that companies should:

Question 9

Outcome/Input ratio and comparison other are elements of:

Question 10

_____ states that much learning and motivation occurs by observing and modeling others, as well as by anticipating the consequences of our behavior.

Question 11

The distributive justice rule employs the concept of:

Question 12

The _____ of human beings are also called primary needs.

Question 13

When are employees said to be empowered?

Question 14

Which of these job design actions is a form of job enlargement?

Question 15

Which core job characteristic(s) affect(s) experienced responsibility for work outcomes?

Question 16

Which of the following dimensions is possessed by employees, when they feel empowered, care about their work, and believe that what they do is important?

Question 17

Which of the following is most consistent with employability—namely, that employees are expected to continuously learn skills that will keep them employed?

Question 18

Which of the following are "golden handcuffs" that potentially increase continuance commitment?

Question 19

A cable TV company redesigned jobs so that one employee interacts directly with customers, connects and disconnects their cable service, installs their special services and collects overdue accounts in an assigned area. Previously, each task was performed by a different person and the customer interacted only with someone at the head office. This change is an example of:

Question 20

Which of the following is true about skill-based pay plans?

Question 21

Before meeting a new client, a salesperson visualizes the experience of meeting the person and effectively answering some of the challenging questions the client might ask. This activity is an example of:

Question 22

A unique feature of Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory is that it:

Question 23

Which of the following is a concept that is represented by four dimensions: selfdetermination, meaning, competence, and impact of the individual's role in the organization?

Question 24

Which of the following does scientific management include?

these divided tasks to employees who are best qualified to perform them.

Question 25

According to the self-leadership model, which of the following is true about positive selftalk?

 

 

Which of the following statements was not considered by the needs hierarchy theory

Which of the following is a major criticism of Maslow's needs hierarchy theory

_____ states that much learning and motivation occurs by observing and modeling others, as well as by anticipating the consequences of our behavior

Which of the following statements portrays the essence of appreciative coaching

The desire to seek approval from others, conform to their wishes and expectations, and avoid conflict and confrontations is referred to as the need for

One of the main implications of four-drive theory is that

When people experience procedural injustice, they tend to

According to expectancy theory, providing counseling and coaching to an employee who lacks self-confidence is most likely to increase the employee's:

Which of the following statements is consistent with the observations of Maslow

The main implication of the four-drive theory of motivation is that:

Which of the following is a way to increase employee motivation by improving the P-to-O expectancies

Expectancy theory helps us to predict an individual's

Which of the following is the first step in self-leadership

Which of the following directly contributes to a feeling of experienced responsibility among employees

Which of the following is the primary aspect of job enlargement

_____ is the degree to which the job affects the organization and/or larger society

When are employees said to be empowered

Which of these statements about self-leadership is true

A high degree of autonomy, task identity, and task significance are important conditions for

Katie decided to do a more enjoyable task after completing a task that she disliked. This instance is an example of:

Gainsharing plans tend to

According to Herzberg, which of the following is a hygiene factor

Which of the following elements does self-leadership include

Steelweld, a car parts manufacturer, pays employees a higher hourly rate as they learn to master more parts of the work process. Employees earn $10 per hour when they are hired and they can earn up to $20 per hour if they master all 12 work units in the production process. Which of these reward systems is being applied by Steelweld

Which of the following rewards represent the largest part of most paychecks

 

_____ are the motivational forces of emotions channeled toward particular goals to correct deficiencies or imbalances

When people experience procedural injustice, they tend to

One of the main implications of four-drive theory is that

Which of the following is applied by supervisors when they stop criticizing employees whose substandard performance has improved

Outcome/Input ratio and comparison other are elements of

The _____ of human beings are also called primary needs

Effective feedback

Which of these is one of the factors in the expectancy theory model

The desire to seek approval from others, conform to their wishes and expectations, and avoid conflict and confrontations is referred to as the need for

With respect to procedural justice, the "value-expressive" function that "voice" provides refers to the

Which of the following is a way to increase employee motivation by improving the P-to-O expectancies

Which of the following statements is true about the innate drives of people

When are employees said to be empowered

_____ is the process of keeping track at regular intervals of one's progress toward a goal by using naturally occurring feedback

A large retail organization previously divided work among its four employee benefits staff into distinct specializations. One person answered all questions about superannuation (pension plans), another answered all questions about various forms of paid time off (e.g. vacations), and so on. These jobs were recently restructured so that each employee benefits person answers all questions for people in a particular geographic area. For example, one staff member is responsible for all employee benefits inquiries from anyone in a particular geographic region. This job restructuring is an example of

Which core job characteristic(s) affect(s) experienced responsibility for work outcomes

Gainsharing plans tend to:

Which of the following tend to create an ownership culture and align employee behaviors more closely to organizational objectives

A video journalist's job consists of operating the camera, reporting the story, and often editing the work, whereas these three tasks are traditionally performed by three people. Video journalism is an example of

Which of the following is an advantage of job specialization

Steelweld, a car parts manufacturer, pays employees a higher hourly rate as they learn to master more parts of the work process. Employees earn $10 per hour when they are hired and they can earn up to $20 per hour if they master all 12 work units in the production process. Which of these reward systems is being applied by Steelweld

A cable TV company redesigned jobs so that one employee interacts directly with customers, connects and disconnects their cable service, installs their special services and collects overdue accounts in an assigned area. Previously, each task was performed by a different person and the customer interacted only with someone at the head office. This change is an example of

Which of the following directly contributes to a feeling of experienced responsibility among employees

Which of the following is an individual incentive

Katie decided to do a more enjoyable task after completing a task that she disliked. This instance is an example of

 

According to expectancy theory, an unwanted reward has:

The main implication of the four­drive theory of motivation is that

ABC Corp. brought in a performance­based reward system that accurately identified employees who performed better than others. This practice improves employee motivation by

With respect to procedural justice, the "value­expressive" function that "voice" provides refers to the

In expectancy theory, valence refers to the

When people are assigned to jobs for which they are qualified and they receive coaching to improve their self­confidence, employee motivation improves by

Employees who receive a fixed amount of pay each week and who feel underrewarded are most likely to

Which of the following theories suggests that employee motivation is influenced by what other people contribute to and receive from the organization?

Which of the following does the expectancy theory explain about employees

Which of the following components are enhanced by individualizing rewards

Which of the following is applied by supervisors when they stop criticizing employees whose substandard performance has improved

The best reinforcement schedule for motivating employees is a(n)            .

Which of the following are "golden handcuffs" that potentially increase continuance commitment?

Which of the following reward systems uses job evaluations

A large retail organization previously divided work among its four employee benefits staff into distinct specializations. One person answered all questions about superannuation (pension plans), another answered all questions about various forms of paid time off (e.g. vacations), and so on. These jobs were recently restructured so that each employee benefits person answers all questions for people in a particular geographic area. For example, one staff member is responsible for all employee benefits inquiries from anyone in a particular geographic region. This job restructuring is an example of

A high degree of autonomy, task identity, and task significance are important conditions for

When applied to non­management employees, which of the following has a weak connection between the reward and individual effort

Which of the following does scientific management include

The problem with membership and seniority­based rewards is that they

Which of these job design actions is a form of job enlargement

Which of the following are included under constructive thought patterns in self­ leadership?

A unique feature of Herzberg's motivator­hygiene theory is that it

Which core job characteristic(s) affect(s) experienced responsibility for work outcomes?

Which of the following is an advantage of job specialization

Before meeting a new client, a salesperson visualizes the experience of meeting the person and effectively answering some of the challenging questions the client might ask. This activity is an example of:

 

1.
People with a high power distance tend to have a high respect and priority for money. 
 
True    False
 

2.
The largest portion of most paychecks is based on a person's membership and seniority in an organization. 
 
True    False
 

3.
Competency-based rewards are consistent with the concept of employability. 
 
True    False
 

4.
An advantage of competency-based rewards is that measuring employee competencies is mostly done through objective measurement methods. 
 
True    False
 

5.
A problem with seniority-based rewards is that they cause higher turnover. 
 
True    False
 

6.
Job evaluations systematically evaluate the worth of each job within the organization by measuring its required skill, effort, responsibility and working conditions. 
 
True    False
 

7.
Job evaluation mainly supports the competency approach to rewards. 
 
True    False
 

8.
Job status-based rewards potentially motivate employees to compete with each other. 
 
True    False
 

9.
Job status-based rewards discourage employees from hoarding resources. 
 
True    False
 

10.
Competency-based rewards pay employees based on their seniority in the organization. 
 
True    False
 

11.
Skill-based pay plans give an employee a higher pay rate for those days that he or she performs two or more jobs at the same time. 
 
True    False
 

12.
Competency-based rewards tend to improve levels of product and service quality. 
 
True    False
 

13.
Gainsharing plans focus on cost reductions and increased labor efficiency. 
 
True    False
 

14.
Gainsharing plans apply to production jobs, not to services such as medical operations. 
 
True    False
 

15.
Employee stock ownership plans and stock options are two types of organizational-level performance-based rewards. 
 
True    False
 

16.
Employee stock ownership plans and stock options tend to create an "ownership culture" in which employees feel aligned with the organization's success. 
 
True    False
 

17.
Employee stock ownership plans give employees the right to purchase company stock at a predetermined price up to a fixed expiration date. 
 
True    False
 

18.
Companies should use individual-level performance-based pay when jobs are highly interdependent. 
 
True    False
 

19.
Team rewards increase employee preferences for team-based work arrangements. 
 
True    False
 

20.
Job specialization increases training costs and makes it more difficult for companies to match employee aptitudes to jobs for which they are best suited. 
 
True    False
 

21.
Scientific management is the process of systematically dividing work into its smallest possible elements and standardizing work activities to achieve maximum efficiency. 
 
True    False
 

22.
Scientific management is mainly associated with high levels of job specialization. 
 
True    False
 

23.
Adam Smith introduced the principles of scientific management. 
 
True    False
 

24.
Job specialization increases work efficiency, but it tends to reduce employee motivation. 
 
True    False
 

25.
According to Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory, only characteristics of the job (and not the work environment) motivate employees. 
 
True    False
 

26.
According to the motivator-hygiene theory, people are mainly motivated by characteristics of the job itself, not by working conditions or other factors external to the job. 
 
True    False
 

27.
Motivator-hygiene theory highlights the idea that job content is an important source of employee motivation. 
 
True    False
 

28.
The job characteristics model identifies five core job characteristics and three psychological states. 
 
True    False
 

29.
Task identity is the degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the organization and/or larger society. 
 
True    False
 

30.
Employees assembling complete computer modems would have higher task identity than those assembling only one component and passing it along to others for further assembly. 
 
True    False
 

31.
Task significance is the degree to which the job affects the organization and/or larger society. 
 
True    False
 

32.
According to the job characteristics model, experienced meaningfulness increases with the level of job feedback. 
 
True    False
 

33.
Increasing the core job characteristics will not increase employee motivation for those who lack the required skills. 
 
True    False
 

34.
All employees feel more motivated to perform their jobs when the core job characteristics are increased. 
 
True    False
 

35.
Job enlargement increases skill variety. 
 
True    False
 

36.
A video journalist is someone who performs all jobs previously done by a traditional news team—from operating the camera to reporting the story. Thus, a video journalist is an example of job enlargement and job enrichment. 
 
True    False
 

37.
Research suggests that increasing job enlargement increases employee motivation almost as much as job enrichment. 
 
True    False
 

38.
Two ways to enrich jobs are by clustering jobs into natural groups and by establishing client relationships. 
 
True    False
 

39.
Forming natural work units tends to increase task identity and task significance. 
 
True    False
 

40.
Job enrichment tends to increase the quality of products or services. 
 
True    False
 

41.
Companies are applying job specialization when employees are made directly responsible for specific customers and having them communicate directly with those customers. 
 
True    False
 

42.
People are empowered when they feel self-determination, meaning, competence, and impact regarding their role in the organization. 
 
True    False
 

43.
Employees are more likely to feel empowered in jobs with a high degree of autonomy, task identity, and task significance. 
 
True    False
 

44.
Employees experience more meaningfulness when working in jobs that allow them to receive feedback about their performance and accomplishments. 
 
True    False
 

45.
Empowerment flourishes in organizations with a learning orientation. 
 
True    False
 

46.
Empowerment tends to decrease personal initiative among employees. 
 
True    False
 

47.
Self-leadership borrows ideas from social learning theory and research in sports psychology on constructive thought processes. 
 
True    False
 

48.
Self-leadership suggests that goals should be set by the employee's supervisor with or without the employee's involvement. 
 
True    False
 

49.
Positive self-talk motivates employees by increasing their effort-to-performance expectancy. 
 
True    False
 

50.
Mental imagery helps us to anticipate and work out solutions to potential obstacles in our work. 
 
True    False
 

51.
Mental imagery excludes visualizing completion of a task. 
 
True    False
 

52.
An element of self-leadership involves keeping track of our progress toward goals. 
 
True    False
 

53.
Self-leadership includes the practice of self-reinforcement. 
 
True    False
 

54.
People with a high level of conscientiousness have difficulty applying self-leadership strategies. 
 
True    False
 

55.
Self-leadership is dependent solely on the individual. 
 
True    False
 

56.
Employees with a high degree of autonomy engage in self-leadership. 
 
True    False
 

57.
Employees engage in self-monitoring in companies that emphasize less frequent measurement of performance. 
 
True    False
   

58.
Which of the following rewards represent the largest part of most paychecks? 
 



A. 
Membership-based rewards
 

B. 
Job status-based rewards
 

C. 
Individual job performance-based rewards
 

D. 
Competency-based rewards
 

E. 
Performance-based rewards
 
 

59.
Which reward system tends to discourage poor performers from voluntarily leaving the organization? 
 



A. 
Performance-based pay
 

B. 
Skill-based pay
 

C. 
Piece-rate rewards
 

D. 
Competency-based pay
 

E. 
Membership and seniority-based pay
 
 

60.
The problem with membership and seniority-based rewards is that they: 
 



A. 
discourage people from remaining with the organization.
 

B. 
are difficult to use in organizational settings.
 

C. 
do not directly motivate job performance.
 

D. 
increase turnover.
 

E. 
discourage people from remaining with the organization and they do not directly motivate job performance.
 
 

61.
Which of the following are "golden handcuffs" that potentially increase continuance commitment? 
 



A. 
Performance-based rewards
 

B. 
Job status-based rewards
 

C. 
Team-based rewards
 

D. 
Competency-based rewards
 

E. 
Membership/seniority-based rewards
 
 

62.
Which of the following reward systems uses job evaluations? 
 



A. 
Competency-based reward system
 

B. 
Job status reward system
 

C. 
Individual performance reward system
 

D. 
Seniority-based reward system
 

E. 
Task performance-based reward system
 
 

63.
Which of the following awards motivate employees to compete for promotions? 
 



A. 
Performance-based rewards
 

B. 
Competency-based rewards
 

C. 
Team-based rewards
 

D. 
Job status-based rewards
 

E. 
Membership/seniority-based rewards
 
 

64.
Steelweld, a car parts manufacturer, pays employees a higher hourly rate as they learn to master more parts of the work process. Employees earn $10 per hour when they are hired and they can earn up to $20 per hour if they master all 12 work units in the production process. Which of these reward systems is being applied by Steelweld? 
 



A. 
Skill-based pay
 

B. 
Piece-rate pay
 

C. 
Job evaluation system
 

D. 
Seniority-based pay
 

E. 
Membership-based pay
 
 

65.
Which of the following is most consistent with employability—namely, that employees are expected to continuously learn skills that will keep them employed? 
 



A. 
Job evaluation systems
 

B. 
Job status rewards
 

C. 
Competency-based rewards
 

D. 
Individual performance-based rewards
 

E. 
Membership-based rewards
 
 

66.
Which of the following is true about skill-based pay plans? 
 



A. 
They discourage employees from learning new jobs.
 

B. 
They create a psychological distance between employees and managers.
 

C. 
They discourage poor performers from leaving the organization.
 

D. 
They can be expensive because they motivate employees to spend more time learning new jobs.
 

E. 
They motivate employees to compete for promotions.
 
 

67.
Which of the following is an individual incentive? 
 



A. 
Gainsharing plan
 

B. 
Piece rate plan
 

C. 
Share option
 

D. 
Share ownership
 

E. 
Employee stock ownership plan
 
 

68.
Which of these performance-based rewards tends to create a connection between the employee's work effort and the reward received? 
 



A. 
Profit-sharing plan
 

B. 
Employee stock ownership plan
 

C. 
Gainsharing plan
 

D. 
Employee stock option plan
 

E. 
Stock option
 
 

69.
A mid-sized city introduced a reward system whereby employees would find ways to reduce costs and increase work efficiency. Every employee would receive a portion of the surplus budget resulting from these cost savings. Which of the following reward systems is this city using? 
 



A. 
Gainsharing plan
 

B. 
Commission system
 

C. 
Piece rate plan
 

D. 
Share option plan
 

E. 
Commission plan
 
 

70.
Gainsharing plans tend to: 
 



A. 
increase efficiency without paying employees any financial reward.
 

B. 
distribute a portion of company profits to employees in the form of company stock.
 

C. 
create a reasonably strong effort-to-performance expectancy.
 

D. 
reward individuals for their own personal performance rather than team or organizational performance.
 

E. 
increase efficiency without paying employees any financial reward creating a reasonably strong effort-to-performance expectancy.
 
 

71.
Which of the following is true about stock option plans? 
 



A. 
They refer to bonuses from the work unit's cost savings and productivity improvement.
 

B. 
They give employees the right to purchase company stock at a predetermined price up to a fixed expiration date.
 

C. 
They directly award bonuses to employees based on cost savings and increased labor productivity.
 

D. 
They tend to weaken employee commitment to the organization.
 

E. 
They encourage employees to buy company stock, usually at a discounted price or through a no-interest loan.
 
 

72.
Which of the following tend to create an ownership culture and align employee behaviors more closely to organizational objectives? 
 



A. 
Job evaluations
 

B. 
Commissions
 

C. 
Piece rate plans
 

D. 
Employee share ownership plans
 

E. 
Stock option plans and employee stock ownership plans
 
 

73.
When applied to non-management employees, which of the following has a weak connection between the reward and individual effort? 
 



A. 
Piece rate pay
 

B. 
Commission
 

C. 
Profit-sharing bonus
 

D. 
Gainsharing plan
 

E. 
Job evaluation
 
 

74.
Which of the following is an advantage of job specialization? 
 



A. 
The quality of work increases.
 

B. 
Jobs can be mastered quickly.
 

C. 
Employees are more involved with their jobs.
 

D. 
The work is less repetitive.
 

E. 
Task specialization has no clear advantages to the organization.
 
 

75.
Which of the following refers to the result of the division of labor in which work is subdivided into separate jobs assigned to different people? 
 



A. 
Piece rate system
 

B. 
Job rotation
 

C. 
Job specialization
 

D. 
Profit-sharing bonus
 

E. 
Gainsharing plan
 
 

76.
Which of the following does scientific management include? 
 



A. 
Assigning employees to fixed hourly wages.
 

B. 
Systematically dividing a job into its smallest possible elements and assigning these divided tasks to employees who are best qualified to perform them.
 

C. 
Combining tasks so employees perform an entire work process from beginning to end.
 

D. 
Encouraging employees to set their own goals and have positive thoughts about their work performance.
 

E. 
Encouraging employees to complete an entire task single handedly.
 
 

77.
Which of these contemporary organizational behavior practices was popularized by Fredrick Taylor in his work on scientific management? 
 



A. 
Goal setting
 

B. 
Job enrichment
 

C. 
Membership-based reward system
 

D. 
Seniority-based reward system
 

E. 
Competency-based reward system
 
 

78.
According to Herzberg, which of the following is a hygiene factor? 
 



A. 
Autonomy
 

B. 
Job security
 

C. 
Responsibility
 

D. 
Personal growth
 

E. 
Esteem need
 
 

79.
A unique feature of Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory is that it: 
 



A. 
states that improving motivators increases job satisfaction but does not decrease job dissatisfaction.
 

B. 
states that employees can be satisfied with their jobs but not motivated to perform their jobs.
 

C. 
identifies job specialization as the main source of higher need fulfillment.
 

D. 
views job satisfaction and dissatisfaction as opposites.
 

E. 
recognizes money as the primary motivator in organizational settings.
 
 

80.
_____ is the degree to which a job requires completion of a whole or identifiable piece of work, such as assembling an entire broadband modem rather than just soldering in the circuitry. 
 



A. 
Skill variety
 

B. 
Task significance
 

C. 
Job feedback
 

D. 
Job rotation
 

E. 
Task identity
 
 

81.
_____ is the degree to which the job affects the organization and/or larger society. 
 



A. 
Skill variety
 

B. 
Task significance
 

C. 
Job feedback
 

D. 
Job rotation
 

E. 
Task identity
 
 

82.
Which core job characteristic(s) affect(s) experienced responsibility for work outcomes? 
 



A. 
Feedback from job and skill variety
 

B. 
Autonomy
 

C. 
Skill variety, task identity and task significance
 

D. 
Task identity
 

E. 
Task significance
 
 

83.
_____ is the degree to which employees can tell how well they are doing on the basis of direct sensory information from the job itself. 
 



A. 
Job feedback
 

B. 
Job evaluation
 

C. 
Task identity
 

D. 
Task significance
 

E. 
Job rotation
 
 

84.
Which of the following directly contributes to a feeling of experienced responsibility among employees? 
 



A. 
Job feedback
 

B. 
Skill variety
 

C. 
Autonomy
 

D. 
Task identity
 

E. 
Task significance
 
 

85.
Which of the following minimizes health risks from repetitive strain and heavy lifting because employees use different muscles and physical positions in the various jobs? 
 



A. 
Job feedback
 

B. 
Job enlargement
 

C. 
Job rotation
 

D. 
Job enrichment
 

E. 
Task identity
 
 

86.
Employees at CyberTech perform repetitive jobs that have resulted in boredom as well as repetitive strain injury. Technology makes it difficult to combine existing jobs, but the company wants to make employees more multiskilled. Which of the following would best help CyberTech to improve this situation? 
 



A. 
Encourage employees to engage in mental imagery.
 

B. 
Introduce job specialization.
 

C. 
Introduce a gainsharing plan for all production employees.
 

D. 
Introduce job rotation.
 

E. 
Introduce job enrichment by having each employee produce the entire product rather than a small part of it.
 
 

87.
Which of these job design actions is a form of job enlargement? 
 



A. 
Increasing the number of tasks within the job.
 

B. 
Establishing client relationships.
 

C. 
Empowering employees.
 

D. 
Forming natural work units.
 

E. 
Establishing client relationships and forming natural work units.
 
 

88.
Which of the following is the primary aspect of job enlargement? 
 



A. 
Autonomy
 

B. 
Affiliation
 

C. 
Job feedback
 

D. 
Growth need strength
 

E. 
Skill variety
 
 

89.
A video journalist's job consists of operating the camera, reporting the story, and often editing the work, whereas these three tasks are traditionally performed by three people. Video journalism is an example of: 
 



A. 
self-leadership and job enlargement.
 

B. 
job enrichment and self-leadership.
 

C. 
job enlargement and job specialization.
 

D. 
job specialization and self-leadership.
 

E. 
job enrichment and job enlargement.
 
 

90.
A large retail organization previously divided work among its four employee benefits staff into distinct specializations. One person answered all questions about superannuation (pension plans), another answered all questions about various forms of paid time off (e.g. vacations), and so on. These jobs were recently restructured so that each employee benefits person answers all questions for people in a particular geographic area. For example, one staff member is responsible for all employee benefits inquiries from anyone in a particular geographic region. This job restructuring is an example of: 
 



A. 
self-leadership.
 

B. 
job enrichment.
 

C. 
job rotation.
 

D. 
scientific management.
 

E. 
self-monitoring.
 
 

91.
A cable TV company redesigned jobs so that one employee interacts directly with customers, connects and disconnects their cable service, installs their special services and collects overdue accounts in an assigned area. Previously, each task was performed by a different person and the customer interacted only with someone at the head office. This change is an example of: 
 



A. 
increasing job enrichment by establishing client relationships.
 

B. 
encouraging self-reinforcement.
 

C. 
introducing job rotation.
 

D. 
increasing job specialization.
 

E. 
introducing job feedback.
 
 

92.
Which of the following is a concept that is represented by four dimensions: self-determination, meaning, competence, and impact of the individual's role in the organization? 
 



A. 
Specialization
 

B. 
Job enlargement
 

C. 
Empowerment
 

D. 
Task significance
 

E. 
E: Job rotation
 
 

93.
When are employees said to be empowered? 
 



A. 
When employees practice job specialization
 

B. 
When employees experience self-reinforcement
 

C. 
When employees engage in positive self-talk
 

D. 
When employees experience freedom and discretion
 

E. 
When employees work in a centralized system
 
 

94.
Which of the following is a component of empowerment? 
 



A. 
Overconfidence
 

B. 
Fate
 

C. 
Mental imagery
 

D. 
Meaning
 

E. 
Dependence
 
 

95.
A high degree of autonomy, task identity, and task significance are important conditions for: 
 



A. 
job specialization.
 

B. 
competency-based pay.
 

C. 
empowerment.
 

D. 
scientific management.
 

E. 
piece rate system.
 
 

96.
Which of the following dimensions is possessed by employees, when they feel empowered, care about their work, and believe that what they do is important? 
 



A. 
Meaning
 

B. 
Self-determination
 

C. 
Competence
 

D. 
Impact
 

E. 
Freedom
 
 

97.
Which of the following is the first step in self-leadership? 
 



A. 
Establishing client relationships
 

B. 
Practicing gainsharing
 

C. 
Personal goal setting
 

D. 
Constructive thought patterns
 

E. 
Self-reinforcement
 
 

98.
Which of the following steps occurs in self-leadership immediately after identifying goals that are specific, relevant, and challenging? 
 



A. 
Designing natural rewards
 

B. 
Self-monitoring
 

C. 
Self-reinforcement
 

D. 
Constructive thought patterns
 

E. 
Track keeping
 
 

99.
Which of these statements about self-leadership is true? 
 



A. 
Employees with a low degree of conscientiousness have a more natural tendency to apply self-leadership.
 

B. 
Some elements of self-leadership come from sports psychology.
 

C. 
Self-leadership is practiced by people with particular personality characteristics and cannot be learned.
 

D. 
External locus of control helps in applying self-help strategies.
 

E. 
Self-leadership behaviors are more frequently found in people with lower levels of extroversion.
 
 

100.
Before meeting a new client, a salesperson visualizes the experience of meeting the person and effectively answering some of the challenging questions the client might ask. This activity is an example of: 
 



A. 
poor performance.
 

B. 
constructive thought patterns.
 

C. 
rewarding competencies.
 

D. 
job rotation.
 

E. 
empowerment.
 
 

101.
Which of the following are included under constructive thought patterns in self-leadership? 
 



A. 
Self-talk and mental imagery
 

B. 
Gainsharing and employee stock ownership plans
 

C. 
Personal goal setting and self-monitoring
 

D. 
Job rotation and job enrichment
 

E. 
Task identity and task significance
 
 

102.
According to the self-leadership model, which of the following is true about positive self-talk? 
 



A. 
It should never be practiced on the job.
 

B. 
It represents the most important way to monitor our own performance.
 

C. 
It occurs when employees are unable to control their own behavior on the job.
 

D. 
It improves self-efficacy and employee motivation.
 

E. 
It must occur only after the task has been accomplished.
 
 

103.
Which of the following elements does self-leadership include? 
 



A. 
Job specialization
 

B. 
Task identity
 

C. 
Mental imagery
 

D. 
Job evaluation
 

E. 
Task significance
 
 

104.
_____ is the process of keeping track at regular intervals of one's progress toward a goal by using naturally occurring feedback. 
 



A. 
Job feedback
 

B. 
Self-monitoring
 

C. 
Natural grouping
 

D. 
Job specialization
 

E. 
Task significance
 
 

105.
Katie decided to do a more enjoyable task after completing a task that she disliked. This instance is an example of: 
 



A. 
self-reinforcement.
 

B. 
job enrichment.
 

C. 
job specialization.
 

D. 
self-monitoring.
 

E. 
job feedback.
 
 

1.
Motivation is closely related to the concept of employee engagement. 
 
True    False
 

2.
The concept of employee engagement is related to motivation, but not to role clarity. 
 
True    False
 

3.
In the context of motivation, drives are also called primary needs. 
 
True    False
 

4.
Drives are innate, universal, and are the "prime movers" of behavior because they generate emotions, which put people in a state of readiness to act on their environment. 
 
True    False
 

5.
Everyone has the same drives, but they develop different intensities of needs in a particular situation. 
 
True    False
 

6.
Needs hierarchy theory explains how people develop perceptions of fairness in the distribution and exchange of resources. 
 
True    False
 

7.
Maslow's needs hierarchy theory incorporates only five basic categories. 
 
True    False
 

8.
Maslow's needs hierarchy theory states that people are motivated by only one need at a time. 
 
True    False
 

9.
According to the needs hierarchy theory, the concept of self-actualization suggests that people are naturally motivated to reach their potential. 
 
True    False
 

10.
A person's hierarchy of needs is influenced by his or her values. 
 
True    False
 

11.
People with a high need for achievement tend to avoid risks and prefer working in teams. 
 
True    False
 

12.
Successful entrepreneurs tend to have a high need for achievement. 
 
True    False
 

13.
People with a high need for affiliation tend to be more effective in jobs that allocate scarce resources among employees. 
 
True    False
 

14.
People with a high need for affiliation tend to be more effective in jobs that require them to mediate conflicts. 
 
True    False
 

15.
According to learned needs theory, people with a high personalized need for power desire power as a means to help others. 
 
True    False
 

16.
According to learned needs theory, companies should hire leaders with a strong need for personalized power. 
 
True    False
 

17.
Four-drive theory states that everyone has the drive to acquire, bond, learn, and defend. 
 
True    False
 

18.
According to four-drive theory, the drive to acquire, bond, and learn are proactive. 
 
True    False
 

19.
According to four-drive theory, social norms, past experience, and personal values translate emotional signals into goal-directed effort. 
 
True    False
 

20.
According to four-drive theory, organizations maximize motivation by focusing employees on opportunities to fulfill only one of the four drives. 
 
True    False
 

21.
Four-drive theory recommends keeping all four drives in balance; that is, organizations should avoid too much or too little opportunity to fulfill each drive. 
 
True    False
 

22.
Expectancy theory of motivation states that people naturally direct their effort towards behaviors they believe are most likely to lead to desired outcomes. 
 
True    False
 

23.
According to expectancy theory, employee motivation will remain high when the P-to-O expectancy falls to zero. 
 
True    False
 

24.
In expectancy theory, the P-to-O expectancy is the perceived probability that a specific behavior or performance level will lead to a particular outcome. 
 
True    False
 

25.
A way to increase an employee's E-to-P expectancy regarding a specific task is to increase the person's self-confidence through counseling and coaching. 
 
True    False
 

26.
A way to increase a person's P-to-O expectancy is to measure his or her job performance more accurately and distribute more valued rewards to those with higher job performance. 
 
True    False
 

27.
Expectancy theory identifies emotions as a key component of employee motivation. 
 
True    False
 

28.
The compliments or teasing received from coworkers when an employee wears safety goggles are referred to as consequences. 
 
True    False
 

29.
Antecedents are events preceding the behavior, informing employees that a particular action will produce specific consequences. 
 
True    False
 

30.
Antecedents cause behavior. 
 
True    False
 

31.
The most effective reinforcement schedule for learning new tasks is variable ratio schedule. 
 
True    False
 

32.
People learn not only by observing others but also by imitating and practicing those behaviors. 
 
True    False
 

33.
Goal setting potentially improves employee performance by increasing motivation and clarifying role perceptions. 
 
True    False
 

34.
Goal setting tends to be more effective when goals are specific rather than general. 
 
True    False
 

35.
Goal setting is more effective when employees can easily complete the goals assigned to them. 
 
True    False
 

36.
Participation in goal formation tends to increase performance when employees lack commitment to assigned goals. 
 
True    False
 

37.
Feedback to employees is most effective when it is frequent, credible, and general. 
 
True    False
 

38.
Feedback can be more frequent when employees perform jobs with short rather than long cycle time. 
 
True    False
 

39.
Multisource feedback is information about an employee's performance, collected from a full circle of people, including subordinates, peers, supervisors, and customers. 
 
True    False
 

40.
Multisource feedback tends to provide more complete and accurate information than feedback from a supervisor alone. 
 
True    False
 

41.
To learn about their progress toward goal accomplishment, employees usually prefer feedback from supervisors and other people. 
 
True    False
 

42.
Employees consider feedback from nonsocial sources to be more accurate than feedback from social sources. 
 
True    False
 

43.
When employees want to improve their self-image, they seek out positive feedback from social sources. 
 
True    False
 

44.
Combining goal setting with monetary incentives motivates many employees to set difficult goals that are hard to achieve. 
 
True    False
 

45.
The distributive justice principle states that everyone should receive the same rewards in life. 
 
True    False
 

46.
In the equity theory model, a 'comparison other' is an individual or group of people against whom the person compares his or her outcome/input ratio. 
 
True    False
 

47.
A significant discovery in equity theory research is that people tend to keep one specific comparison other throughout their working lives. 
 
True    False
 

48.
Feelings of inequity occur when employees receive less than others, but not when they receive more than others. 
 
True    False
 

49.
Underreward inequity occurs when an individual's outcome/input ratio is lower than the outcome/input ratio of a comparison other. 
 
True    False
 

50.
Overreward inequity occurs whenever other people receive less money than the comparison others. 
 
True    False
 

51.
Equity theory research has found that employees who feel overrewarded tend to alter their perceptions of inputs and outcomes rather than attempt to actually change them. 
 
True    False
 

52.
Procedural justice is higher when the decision maker is perceived as unbiased. 
 
True    False
 

53.
Distributive justice increases directly with the extent that the decision allows voice, can be appealed, and has an unbiased decision maker. 
 
True    False
 

54.
Feelings of procedural injustice produce anger, which, in turn, generates either withdrawal or aggression. 
 
True    False
 

 55.
The _____ of human beings are also called primary needs. 
 



A. 
beliefs
 

B. 
values
 

C. 
attitudes
 

D. 
drives
 

E. 
thoughts
 
 

56.
Which of the following statements is true about the innate drives of people? 
 



A. 
Drives refer to the secondary needs of individuals.
 

B. 
Emotions that energize individuals to act on their environment produce drives.
 

C. 
Drives include only the basic physiological essentials of individuals.
 

D. 
Drives are the secondary sources of employee motivation.
 

E. 
Drives are innate and universal to human beings.
 
 

57.
_____ are the motivational forces of emotions channeled toward particular goals to correct deficiencies or imbalances. 
 



A. 
Needs
 

B. 
Thoughts
 

C. 
Beliefs
 

D. 
Values
 

E. 
Strategies
 
 

58.
Self-concept, social norms, and past experiences help us: 
 



A. 
have a fixed level of drive-based emotions.
 

B. 
fully regulate our decisions and behaviors.
 

C. 
minimize cognitive dissonances.
 

D. 
make unemotional decisions based on reason and logic.
 

E. 
have stronger or weaker needs by amplifying or suppressing emotions.
 
 

59.
Which of the following does Maslow's needs hierarchy theory include? 
 



A. 
Domination
 

B. 
Frustration-regression
 

C. 
Desire to know
 

D. 
Aesthetic beauty
 

E. 
Self-actualization
 
 

60.
Which of the following is the highest level of need in Maslow's hierarchy of needs? 
 



A. 
Esteem
 

B. 
Safety
 

C. 
Power
 

D. 
Belongingness
 

E. 
Self-actualization
 
 

61.
Which of the following needs is the strongest according to Maslow's needs hierarchy theory? 
 



A. 
Need for food
 

B. 
Need to socialize
 

C. 
Need for self actualization
 

D. 
Need to be secure
 

E. 
Need for love
 
 

62.
Which of these theories states that we are motivated by several needs, but the strongest source is the lowest unsatisfied need? 
 



A. 
Four-drive theory
 

B. 
Needs hierarchy theory
 

C. 
Equity theory
 

D. 
Distributive justice theory
 

E. 
Learned needs theory
 
 

63.
Which of the following is a major criticism of Maslow's needs hierarchy theory? 
 



A. 
The safety and physiological needs do not arise due to human drives.
 

B. 
The need for love and esteem do not apply for many of the individuals.
 

C. 
Physiological needs of a person are often considered a weaker need than the other needs.
 

D. 
People do not progress through the hierarchy as the theory predicts.
 

E. 
The theory gives more importance to the satisfied needs than the unsatisfied needs.
 
 

64.
Which of the following statements is consistent with the observations of Maslow? 
 



A. 
Motivation research must look at each need and drive apart from others.
 

B. 
A specific human behavior is typically initiated by a solitary need or drive.
 

C. 
Higher-order needs are not influenced by personal and social influences.
 

D. 
Maslow refocused attention on need gratification instead of need deprivation.
 

E. 
Maslow suggested that people are naturally motivated to reach their potential.
 
 

65.
Which of the following statements was not considered by the needs hierarchy theory? 
 



A. 
Everyone is naturally motivated to reach their full potential.
 

B. 
Higher-order needs are influenced by personal and social influences.
 

C. 
Basic needs are more essential to individuals than their socialization needs.
 

D. 
People's physiological needs are stronger than their esteem needs.
 

E. 
Needs are strongly influenced by each individual's self-concept.
 
 

66.
The desire to seek approval from others, conform to their wishes and expectations, and avoid conflict and confrontations is referred to as the need for: 
 



A. 
affiliation.
 

B. 
power.
 

C. 
achievement.
 

D. 
safety.
 

E. 
existence.
 
 

67.
According to the four-drive theory, which of the following drives is the foundation of competition and the basis of our need for esteem? 
 



A. 
Drive to acquire
 

B. 
Drive to dominate
 

C. 
Drive to defend
 

D. 
Drive to bond
 

E. 
Drive to learn
 
 

68.
In the four-drive theory, the drive ______ is most closely associated with the need for relative status and recognition. 
 



A. 
to bond
 

B. 
for fairness
 

C. 
to achieve goals
 

D. 
to acquire
 

E. 
for feedback
 
 

69.
Which drive in the four-drive theory is reactive rather than proactive? 
 



A. 
Drive to acquire
 

B. 
Drive to learn
 

C. 
Drive to defend
 

D. 
Drive to bond
 

E. 
Drive for power
 
 

70.
The main implication of the four-drive theory of motivation is that: 
 



A. 
employers should offer employees a choice of rewards and continuously initiate change in the workplace.
 

B. 
employees should be given generic goals with plenty of feedback.
 

C. 
employers should motivate employees to achieve challenging goals and give them egalitarian rewards.
 

D. 
employers should select people with the best qualifications for the job.
 

E. 
drives/needs-based theories have no relevance for managing people in organizational settings.
 
 

71.
Four-drive theory recommends that companies should: 
 



A. 
encourage employees to fulfill one drive at a time.
 

B. 
provide sufficient rewards, learning opportunities, and social interaction at the same time.
 

C. 
only hire people with a strong drive to defend.
 

D. 
create a work environment that routinely triggers the employee's drive to defend.
 

E. 
encourage the desire for aesthetic beauty and the desire to know.
 
 

72.
One of the main implications of four-drive theory is that: 
 



A. 
employers should offer employees enough opportunity to keep each drive in balance.
 

B. 
employees should be given specific goals with plenty of feedback.
 

C. 
employers should give all employees the same employee benefits.
 

D. 
employers should select people with the best qualifications for the job.
 

E. 
needs-based theories have no relevance for managing people in organizational settings.
 
 

73.
Which of the following theories of motivation is based on the idea that work effort is directed toward behaviors that people believe will lead to desired outcomes? 
 



A. 
Equity theory
 

B. 
ERG theory
 

C. 
Goal setting theory
 

D. 
Four-drive theory
 

E. 
Expectancy theory
 
 

74.
Expectancy theory helps us to predict an individual's: 
 



A. 
effort.
 

B. 
need for achievement.
 

C. 
distributive justice.
 

D. 
job satisfaction.
 

E. 
rewards.
 
 

75.
An individual's perceived probability that a particular level of effort will result in a particular level of performance is referred to as the: 
 



A. 
E-to-P valance.
 

B. 
EP-to-PO outcome.
 

C. 
E-to-V expectancy.
 

D. 
E-to-P expectancy.
 

E. 
EV-to-PE outcome.
 
 

76.
Which of these is one of the factors in the expectancy theory model? 
 



A. 
E-to-P expectancy
 

B. 
E-to-O expectancy
 

C. 
V-to-E expectancy
 

D. 
P-to-E expectancy
 

E. 
O-to-P expectancy
 
 

77.
Which of the following does the expectancy theory explain about employees? 
 



A. 
They have different needs at different times.
 

B. 
They can use personal expectations to reduce work-related stress.
 

C. 
They can motivate themselves through power.
 

D. 
They base their work effort on the performance level they expect.
 

E. 
They compare their inputs and outcomes to other people.
 
 

78.
In expectancy theory, valence refers to the: 
 



A. 
amount of effort a person puts towards a known goal.
 

B. 
individual's perceived probability of performing the task at a particular level.
 

C. 
anticipated satisfaction or dissatisfaction that an individual feels toward an outcome.
 

D. 
individual's perceived probability that his or her performance will lead to specific outcomes.
 

E. 
feelings that result from a comparison of the individual's outcome/input ratio with the outcome/input ratio of a comparison other.
 
 

79.
According to expectancy theory, providing counseling and coaching to an employee who lacks self-confidence is most likely to increase the employee's: 
 



A. 
V-to-O expectancy.
 

B. 
E-to-P expectancy.
 

C. 
P-to-E expectancy.
 

D. 
O-to-P expectancy.
 

E. 
P-to-O expectancy.
 
 

80.
When people are assigned to jobs for which they are qualified and they receive coaching to improve their self-confidence, employee motivation improves by: 
 



A. 
reducing feelings of inequity.
 

B. 
increasing outcome valences.
 

C. 
satisfying existence needs.
 

D. 
increasing P-to-O expectancies.
 

E. 
increasing E-to-P expectancies.
 
 

81.
According to expectancy theory, a skill-development training program would: 
 



A. 
have no effect on employee motivation.
 

B. 
mainly increase the effort-to-performance expectancy.
 

C. 
mainly increase the performance-to-outcome expectancy.
 

D. 
mainly increase the valence of pay increases and other organizational outcomes.
 

E. 
mainly alter the comparison other.
 
 

82.
Which of the following is a way to increase employee motivation by improving the P-to-O expectancies? 
 



A. 
Measuring employee performance accurately and distributing more valued rewards.
 

B. 
Convincing employees that they will be able to accomplish the task.
 

C. 
Selecting employees with the required skills, knowledge, and motivation to perform jobs.
 

D. 
Providing sufficient time and resources to employees to perform the task.
 

E. 
Treating everyone equally by giving all of them the same reward.
 
 

83.
ABC Corp. brought in a performance-based reward system that accurately identified employees who performed better than others. This practice improves employee motivation by: 
 



A. 
increasing employee needs.
 

B. 
reducing feelings of inequity.
 

C. 
improving E-to-P expectancies.
 

D. 
improving P-to-O expectancies.
 

E. 
increasing outcome valence.
 
 

84.
According to expectancy theory, giving more valued rewards to employees with higher job performance mainly increases motivation by: 
 



A. 
strengthening the E-to-P expectancies of employees.
 

B. 
introducing a negative valence in the organization.
 

C. 
weakening the E-to-P expectancies of employees.
 

D. 
strengthening both the E-to-P and P-to-O expectancies of employees.
 

E. 
strengthening the P-to-O expectancies of employees.
 
 

85.
Which of the following components are enhanced by individualizing rewards? 
 



A. 
Performance expectancies
 

B. 
E-to-O expectancies
 

C. 
Valences of outcomes
 

D. 
E-to-P expectancies
 

E. 
V-to-E outcomes
 
 

86.
According to expectancy theory, an unwanted reward has: 
 



A. 
a high E-to-P expectancy.
 

B. 
an inappropriate comparison other.
 

C. 
a negative outcome valence.
 

D. 
a low P-to-O expectancy.
 

E. 
a low need for socialized power.
 
 

87.
Which of the following is applied by supervisors when they stop criticizing employees whose substandard performance has improved? 
 



A. 
Future probability
 

B. 
Extinction
 

C. 
Positive reinforcement
 

D. 
Punishment
 

E. 
Negative reinforcement
 
 

88.
The best reinforcement schedule for motivating employees is a(n) _____. 
 



A. 
continuous reinforcement schedule
 

B. 
variable ratio schedule
 

C. 
fixed schedule
 

D. 
extinction
 

E. 
avoidance of consequence
 
 

89.
_____ states that much learning and motivation occurs by observing and modeling others, as well as by anticipating the consequences of our behavior. 
 



A. 
Equity theory
 

B. 
Expectancy theory
 

C. 
Four-drive theory
 

D. 
Learned Needs Theory
 

E. 
Social cognitive theory
 
 

90.
Goal setting influences employee behavior and performance mainly by improving: 
 



A. 
situational contingencies and learned abilities.
 

B. 
aptitudes and learned abilities.
 

C. 
motivation and role perceptions.
 

D. 
role perceptions and learned abilities.
 

E. 
self-confidence and aptitudes.
 
 

91.
Goal setting is most effective when: 
 



A. 
the supervisor sets the goals before discussing them with the employee.
 

B. 
the goals do not stretch the employee's abilities and motivation.
 

C. 
the goal statements are general rather than specific.
 

D. 
the intensity of employee effort is minimal.
 

E. 
it does not compel people to increase the persistence of their work effort.
 
 

92.
The optimal level difficulty of a goal: 
 



A. 
occurs when the goal is challenging but not impossible.
 

B. 
is the most challenging goal that the company can possibly imagine.
 

C. 
occurs only when employees set their own goal.
 

D. 
is the point at which the employees exert minimal effort to achieve a certain outcome.
 

E. 
occurs when the employees work using alternate work arrangements.
 
 

93.
To increase goal performance, employees should participate in the goal-setting process: 
 



A. 
when employees would otherwise lack commitment to those goals.
 

B. 
whenever supervisors have any control over setting goals.
 

C. 
when employees lack knowledge of what would improve goal quality.
 

D. 
when they believe that the supervisors are not capable enough to set the goals.
 

E. 
there are only a few employees in the organization.
 
 

94.
Effective feedback: 
 



A. 
is generic in nature and applies to all employees.
 

B. 
is provided only through social sources.
 

C. 
should not be very frequent as frequency reduces its value.
 

D. 
can occur only when employees have weak self-efficacy.
 

E. 
should always come from a credible source.
 
 

95.
Which of the following statements portrays the essence of appreciative coaching? 
 



A. 
Managers should provide frequent corrective feedback to employees.
 

B. 
Organizations should concentrate on maintaining a participative management style.
 

C. 
Employees should openly discuss their problems with their managers.
 

D. 
An organization should strike a balance between punishments and rewards.
 

E. 
Managers should concentrate on the strengths of employees rather than their weaknesses.
 
 

96.
Which of the following theories suggests that employee motivation is influenced by what other people contribute to and receive from the organization? 
 



A. 
Expectancy theory
 

B. 
Equity theory
 

C. 
Needs-based theory
 

D. 
Need theory
 

E. 
Goal setting theory
 
 

97.
The distributive justice rule employs the concept of: 
 



A. 
motivation.
 

B. 
individual needs.
 

C. 
equity.
 

D. 
goal setting.
 

E. 
performance feedback.
 
 

98.
Outcome/Input ratio and comparison other are elements of: 
 



A. 
innate drives theory.
 

B. 
Maslow's needs hierarchy.
 

C. 
equity theory.
 

D. 
expectancy theory.
 

E. 
goal setting theory.
 
 

99.
Employees who receive a fixed amount of pay each week and who feel underrewarded are most likely to: 
 



A. 
reduce their work effort.
 

B. 
increase their work effort.
 

C. 
change their comparison other.
 

D. 
encourage the comparison other to increase his or her work effort.
 

E. 
use a different measure other than comparison other.
 
 

100.
According to equity theory: 
 



A. 
all employees of an organization have the same needs over their working lives.
 

B. 
money should never be used to motivate employees.
 

C. 
employees must set their own goals and performance standards.
 

D. 
the selection of comparison other varies from one person to the next.
 

E. 
improving job security and working conditions will improve job satisfaction and, consequently, employee motivation.
 
 

101.
Which of the following statements is true about the equity situation? 
 



A. 
People avoid having a comparison other.
 

B. 
People tend to be tolerant of situations where they are under-rewarded.
 

C. 
People have a low E-to-P expectancy.
 

D. 
People feel more comfortable in situations where they receive proportionately more than others.
 

E. 
People believe that their outcome/input ratio is similar to the outcome/input ratio of the comparison other.
 
 

102.
With respect to procedural justice, the "value-expressive" function that "voice" provides refers to the: 
 



A. 
feeling employees get when they feel valued at work.
 

B. 
way employees feel after voicing their opinions.
 

C. 
cathartic benefits of shouting at each other.
 

D. 
sense of pride employees derive when they are eloquent during presentations.
 

E. 
the stand-off situation that arises as a consequence of the collective voice of the employees.
 
 

103.
When people experience procedural injustice, they tend to: 
 



A. 
focus on organizational citizenship acts.
 

B. 
engage in counterproductive work behaviors.
 

C. 
be more likely to comply with higher authorities in the future.
 

D. 
change the selection process of comparison others.
 

E. 
engage in comparative injustice towards others.
 
 
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