Intro, Introduce your essay by defining your topic 'consent' .DOCX

Intro, Introduce your essay by defining your topic 'consent'

First sub heading

Discuss national and international ethical frameworks for health care that influence ethical decision making re: consent . (350)

National and international ethical frameworks are important for health care, especially when it comes to consent, it also impacts ethical decision making in the workplace. Beauchamp & Childress  Principles of health care ethics consists of four main principles respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice. Beauchamp (2007) explains respect for autonomy refers to self-governance which is defined as an adequate understanding of one’s personal rule and remaining free from interferences from others and personal limitations that prevent choice. Nonmaleficence is the most quoted principle in the health care ethics as health care professionals are vowed to avoid doing harm to their patients. This principle is every health care professionals primary obligation and it is more important than respect for autonomy. Beneficence is explained as all forms of action that is intended to benefit the other person explains Beauchamp (2007). The last principle, every society is structured by moral, legal and cultural justice. All the theories relate to justice, as it is a common ground for all of them. Beauchamp & Childress Principles apply to consent greatly, as each ethical principle is used commonly in all health care area, no matter what one’s ethical, political, religious or cultural stance. These frameworks can be applied to national as well as international, in health care environments states Tsai (2005).

The Helsinki Declaration

(Ethical frameworks can include: UDHR, Helsinki Declaration, and/or Beauchamp & Childress Principles of health care ethics (how and why do they hold a place of importance for the notion of consent?)

Apply ethical normative frameworks that a health professional may appeal to in defending their position on moral and ethical dilemmas encountered in practice;( Discuss up to 3 different ethical theories that guide ethical decision-making in regard to consent,

  • The Utilitarian Approach (re: consent. Remember … no account of rights in this approach)

  • The Deontology Approach (consent very important, especially see Kant)

  • Virtue Ethics Approach (professional virtues, commitment to the good of life and health, integrity, respect for persons…)

Third heading

  • Discuss your own code of ethics. Identify if it offers any guidance regarding consent &, if so, what does it say? On what ethical grounding does it base the significance of consent?

  • If your profession does not have a code of ethics yet, can you identify another code of ethics that would be helpful in your own profession?

Fourth heading

Differentiate between ethical and legal issues in health care in gaining consent from vulnerable patient cohorts

  1. Discuss the law of consent (it is a legal concept after all). See, e.g., Kerridge et al

  2. Discuss any ethical principles or concepts that should inform this law, e.g. respect for human dignity, human rights, professional humility, (hcp’s do not always know what is good for the patient) protection of the vulnerable, honesty

  3. You should compare different professional approaches which might illustrate these differences (with reference to 2 taped interviews on LEO)

Fifth heading

           Identify social and spiritual factors that influence the health professional’s values and beliefs in ethical decision making.

  1. Cultural norms vs legal requirements

  2. The legal requirement of consent vs the ethical nature of what is consented to

  3.  e.g. if a patient consents to a procedure which a hcp does not wish to be implicated in – e.g. euthanasia, organ transplantation, live organ transplantation, performance enhancing substances … - does the patient’s consent impose a duty on that hcp to provide that procedure?

 sum up ur bs. Don’t introduce any new bs, and end with good quality bs.


Entwistle, V. A., Carter, S. M., Cribb, A., & McCaffery, K. (2010). Supporting patient autonomy: the importance of clinician-patient relationships. Journal of general internal medicine, 25(7), 741-745.

Beauchamp, T. L. (2007). The ‘four principles’ approach to health care ethics. Principles of health care ethics, 3-10.




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