HST 276 Entire Course

HST 276 Entire Course

Entire Course Link

https://plus.google.com/u/0/108200033792883877670/posts/dWT4sDYbQKM

 HST/276

GLOBAL CIVILIZATIONS SINCE 1500

 

The Latest Version A+ Study Guide

 

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HST 276 Entire Course Link

https://uopcourses.com/category/hst-276/

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HST 276 Week 1 Week One Knowledge Check
 

 

Complete the Week One Knowledge Check
 

 

 
 

1.

The cultural center of Western Europe in the 10th and 11th centuries was

Naples in southern Italy under the Fatimid Dynasty.

Cordoba in Spain under the Umayyad Dynasty.

Athens in Greece under the Saljuq Dynasty.

None of these answers are correct.

2.

One of the most important developments in the eastern half of the Islamic world between 1000 and 1500 C.E. was

the growing popularity of Hindu ideas among lower class Muslims.

the violent invasions of the region by the Mongols and their successors.

the collapse of long-distance trade and the return to local self-sufficiency.

All of these answers are correct.

3.

Which of the following is the correct chronological order for civilizations in central Mexico?

Aztec, Toltec Teotihuacán

Teotihuacán, Toltec, Aztec

Toltec, Teotihuacán, Aztec

Toltec, Aztec, Teotihuacán

 

Concept: ISLAM AND AMERICA CULTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mastery
100%
Questions
·  4 

·  5
 

 

Materials on the concept
 

 

 

 

Consolidation of Shi’ite Traditions
 

 

Problems in Reconstructing the History of Native American Civilization
 

 

4.

Shi’ites made up a significant part of the population in all of the following areas except

Spain.

Sind.

Iran.

Iraq.

5.

Difficulties confront scholars trying to understand the ancient civilizations of the Americas because

Andean civilizations never developed writing.

Mesoamerican civilizations never developed writing.

Andean writing displays a pro-Spanish bias.

the writing systems have never been deciphered.

 

 

 

HST 276 Week 1 Week One Worksheet
 

Complete the University of Phoenix Material: Week One Worksheet.

Submit your worksheet to the Assignment Files tab.

Week 1 Worksheet

 

As you read this week’s required materials, complete this worksheet. This is a multipage assignment; double-check that you completed each page before submitting.

 

 
 

 

Part I: Fill in the Blanks
 

 

Fill in the blanks to complete the following sentences.

 

1.    History and Archaeology
 

 

 

 

 

The written record of the past and the study of past written records is called .
 

 

The study of the past based on recovering and identifying artifacts and making inferences about those who left these artifacts is called .
 

 

Both historians and archaeologists describe the past. Historians study  to form this description, whereas archaeologists study                .
 

 

Scholars’ ability to relate narrative stories of past Andean cultures is limited because they did not use , but recent advances in translating the              language has allowed a better understanding of Mesoamerican cultures.
 

 

Based on archaeological and genetic evidence, scholars believe the first people to settle the Americas came across a natural , from              into              .
 

 

 

 

2.     The Civilizations of Al-Andalus
 

 

 

 

 

The first Spanish Umayyad, , forced Charlemagne’s forces to retreat into France.
 

 

The 50-year reign of  saw the defense of Córdoba from the Fatimids in Africa and the Christians to the north. After his death, the caliphate fragmented into many smaller principalities.
 

 

The Almoravids and  of North Africa invaded Spain in the 11th century to enforce strict Muslim rule.
 

 

The mercenary adventures of  during the                 made him Spain’s national hero.
 

 

In  , the last Islamic Andalusian kingdom, Granada, was captured by Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castille. Jews and Muslims were forced to        
 

 

 

 

3.     Fatimid Civilization
 

 

 

 

 

The Fatimid dynasty ruled , Sicily, and parts of the Middle East.
 

 

The Shi’ite Fatimids established a(n)  in their new capital,        , to rival those of Baghdad and Córdoba.
 

 

The , who live in modern Lebanon and Syria, originated as a splinter group that believed one of the Fatimid caliphs was the last incarnation of God.
 

 

The Fatimid Empire weakened in the 12th century and was conquered by .
 

 

 

 

4.    Saljug Civilization
 

 

 

 

 

The Saljuqs (also known as Seljuks or Saljuks) were the earliest significant Islamic rulers from       They extended their rule from Transoxiana to the Iranian Plateau, Mesopotamia, much of the Near East, and Asia Minor during the        century.
 

 

The vizier  ruled the Saljuk Empire through two sultans, building roads, caravanserais, canals, mosques, and madrasas.
 

 

In the 12th century, the Saljuk Empire lost territory in Anatolia to the Empire, and was destroyed in the year       by the Khwarizm-Shahs.
 

 

 

 

 

 

Ilkhanid Civilization
 

 

 

 

 

 

The Mongols conquered Persia and Mesopotamia in the  century, and they ruled this territory through          , or viceroys of the Great Khan of China.
 

 

Ibn al-Athir describes the  invaders of Muslim lands as a dire calamity.
 

 

A grandson of Genghis, , conquered territory stretching to the Mediterranean, but was slowed by rivalry with Berke, khan of the Golden Horde. Partly due to the influence of his wife and other               and Buddhists, his forces spared the Christians of conquered lands.
 

 

 

 

 

 

Timurid and Turkoman Civilizations
 

 

 

 

 

 

Between 1379 and 1402,  led nomadic steppe peoples in conquest and destruction of large portions of the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, northern India, and Anatolia.
 

 

The first Timurid capital at  was the site of many elegant construction projects.
 

 

The fourth son of Timur, , ruled a united Iran and sponsored arts, religion, and economic development.
 

 

The  Empire shared control of Iran with the Timurids, another Sunni dynasty.
 

 

 

 

 

 

Olmec Civilization
 

 

 

 

 

 

The Olmec civilization thrived in the southern portion of what is now .
 

 

Archaeological evidence of Olmec goods in many parts of Mesoamerica, along with the use of jade and obsidian, are evidence of early .
 

 

The first major Olmec center was ; as it declined,                 grew in importance.
 

 

 

 

 

 

Mayan Civilization
 

 

 

 

 

 

The Mayan civilization developed in the rain forests of the
 

 

Mayan civilization was composed of multiple  that competed with one another for dominance.
 

 

The  dynasty ruled Tikal for centuries before it declined and                   , a city far to the north, rose to prominence in the ninth century.
 

 

 

 

 

 

Teotihuacán Civilization
 

 

 

 

 

 

Teotihuacán, located a short distance northeast of modern , was a major city-state for several centuries.
 

 

Teotihuacán’s economy and urban society thrived due to  quarrying, manufacture, trade, and intensive agriculture made possible by                              .
 

 

The power of Teotihuacán’s civilization declined between the sixth and eighth centuries because of .
 

 

 

 

 

 

Toltec Civilization
 

 

 

 

 

 

Tula, the Toltec capital, was near a(n)    quarry and the                 edge of Mesoamerica.
 

 

Toltec civilization flourished in the  century and          century before quickly declining.
 

 

The Toltec king  fled from Tula to                       .
 

 

 

 

 

 

Aztec Civilization
 

 

 

 

 

 

The Aztec capital,  on Lake              in the Valley of              , was home to hundreds of thousands of people at its height.
 

 

Aztec wealth was based on taking goods from .
 

 

After conquering another group, Aztecs would take prisoners for  and entrust the rule of the area to the                   .
 

 

The Aztec civilization was ended by  conquistadors and local subject peoples who resented paying tribute and providing                    for the Aztecs.
 

 

 

 

 

 

Nazca Civilization
 

 

 

 

 

 

The Nazca or Nasca civilization thrived in the valleys of Peru’s  coast until about 700 CE.
 

 

Agriculture enabled by irrigation water from  allowed the Nazca civilization to flourish.
 

 

Archaeological evidence indicates that the Nazca capital of  was used primarily for religious            .
 

 

 

 

 

 

Moche Civilization
 

 

 

 

 

 

The Moche civilization thrived along about  miles of the northern Peruvian coast.
 

 

Moche civilization was likely divided: a northern realm was ruled from  in the Lambayeque valley, while a southern realm was ruled from the             valley settlements near Cerro Blanco.
 

 

Evidence that subject peoples paid tribute to the Moche lords through their labor are the marks on the bricks that make up , the largest adobe structure in the Americas.
 

 

 

 

 

 

Inca Civilization
 

 

 

 

 

 

Inca emperors ruled one of the world’s largest states, called , which was home to millions of people.
 

 

Inca rulers expanded and ruled their empire through  taxation, alliances, providing lavish entertainments, and employing people in state service.
 

 

According to Inca tradition, Inca Yupanqui defended  against a rebellion by the Chanca people, founded the empire, and took the name                  .
 

 

The Inca Empire fell to conquistadors led by .
 

 

 

Part II: Cultural Contributions

 

Complete the following matrix with at least one element for each category.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Civilization
Intellectual Contributions
Artistic Forms or Contributions
Architecture
Religious Beliefs
Traditions
Andalusian
 
 
 
 
 
Fatimid
 
 
 
 
 
Saljug
 
 
 
 
 
Mongol and Ilkhanid
 
 
 
 
 
Timurid or Turkoman
 
 
 
 
 
Olmec
 
 
 
 
 
Mayan
 
 
 
 
 
Teotihuacán
 
 
 
 
 
Toltec
 
 
 
 
 
Aztec
 
 
 
 
 
Nazca
 
 
 
 
 
Moche
 
 
 
 
 
Inca
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 
 

 

 

HST 276 Week 2 Week Two Knowledge Check
 

1.

The Magna Carta is considered the cornerstone of modern English law because it

granted legal equality to all subjects, male and female.

recognized the English king as divine-right ruler.

established the principle of one man,one vote in all national elections.

set limits on royal power and insured the right of representation to certain groups in society.

 

Concept: THE CRUSADES
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mastery
100%
Questions
·  2
 

 

Materials on the concept
 

 

 

 

The Second and Third Crusades
 

 

2.

One of the most important results of the Crusades was that

permanent Christian kingdoms were established in the Near East.

the Black Death spread from Europe to Asia.

trade and cultural exchanges with Asia were encouraged.

None of these answers are correct.

 

Concept: AFRICAN AND EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENT
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mastery
100%
Questions
·  3 

·  4
 

 

Materials on the concept
 

 

 

 

North Africa and Egypt
 

 

The Reviving Catholic Church
 

 

The Cluny Reform Movement
 

 

3.

The states, city-states, and tribal groups in the lands north of the Sahara after 1000 C.E. were characterized primarily by

prolonged control by a dominant power.

religious instability and regional war.

deep-rooted regionalism and the desire for political independence.

European political control.

4.

As compared to its experience in the early Middle Ages, Europe in the High Middle Ages was

more decentralized.

less isolated.

less militaristic.

more religiously diverse.

 

Concept: AFRICAN AND EUROPEAN CULTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mastery
100%
Questions
·  5
 

 

Materials on the concept
 

 

 

 

The Spread of Islam South of the Sahara
 

 

5.

How did the spread of Islam in East Africa tend to differ from the way it spread in Central and West Africa?

East Africa was Islamized by overland routes, while West Africa was converted by sea routes.

East Africa was Islamized by sea routes, while West Africa was converted by overland routes.

West Africa was never Islamized as was East Africa.

East Africa was converted by force and West Africa by choice.

 

 
 

 

 

HST 276 Week 2 Week Two Worksheet
 

Complete the University of Phoenix Material: Week Two Worksheet.

Submit your worksheet to the Assignment Files tab.

Week 2 Worksheet

 

As you read this week’s required materials, complete this worksheet. This is a multipage assignment; double-check that you completed each page before submitting.

 

 
 

 

Part I: Fill in the Blanks
 

 

Fill in the blanks to complete the following sentences.

 

15.  North African Civilization, 1000-1800 C.E.
 

 

 

 

 

The written record of the past and the study of past written records is called .
 

 

Sunnis struggled against Shiites, especially , for the faith of North Africans in the 11th and 12th centuries.
 

 

Between 1000 and 1800, North African politics was characterized by  as its tribes and city-states fought to maintain effective                    . Several empires controlled parts of the region north of the Sahara during this time, including the                                  , but none was able to control the large areas for long periods of time.
 

 

The  were rulers of Morocco who claimed to be descendants of                      .
 

 

Islam spread southward across the  desert primarily with Muslim             . The          , a group of zealous Muslims, began trying to convert people by force in the 1030s.
 

 

 

 

16.  Civilization in the Sahel and the Sudan, 1000–1800
 

 

 

 

 

The kingdom of Ghana, with its capital at , controlled the slave and           trade in the 11th and 12th centuries. Traders and government workers who followed           were influential, but the king and court practiced paganism and idol worship.
 

 

Following the decline and collapse of Ghana in the late 12th century, the region consisted of several smaller kingdoms until the empire of  consolidated power in the mid- and late-13th century. The Muslim kings of this empire made pilgrimages to             and encouraged trade.
 

 

Mali’s most important kings from the Keita dynasty were , who extended Mali’s power west to the Atlantic and established the Malian capital at          , and                , who encouraged Muslim scholars, artists, architects, scientists, and poets to settle in Mali. Many of these intellectuals moved to               , where the madrasas and libraries made it a lasting center for culture in West Africa.
 

 

The Songhai became an empire after the conquests of Timbuktu and Jenne during the reign of , who practiced traditional African religion. His successor,                                  , was a Muslim and encouraged Muslim settlement and scholarship. Under Songhai rule, ________ expanded its role as the center of Islamic learning and scholarship in the Sahel and Sudan. Trade continued to expand under the rule of               , who defended the empire against the Mossi and Berbers. Soon, though, civil war and an invasion force armed with  _____________from Morocco caused the decline of the Songhai empire.
 

 

The  empire in the central Sudan and            , southwest of Lake Chad, were the centers of an Islamic empire with an economic foundation based on          .
 

 

The Nubian kingdoms of  and                gradually became more and more influenced by Arabic culture and Islam.
 

 

 

 

17.  Civilization in the Central and West African Forestlands: 1000–1800
 

 

 

 

 

Ewuare was the , or king, of Benin who transformed it into a large kingdom and shifted rule away from the           , or council of chiefs, by establishing broad royal authority. Later, slaves were                 to the oba as his role expanded from a military and political leader into a spiritual leader with supernatural powers.
 

 

The kingdom of  in Central Africa was a major partner of Portuguese slave traders during the 16th century, and thrived in the 17th century as Christian and indigenous African traditions blended.
 

 

The arrival of merchants, traders, and colonists from  along the West and Central African coasts changed the continent drastically between 1500 and 1800. Food crops from the Americas, such as                                                                                      , expanded African access to nutrition. The first white proprietary colony in Africa was Portuguese-controlled              , where the international slave trade quickly depopulated the region around Luanda.
 

 

 

 

18.  East African Civilization: 1000-1800
 

 

 

 

 

Arab and Persian merchants traded heavily with East Africa and helped convert the coastal regions to . The most important export good from East Africa was           , but the traders also bought slaves, gold, wood, and cotton cloth. These traders also contributed to            , a trade language made of a blend of Bantu and Arabic influences.
 

 

In the 14th and 15th centuries, coastal Swahili city-states like Kilwa, Manda, Lamu, Mombasa, and  were cosmopolitan trading centers.
 

 

Portuguese trading arrived in East Africa in the 16th century, contributing to the economic ______ of the Swahili city-states. In 1698, the Portuguese were expelled from most of East Africa by the state of  on the Arabian Peninsula, which established a southern stronghold in            .
 

 

 

 

19.  Southern African Civilizations: 1000-1800
 

 

 

 

 

-speaking Shona people founded a thriving civilization between the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers south of the Swahili city-states. Its greatest city, known now as          , reveals to archaeologists a wealthy, sophisticated society that flourished due to population growth, herding, farming, and the         This civilization, which likely declined because of depleted         , appears to have divided into a southern kingdom,              , and a northern kingdom ruled by the Mwene Mutapa (Master Pillager),           .
 

 

The Shona  kingdom conquered the northern kingdom and pushed the Portuguese out in the 1690s, but mixed-blood            , of Portuguese and African descent, continued to dominate Southeastern Africa.
 

 

The  peoples of Southwestern Africa were integrated into the economy and displaced by European colonists from                 after the founding of the first Cape settlement in 1652. Nomadic European herders called                expanded European influence, and a new language,            , emerged from the blended culture of the Cape Colony. By the 18th century, Dutch and indigenous African cultural influences in the Cape Colony were joined by new influences from                  
 

 

 

 

20.  Medieval European Civilization
 

 

 

 

 

The Roman Catholic Church recovered strength in the Middle Ages, through the efforts of 

, the first king of Germany who was not a Frank, and the reform movement centered on the monastery at                 , which led efforts to free the Church from political influences. The popularity and influence of the                  were demonstrated by the strong efforts of European warriors in the Crusades, holy wars against neighboring peoples who practiced the                   The                 , which lasted from 1378 to 1417, had rival claimants to the papacy in Rome and Avignon.
 

 

The Crusades and reconquest in  encouraged cultural exchange with Asia and Africa, granting Europeans access to classical literature, philosophy, and learning.
 

 

The Hundred Years’ War, fought between            and                 , helped establish the national identities of both countries. The inspiring leadership of                  helped the French drive England off the continent, but she was executed by the Inquisition in 1431. New military tactics made noble mounted                  obsolete during this conflict.
 

 

The , or bubonic plague, swept across Europe several times in the 14th century. Factors that encouraged the plague included overpopulation, infestation by rats and                 ,                  brought on by crop failure, and increased trade with Asia. Along with widespread death, the plague contributed to a deep social                 , the Flagellant movement, a decline in the importance of the nobility, centralization of power under                 , declining                  prices, increasing prices for                 , and growth of power in trade guilds.
 

 

The late Middle Ages was characterized by the  importance of kings and national monarchies like France, England, Russia, and Spain—which was united by the marriage of                  of Castile and                  of Aragon. The Russian Empire, centered in                 , was freed from Mongol rule by                 , who united northern Russia.
 

 

 

 

21.  Renaissance Italian Civilization
 

 

 

 

 

The Italian city-states grew wealthy from  with Europe and the Near East. By 1500, most city-states were despotisms ruled by a strongman known as a             who maintained law and order. Venice, the exception, was a republic ruled by wealthy                . The city-states handled competition with one another by practicing diplomacy and establishing resident                  .
 

 

The wealthiest and most powerful family in Florence, the  family, controlled the city for many decades and sponsored the arts.
 

 

Scholarly research of classical Greek and Roman authors and the founders of Christianity, or                 , helped launch the Renaissance, a time of extraordinary learning, re-learning, and innovation.
 

 

 

Part II: Cultural Contributions

 

Complete the following matrix with at least one element for each category.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Civilization
Intellectual Contributions
Artistic Forms or Contributions
Architecture
Religious Beliefs
Traditions
North Africa, 1000–1800
 
 
 
 
 
Fatimid: Mali, Ghana, Songhai, Kanem, Kanem-Bornu, and Nubia
 
 
 
 
 
Forestlands
 
 
 
 
 
East African
 
 
 
 
 
Southern African
 
 
 
 
 
Medieval European
 
 
 
 
 
Renaissance Italian
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 
 

 

 

HST 276 Week 2 Magna Carta Paper
 

Consider the historical context of England in 1215 with the costs of King Richard the Lionheart’s ransom and the Crusades.

Research factors that contributed to the Magna Carta and the interests of those involved.

Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper analyzing the creation of the Magna Carta. Answer the following questions:

 

 

 

What were the nobles’ complaints?
 

 

How did the nobles’ interests differ from the king’s interests?
 

 

What interests did the nobles have in common with the king?
 

 

Cite at least four references to support your arguments.

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

Submit your paper to the Assignment Files tab.

 

 
 

 

 

HST 276 Week 3 Week Three Knowledge Check
 

1.

Columbus’s voyage of 1492 marked the

beginning of “Columbian Exchange.”

the start of destruction of native civilizations in the Americas.

rise of Spain to a major political role in Europe.

All of these answers are correct.

 

Concept: EXPERIENCE OF VARIOUS PEOPLES IN THE AGE OF DISCOVERY
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mastery
100%
Questions
·  2 

·  3
 

 

Materials on the concept
 

 

 

 

Conquest of the Aztecs and the Incas
 

 

Conquest and Exploitation: The Development of the Transatlantic Economy
 

 

2.

Spanish conquest in the Americas during the 15th to 19th centuries resulted in

economic dominance for the home country.

the decimation of Native American civilizations.

the influx of large amounts of gold and silver into Europe.

All of these answers are correct.

3.

Why were the Spanish able to conquer the Aztecs?

European diseases decimated native American tribes.

The Spanish military technology was superior.

There were insurrections among Aztec subject peoples.

All of these answers are correct.

 

Concept: CULTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS IN THE AGE OF DISCOVERY
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mastery
100%
Questions
·  4 

·  5
 

 

Materials on the concept
 

 

 

 

The Northern Renaissance
 

 

The Portuguese Chart the Course
 

 

4.

The European voyages of discovery primarily originated with

competition between the Protestant and Catholic churches.

competition for the riches of the spice trade.

competition to create larger empires as a mark of power.

competition to break the power of European nobility.

5.

Johann Gutenberg invented printing with movable type around 1450 in the German city of

Heidelberg

Mainz.

Leipzig

Erfurt

 

 
 

 

 

HST 276 Week 3 Week Three Worksheet
 

Complete the University of Phoenix Material: Week Three Worksheet.

Submit your worksheet to the Assignment Files tab.

Week 3 Worksheet

 

As you read this week’s required materials, complete this worksheet. This is a multipage assignment; double-check that you completed each page before submitting.

 

 
 

 

Part I: Fill in the Blanks
 

 

Fill in the blanks to complete the following sentences.

 

22.  Reformation Germany and Switzerland
 

 

 

 

 

The Reformation began in German and Swiss , small city-states within the Holy Roman Empire. Initially, the Reformation’s supporters were those with a history of            with authorities. Many towns had complaints against mismanagement or other inappropriate behavior among their bishops, abbots, or prelates, who had                              their benefices.
 

 

The Northern Renaissance, a movement of humanists from more  social backgrounds than their Italian counterparts, was more committed to               reform than other humanist movements were.
 

 

Martin Luther’s  Theses, posted in 1517 in protest of indulgences and other disputes with the Roman Church, became a focus for humanists and reformers. Luther’s capacity for free action was enhanced by the distraction caused by the election of the new Holy Roman Emperor,                      ; concessions made by the new emperor during his campaign; Luther’s allies who hid him in 1521 and 1522; and attacks against the Hapsburg holdings. When German peasants rebelled, demanding economic and spiritual equality and an end to serfdom, Luther sided against the                                            , calling them un-Christian.
 

 

The success of Protestants in Germany led to reforms like compulsory education, humanist revisions of curriculum, and instruction for lay people about . From Germany, Lutheranism spread in the first half of the 16th century to Poland, Denmark, and           .
 

 

The city of  became the center of the Swiss reformation because of the efforts of a popular priest,            , who opposed practices that were not specifically written in scripture. His disagreement with Luther about the nature of the bread and wine in the             prevented a unified Protestant movement.
 

 

The early movement for adult baptism and withdrawal from society to form a more perfect community–called –was condemned by the pope, Lutherans, and Zwinglians, but found adherents among the rural poor.
 

 

In Geneva,  led a reform movement focused on creating a godly society. He taught the godly            , those predestined for salvation.
 

 

In the late 16th century, the Holy Roman Empire was highly  among highly independent Lutheran,            , and Catholic realms, in contrast to unified nations like Spain, England, or France. The most destructive of the wars of religion, the                    , ravaged the empire from 1618 to 1648. The Treaty of Westphalia, which ended this war, granted legal recognition to                        and recognized the independence of the United Provinces of Holland and                                 . The German states of                and Brandenburg-Prussia emerged from this war as the most important early modern German powers.
 

 

 

 

23.  Tudor England
 

 

 

 

 

In the late 1520s and early 1530s, King  of England sought to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, aunt of                                               , because he did not have a male heir. Pope Clement VII, who was being held prisoner by                       , denied the annulment. Parliament, the king, and his Lutheran ministers Thomas Cranmer and               gradually seized more power away from the pope. In 1533, the king married              , and in 1534, Parliament named the king as head of the Church of England in the                        .
 

 

King , who ruled England from 1509 to 1547, refused to implement            policies like allowing clergy to marry or denying transubstantiation. His son,              , imposed many Protestant reforms between 1547 and 1553. His successor and half-sister,               , restored Catholicism and relations with the pope. Upon her death in 1558,               took the throne and repealed her half-sister’s anti-                laws in a compromise that tolerated Catholicism and encouraged the Protestant Church of England, but discouraged                       who sought to purge the Church of England of all Catholic traditions.
 

 

In the 1570s, England signed a mutual defense agreement with  and encouraged piracy against                    Elizabeth I’s decision to execute Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, a                    rival, was the final reason for the Kingdom of            to attack England. The invasion Armada numbered         ships, but English and Dutch ships were victorious and sank or captured more than one third of the fleet.
 

 

 

 

24.  Spain and Portugal: 1400-1650
 

 

 

 

 

Portugal’s Prince  captured the African city of            , near the straits between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, from the Moors. Following this capture, Portuguese sailors and traders mapped the African coast, seeking first gold and slaves from West Africa and, later, a sea route to           to acquire spices. The Portuguese expedition led by Vasco de Gama reached           in 1498.
 

 

Christopher Columbus sought to find a shorter sea route to  by sailing west. Instead, in 1492, Columbus discovered the                     , although he believed at the time that he was in the Japanese islands. Explorers Amerigo Vespucci and Ferdinand Magellan followed, mapping the coastline of                   .
 

 

King  of Spain, a Hapsburg, succeeded his grandfather as Holy Roman Emperor               in 1519, combining in his hands authority over the Netherlands, Spain, portions of Italy, and much of Central Europe. Wars with           and the                    absorbed much of the emperor’s time and resources.
 

 

Wealth from  colonies in the Americas financed the kingdom’s role in religious and political struggles. King               led these efforts, joining in the Holy League with Venice and the pope to defeat Ottoman forces at              in 1571. His wars against Calvinists in the Netherlands, Protestant Elizabeth I in England, and Protestant principalities in Germany weakened the empire before finally ending with the Treaty of                  in 1648.
 

 

 

 

25.  Colonial Brazil
 

 

 

 

 

Portugal’s claims in Brazil were confirmed by the pope’s 1494 Treaty of , which divided the Spanish and Portuguese empires with a single line through the Atlantic.
 

 

The indigenous peoples of Brazil were  and did not form large, centralized empires like those of the Inca or Aztec. Because of the lack of indigenous peoples for a workforce, Portuguese colonists imported more                as slaves than most other colonies did. Portugal’s relatively small population reduced governance from Europe, and instead the crown relied on granting                to private individuals to govern and exploit territory.
 

 

Brazil’s early economy was based on  plantations and slave labor. A           rush in the late 1600s brought many Portuguese immigrants to the          part of Brazil, but labor was still provided by            . Slavery was not abolished in Brazil until           , and over 1 million slaves were imported to Brazil in the 19th century.
 

 

 

 

26.  French and English Colonization
 

 

 

 

 

The economic system by which England and France regulated trade to try to maximize national wealth is now known as .
 

 

French  traders and missionaries from the             order came to the               River valley of New France in the 17th century. The largest French settlement in North America at this time was            . The French did not have as much conflict with                                      as did most other colonial powers, because local tribes traded and the French did not pressure them to surrender their territory.
 

 

The English founded or took control of colonies for various reasons. In North America, English settlers founded  and took control of                    –renaming it New York–for wealth from agriculture and trade. North Carolina and                   were awards granted by the monarch. Many colonies were founded by those seeking religious freedom: Pilgrims and Puritans in           , Baptists in             , Quakers in            , and Roman Catholics in         . One colony,           , was founded by                             to provide a place for English debtors.
 

 

 slaves were first brought to British North America in            . Much later,             led the world by abolishing slavery in 1794.
 

 

The primary economic activity of England’s North American colonies was . The port cities were generally small towns through which goods were traded with               and English colonies in the                      . By the 1770s,                 , the City of Brotherly Love, was the second-largest English-speaking city in the world.
 

 

Both the French and English had sugar-producing colonies in the                  . The plantations on these islands relied on the labor of           from            . Plantations were also used in British North America as far north as                      , generally growing cotton, tobacco, or sugar.
 

 

 

 

27.  African Civilizations During the Expansion of Slavery
 

 

 

 

 

Historian Alfred Crosby refers to the flow of species, knowledge, and disease across the Atlantic as the . Africa’s primary export to the American colonies was        . African societies gained important new crops from the Americas, including           (also known as corn) and             (also known as cassava).
 

 

Slavery was present in Africa before it was seen as a source of slaves for Europe, following patterns similar to those of other    Sub-Saharan Africa had long been a source of slaves for North African societies that practiced the           religion. The occidental slave trade with Europe and the Americas targeted                     and Central Africa. Slave traders most frequently obtained slaves by                                      African leaders. Slaves were also exported to India and southwest Asia in what is known as the            slave trade.
 

 

Africa’s primary import in the slaving era was gold, silver, and jewelry; much of the continent experienced an exchange of productive human beings for   Historians estimate that more than                    Africans were forcibly transported to the Americas between the 1500s and the 1800s. Many died of disease during the                            , the voyage by ship across the Atlantic Ocean.
 

 

 

Part II: Cultural Contributions

 

Complete the following matrix with at least one element for each category.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Civilization
Intellectual Contributions
Artistic Forms or Contributions
Architecture
Religious Beliefs
Traditions
German or Swiss
 
 
 
 
 
Tudor England
 
 
 
 
 
Spanish or Portuguese
 
 
 
 
 
Colonial Brazil
 
 
 
 
 
French or English Colonies
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 
 

 

 

HST 276 Week 3 Colonialism Presentation
 

Research the empire and colonies your Learning Team chose in Week Two.

Prepare an 8- to 12-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation about the colonial empire you chose.

Address the following:

 

 

 

The relationship between the empire and the colonies
 

 

Missionaries and religion
 

 

The economy of each colony
 

 

The lives of the European settlers
 

 

The lives of the African slaves
 

 

The lives of the indigenous peoples of the colonies
 

 

Present the Colonialism Presentation.

 

 

 

For Local Campus students, these are 12- to 15-minute oral presentations accompanied by Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentations.
 

 

For Online and Directed Study students, these are Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentations with notes.
 

 

Submit your presentation to the Assignment Files tab.

 

 

 

HST 276 Week 4 Week Four Knowledge Check
 

1.

Which of the following is the correct sequence of Japanese historical eras?

Ashikaga, Warring States, Tokugawa

Warring States, Ashikaga, Tokugawa

Tokugawa, Warring States, Ashikaga

Warring States, Tokugawa, Ashikaga

2.

By the mid-eighteenth century, which of the following major states came to dominate European politics until at least World War I?

Great Britain, France, Prussia, Russia

Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Austria

Russia, Spain, France, Austria

France, Austria, Germany, Italy

3.

The most appropriate keywords for describing the Islamic and Western experiences in the 1500-1800 period are

“stagnation” for the Islamic world, and “incrementalism” for the West.

“stagnation” for the Islamic world, and “revolution” for the West.

“culmination” for the Islamic world, and “revolution” for the West.

“culmination” for the Islamic world, and “incrementalism” for the West.

 

Concept: CULTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF EAST ASIA, EUROPE, AND ISLAM
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mastery
100%
Questions
·  4 

·  5
 

 

Materials on the concept
 

 

 

 

New Methods of Textile Production
 

 

A Millennium of Chinese Rule: 111 B.C.E.–939 C.E.
 

 

4.

The Chinese influence on Japan, Korea, and Vietnam included all of the following except

the acceptance and dissemination of Buddhism.

the use of the Chinese alphabet and language.

application of Confucian principles to government.

the adoption of Chinese technology.

5.

In what ways did colonies contribute to the process of industrialization in Britain?

They furnished raw materials for manufacturers, but were too poor to buy British manufactured goods.

They bought British manufactured goods only.

They provided labor in offshore sweatshops.

They furnished raw materials for manufacturers, and provided a market for British manufactured goods.

 

 
 

 

 

HST 276 Week 4 Week Four Worksheet
 

Complete the University of Phoenix Material: Week Four Worksheet.

Submit your worksheet to the Assignment Files tab.

Week 4 Worksheet

 

As you read this week’s required materials, complete this worksheet. This is a multipage assignment; double-check that you completed each page before submitting.

 

 
 

 

Part I: Fill in the Blanks
 

 

Fill in the blanks to complete the following sentences.

 

 

28.  Ming-Dynasty China
 

 

 

 

 

The population of China approximately doubled between the start of the Ming dynasty in            and its collapse and replacement by the Manchus in                 . This population increase, along with a reduction in government regulation, led to China’s          Commercial Revolution, which lasted from 1500 and 1800. Economic advances during this time, which extended into the Qing era, included the                system for textile manufacture, trade with the             empire through the port of Manila, expansion of private            from Shaanxi into other provinces, flourishing intermediate             towns, and trade in staples like grain and cotton.
 

 

The late imperial system of political control relied on a large, well-funded, and powerful              staffed by dedicated officials who competed for positions by               passing               ; the central authority of the              ; and the support of the new wealthy, literate             
 

 

Early Ming-dynasty foreign policy was aggressively expansionist, as emperors extended their control into historical Chinese territories and northern , which became a Chinese province. Despite the early Ming success in wresting China from the Yuan dynasty, the                remained China’s most serious threat, capturing Beijing in 1550.
 

 

A Muslim eunuch named  led China’s most ambitious expeditions of maritime exploration, sailing through much of Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean. Due to lack of interest, however, the Chinese halted these voyages.
 

 

 

 

29.  Qing-Dynasty China
 

 

 

 

 

The Qing dynasty was proclaimed by rulers of the former Chinese vassal, , with its first capital at                          . When the Ming dynasty fell to rebel forces in 1644, the Qing earned the support of much of the bureaucracy and military by presenting themselves as protectors of the                The Qing capital was moved to               that same year, and the new dynasty had reconquered all of southern China by             .
 

 

The emperor Kangxi led the conquest of the island of , home to Chinese and Japanese pirates, in 1681. Struggles with a new rival to the north and northwest,              , led to constant conflict and extensive territorial gains for China.
 

 

The Chinese population and commerce continued to expand under the Qing dynasty, fueled by new crops from the , new silver and copper mines, and silver acquired through trade with               
 

 

Contact with the West increased in the 17th century, but in the early 18th century, the Qing rulers restricted trade to land outside the walls of . The 1793 British        mission to expand trade did not succeed, and the emperor Qianlong explained in a letter to George III that China                            British manufactured goods.
 

 

 

 

30.  Japanese Civilization in the Warring States Era
 

 

 

 

 

The Ahikaga bakufu collapsed in 1467 over a dispute about who would be the next . With this change, regional             lords could no longer count on the bakufu system for defense against their vassals. As a result, most of these regional lords were defeated in the coming years, and hundreds of small                        , each with a group of warriors to support it, took their place.
 

 

As the widespread civil warfare continued, several regional powers emerged once again, with castles often located on plains and surrounded by new  that supplied their needs. Toyotomi Hideyoshi succeeded in reuniting all of             island, and his successor,            , completed the reunification of Japan in 1600, ending the Warring States era.
 

 

 

 

31.  Civilization of Tokugawa-Era Japan
 

 

 

 

 

Tokugawa Ieyasu took for himself the title  in 1603 and established a new bakufu based in          , present-day Tokyo. Ieyasu confiscated the territory of his enemies and transferred many               to different domains to reward his             , weaken his                   , and provide a                  system with his most loyal followers nearest his stronghold.
 

 

Strict  codes regulated the upper levels of Tokugawa-era society. A             system also helped maintain control, requiring the family of daimyo to remain as courtiers in         . The shōgun’s control of society was further strengthened in 1630 with an official policy           of               , prohibiting foreigners from entering Japan and Japanese from leaving the country. The only permitted foreigners were a few select traders in                .
 

 

Late Tokugawa-era Japan followed a cycle of extravagant spending, followed by   The law, the value of loyalty, and the                 at the bakufu and domain levels created long-lasting stability.
 

 

 

 

32.  Choson-Era Korean Civilization
 

 

 

 

 

Traditional Korea’s political and economic development was limited by repeated interventions from its two powerful neighbors, China and . The Choson dynasty maintained its hold on power by maintaining an alliance and paying                to the Ming and Qing dynasties in China.
 

 

The Choson dynasty was founded by , a general who, when ordered to fight        -dynasty China, overthrew his Koryo-dynasty employer and took the crown for himself.
 

 

Between 1418 and 1450, Korea was ruled by King , a wise monarch who reformed Korea’s financial system, combated piracy, expanded the northern borders across the              River, and encouraged scholarship.
 

 

Korea was devastated by invasions from  in 1592 and 1597, and the troops from Korea’s Ming-dynasty Chinese allies                                  the land they were there to protect. In 1627 and 1637, Korea was again seriously damaged by            
 

 

During the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, Korea , suffering from famine, natural disasters, banditry, and peasant rebellions. The Choson dynasty maintained control through the military power centralized in the capital,             , and through the intervention of           their                            
 

 

 

 

33.  Late Traditional Vietnamese Civilization
 

 

 

 

 

The Le dynasty was founded by , who led a successful rebellion against China using war             . The Le dynasty centralized power and used Chinese institutions like selecting officials through                     , levying land taxes, and claiming the Mandate of Heaven.
 

 

The 15th-century ruler who instituted widespread reforms and encouraged Neo-Confucian learning was . During his reign, Vietnam conquered its southern neighbor,           , and initiated a long-term migration pattern of ethnic Vietnamese expanding southward. He established a tolerant legal code that appealed to                values shared by Vietnamese and Chams.
 

 

As the Le dynasty declined, smaller independent states were formed in Vietnam: the                family ruled in the north; the              family ruled central Vietnam from their capital in            , and expanded their control to Saigon and the            River delta, areas with large minorities of ethnic            . In 1802, the northern armies were defeated and the                dynasty united Vietnam once more. The new rulers adopted the legal code of the                     
 

 

 

 

34.  Early Modern European Civilization
 

 

 

 

 

During the 16th and 17th centuries, Europe’s countries began industrializing, initiated new and more complex financial systems, and consolidated power through two different approaches to government: the English system of           with a cooperative relationship between parliament and the monarch to protect traditional liberties, and the French system of                     , founded on the idea of the divine right of kings. This consolidation of power resulted in the emergence in the 18th century of four great powers that would dominate Europe until at least World War I: France,        ,         , and        .
 

 

A civil war broke out in England in 1642 between supporters of King  and           , which sought to protect Puritanism and Protestantism. The                      forces were victorious. Following the civil war, the government was known as a              , but Oliver Cromwell was a military dictator. In 1685, England’s new Roman Catholic king,            , extended religious freedom to all Roman Catholics and Protestants. He was replaced by his elder daughter, Mary II, and her husband William of Orange in what is known as the             Revolution, a bloodless invasion to protect the traditional liberties of the            Church and                
 

 

In France, the ancien regime or  was the pattern of social, political,                      and            relationships that existed in Continental Europe before           . At the top of this hierarchy was the king, and the long-reigning king who best personified this divine right of kings was                  , who said “I am the state.” In response to his efforts to establish direct royal administration, nobles rose up between 1649 and 1652 in rebellions known                    as the               . During his reign, France entered four major wars of               . The War of the Spanish Succession, the last of these four wars, resulted in the              dynasty’s rule of Spain and the cession of possessions in Flanders and Italy. These wars significantly                                          the French treasury.
 

 

Following the Time of Troubles in Russia, the  dynasty was founded with the election of a new tsar, Michael. Michael’s grandson,            the Great, became tsar in 1682. During his reign, he reduced the power of the traditional nobility, called           , and the Moscow guards, or           . He conscripted hundreds of thousands of soldiers and built improved warships in the Baltic and              Seas, motivated by a desire to see Russia become a great power of Europe through                 During his reign, he founded the new capital of                  on the Gulf of Finland, fought corruption, and limited the power of the Orthodox Church by eliminating the position of               .
 

 

By the mid-17th century, the  family controlled the title of Holy Roman Emperor and the kingdoms of Bohemia, which included Moravia and Silesia, and               , which included Croatia and Transylvania. In the 18th century, Emperor Charles VI devoted much of his time to achieving the                  , a document providing the legal basis for his daughter,                 , to inherit his dominions.
 

 

The Prussian state was rooted in the holdings of the  family, rulers of Brandenburg who gradually expanded their holdings within the Holy Roman Empire over several centuries. Prussian society and the military were dominated by the German noble class,           . The Prussian military was strong, and                       , king from 1713 to 1740, reorganized the                to closely parallel the military and more than doubled the size of the army.
 

 

In 1740, the death of Emperor Charles VI triggered the War of the  Succession, when the new king of Prussia,                              , invaded Silesia with the support of France. This war expanded when Great Britain came to the defense of the Hapsburgs, and when France decided to support                in its struggles against Great Britain in the New World. The forces fought to a stalemate, and Prussia retained Silesia in the Treaty of            that ended the war.
 

 

Just a few years later, in 1756, European powers fought in a truly global war known as the _____ . In this war, Prussia and                allied against Austria,          , Russia, Sweden, and the smaller German states. At the end of the war, borders in            remained largely unchanged, but France lost its possessions in Quebec and was defeated in               by British forces led by Robert Clive.
 

 

 

 

35.  The Ottoman Empire
 

 

 

 

 

The Ottoman dynasty ruled Turks from Central Asia who first established a stable state in Anatolia, part of what is now the country of . The Ottomans expanded at the expense of the                      Empire, and Sultan                          finally defeated this enemy in 1453, seizing Constantinople and renaming it                 .
 

 

The Ottoman Empire continued expanding through the 15th and 16th centuries primarily due to its large and loyal . Ottoman forces were comprised of aristocratic cavalry officers and slave soldiers who owed loyalty only to the             . The practice of conscripting slave soldiers from the provinces, known as              , transformed young Christian boys into Muslims who served in the bureaucracy and military. Under the leadership of Selim I and                     the Lawgiver or the Magnificent, Ottoman rule expanded to Syria-Palestine, Egypt, North Africa, portions of Arabia, Kurdistan, Georgia, and Mesopotamia.
 

 

The Ottomans laid siege to the capital of their Hapsburg rivals, , between 1526 and 1529, and again in 1683, but they failed to capture the city. The Ottoman Empire began to decline in the early 17th century with the loss of territory to the               dynasty of Iran. After the second failed siege of the Hapsburg capital, the Ottomans lost all of              and the city of Belgrade. Later, in 1774, the decline continued with the loss of the Crimea to          .
 

 

 

 

36.  Mughal India
 

 

 

 

 

The Mughals, Chaghatay Turks from beyond the  River in Central Asia, invaded            in the early 16th century, ending its political fragmentation. The founder of the Mughal Dynasty,          , replaced the sultan of               and, by 1530, ruled much of the subcontinent.
 

 

 the Great expanded the empire and integrated non-Muslims more fully into society. His successors presided over the golden age of Mughal civilization:               allowed English merchants to establish an outpost at Surat;                  completed the conquest of the Deccan but lost                   to the Safavids, and he also sponsored the elegant                , a tomb for his consort, Mumtaz.
 

 

 persecuted non-Muslims, destroyed Hindu temples, and killed guru Teg Bahadur, leader of the             . The rebellions among Sikhs and nationalist Hindu           , who controlled the western coast of India, helped weaken the Mughal state. Continuing invasions and uprisings weakened the Mughals, and by 1819, the new dominant power in the subcontinent was the                      
 

 

 

Part II: Cultural Contributions

 

Complete the following matrix with at least one element for each category.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Civilization
Intellectual Contributions
Artistic Forms or Contributions
Architecture
Religious Beliefs
Traditions
Ming-Dynasty China
 
 
 
 
 
Qing-Dynasty China
 
 
 
 
 
Japan During the Warring States Era
 
 
 
 
 
Tokugawa-era Japan
 
 
 
 
 
Choson-era Korea
 
 
 
 
 
Late Traditional Vietnam
 
 
 
 
 
Early Modern European
 
 
 
 
 
Ottoman
 
 
 
 
 
Mughal India
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

HST 276 Week 5 Week Five Knowledge Check
 

1.

The Scientific Revolution was revolutionary in the sense that it

involved thousands of people in the pursuit of scientific goals.

set the standard for evaluating knowledge in the Western world.

rejected all traditional knowledge in favor of new discoveries.

led to the replacement of the craftsman with the scientist.

2.

Enlightenment thinkers believed that

the progressive increase of knowledge was the key towards making the world a more perfect place.

the revival of knowledge from the ancient world would set them apart from their predecessors.

knowledge is relative to the society from which it emerges and can as easily be lost as found.

the obtainment of knowledge was the highest calling of God.

 

Concept: CULTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mastery
100%
Questions
·  3 

·  4

·  5
 

 

Materials on the concept
 

 

 

 

The Scientific Revolution
 

 

The Age of European Enlightenment
 

 

The Enlightenment
 

 

3.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, the area of scientific advancement that most captured the learned imagination was

physics.

chemistry.

biology.

astronomy.

4.

The political thinkers during the Age of Enlightenment provided philosophical support for all of the following forms of government except

radical Islamist.

socialism.

absolutism.

constitutional monarchy.

5.

Although they disagreed on many issues, the fundamental principle shared by all Enlightenment thinkers was the belief in

separation of church and state.

mercantilism.

absolute monarchy.

reforming society through the application of reason.

 

 
 

 

 

HST 276 Week 5 Week Five Worksheet
 

Complete the University of Phoenix Material: Week Five Worksheet.

Submit your worksheet to the Assignment Files tab.

Week 5 Worksheet

 

As you read this week’s required materials, complete this worksheet. This is a multipage assignment; double-check that you completed each page before submitting.

 

 
 

 

Part I: Fill in the Blanks
 

 

Fill in the blanks to complete the following sentences.

 

37.  Revolutionary France
 

 

 

 

 

Burdened by debt from the Seven Years’ War and French support for the American Revolution, King  needed to raise taxes, so he agreed to convene the            , which met in 1789 at Versailles. Led by the            —those outside the aristocracy or church—        a new                    was declared on June 17, 1789. Its members swore, in the Tennis Court Oath, to create a new                    for France.
 

 

Nervous about the new National Constituent Assembly, the king gathered troops near Versailles and  in early July of 1789. The citizens of            , anxious about the royal troops, formed a militia and, on July 14, 1789, stormed the fortress of the city, the           , earning a position in the French Revolution for             -class people.
 

 

Following the events of July 14, 1789, workers in many French cities formed militias, and peasants rose up in the countryside in a movement called the . To confront these threats, aristocrats and clergy in the National Constituent Assembly surrendered many of their privileges on August   , 1789, establishing the same and equal laws for all French citizens. The National Constituent Assembly went on to issue the Declaration             on August 27, 1789. The king hesitated to ratify either of these decisions.
 

 

Worried that the king might suppress the revolution and demanding more ,       the         of Paris marched to Versailles on October 5, 1789, and returned with the royal family, who moved to the palace of the             in the city, where popular pressure could be maintained.
 

 

In 1790, the National Constituent Assembly passed the Civil Constitution of the , which declared government control over the Church in France. They demanded that priests and bishops swear to support the Civil Constitution and declared those who refused to take the oath were               and prohibited them from conducting religious ceremonies. These actions convinced the           , in February of 1791, to denounce the Civil Constitution and the           . The National Constituent Assembly replaced the traditional provinces with                             , founded uniform courts, and established the           system of measurement.
 

 

The Constitution of 1791, adopted by the National Constituent Assembly, established a constitutional  that limited many people, including all women, from voting. The new Legislative Assembly declared war on                in 1792. The war initially went poorly, and revolutionaries grew more radical. On August 10, 1792, the people of Paris invaded the palace, forcing the king and queen to flee to the                                  , which held them comfortably but did not allow them any political power.
 

 

During the second revolution, the new radical government of Paris, the  executed hundreds of criminals, calling them counterrevolutionaries, during the                   This government forced the Legislative Assembly to call the                   , charged with writing a democratic constitution. Its first action was to declare France a               and to abolish the monarchy. The                     was led by a group of Jacobins called the               , allied with the                     , workers, shopkeepers, and artisans of Paris who sought economic fairness and adequate food. In December 1792, the former king, Citizen              , was tried, and he was executed on January 21, 1793. The following month, France declared war on Great Britain and Spain, and a royalist revolution began in the               of western France. The working government proclaimed a new calendar, established a fully democratic                             ­­              on June 22, 1793, and attempted to eliminate the             faith from their new Republic of Virtue.
 

 

During the Reign of Terror, great power was centralized in the Committee ,         and                             took control of this committee in 1793 and 1794. The committee was quick to                        those identified as enemies of the Republic. Tens of thousands of French people met this fate, until members of the Convention, worried that they would be identified as                  , had                  executed on July 28, 1794. Subsequently,                     in the                       Reaction, the system of the Reign of Terror was eliminated, Jacobins who participated were forced out of public life, and the Constitution of the            established a bicameral legislature and an executive body called the               .
 

 

 

 

38.  Russia Under Catherine the Great
 

 

 

 

 

Soon after Tsar  took power in 1745, he was removed from power in a coup and murdered, and his wife, a                princess, was proclaimed Empress Catherine II.
 

 

Catherine II earned the title “the Great” by continuing her predecessors’ push for expansion to secure , defending Russian presence on the Baltic and waging war             against                                                  , which resulted in Russian access to the Black and Mediterranean seas. In the First Partition of                 , Russia acquired a large portion of that country.
 

 

 

 

39.  Austria Under Joseph II
 

 

 

 

 

Joseph II was the son of  and ruled alongside her between 1765 and 1780. He sought to expand imperial power and refused to be crowned king of                 , confiscating the Crown of Saint Stephen.
 

 

Joseph II instituted broad social reforms, including the abolishment of the legal status of                  and gave peasants freedom to marry, engage in work, and have their children trained without the permission of their                  .
 

 

 

 

40.  The Enlightenment in Britain
 

 

 

 

 

The Kingdom of Great Britain emerged as the preeminent colonial empire at the end of the                        , in which Robert Clive captured the city of                     and the rest of Bengal, and British troops seized Spanish and French colonies like Quebec, Manila, and islands in the                   
 

 

 ruled as the king of Great Britain from 1760 to 1820. His practice of taxation to pay for large standing armies was decried as tyranny by the Whigs known as the                  .
 

 

 

41.  The United States of America
 

 

 

 

 

Whig-influenced resentment of the British and of King  increased due to the collection of               , Parliament’s decision to award the territory west of the Appalachian Mountains to              , and the killing of five colonists in what was called the Boston               . In 1774, Parliament passed laws that American colonists called the                         Acts, which restricted liberties that colonists had enjoyed and allowing troops to be housed in private homes.
 

 

Citizens critical of Britain convened the First and Second  Congresses in 1774 and 1775, seeking reconciliation with Britain and self-rule in the colonies. On July 4, 1776, they adopted the                               .
 

 

The War of the American Revolution began with escalating violence between the British and the colonists, and it expanded in 1778 when Benjamin Franklin convinced the          to help the colonies. Troops of the new United States, led by General                    , defeated the British forces of Lord Cornwallis in 1781, leading to the 1783 Treaty of             , which concluded the war.
 

 

In 1787, the United States of America held a Constitutional , and the new Constitution was adopted in 1788. Americans insisted on amending the Constitution with a specific Bill of               , which guaranteed civil liberties.
 

 

 

 

42.  Revolutionary Latin America
 

 

 

 

 

In 1794, slaves in what is now Haiti rebelled against Creole slaveholders under the leadership of  and Jean-Jacques Dessalines. The new country of Haiti finally achieved its independence from                   in 1804.
 

 

Whites born in the Americas, known as , led revolutions against Spain. These revolutions were motivated by several factors: Spain sought to raise money through confiscation and taxation to pay for its involvement in the Napoleonic Wars; the Creole elite were influenced by the ideas of the                               ; and Napoleon conquered                 , replacing the king and threatening the traditional social order.
 

 

In 1810, the Río de la Plata—today’s —declared independence from Spain and sought to liberate Paraguay and Uruguay. The leader of these forces,                    , occupied the Chilean capital in 1817 and confirmed the leadership of                       as supreme dictator of Chile. In 1820, the forces of the Río de la Plata continued north to liberate Peru.
 

 

The leader of the independence movement in New Granada, , began his republican revolution in Caracas in 1810, but was forced into exile in the ensuing civil war. With the assistance of                , his forces first conquered                , and reclaimed Caracas by 1821.
 

 

In July 1822, the two great leaders of South American revolutions joined together to liberate                   in what is now Ecuador.
 

 

In 1811, New Spain faced an uprising of 80,000 Black and mestizo workers who marched on                    under the leadership of Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla. The conservative forces that defeated this and later peasant insurrections were threatened by the liberal Spanish constitution                                  accepted in 1820, and, under the leadership of the first emperor,                     , declared Mexico’s independence.
 

 

Rio de Janeiro became the seat of the  government in 1807, and Brazil was elevated to the status of a kingdom, rather than a colony, in 1815. Joao VI returned to Lisbon in 1820, and his son,                , who had been left in control of Brazil, declared independence and became emperor of Brazil.
 

 

 

Part II: Cultural Contributions

 

Complete the following matrix with at least one element for each category.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Civilization
Intellectual Contributions
Artistic Forms or Contributions
Religious Beliefs
Traditions
Revolutionary France
 
 
 
 
Russia Under Catherine the Great
 
 
 
 
Austria Under Joseph II
 
 
 
 
British Enlightenment
 
 
 
 
Revolutionary America
 
 
 
 
Revolutionary Latin America
 
 
 
 
 

 

 
 

 

 
 

 

HST 276 Week 5 Revolutions and Representative Democracy
 

Choose a European empire on which to focus. Based on your selected empire, address two revolutions:

 

 

 

France
 

 

French Revolution
 

 

Haitian Revolution
 

 

Spain
 

 

Revolution of the Río de la Plata
 

 

Simón Bolívar’s liberation of Venezuela
 

 

Great Britain
 

 

Glorious Revolution
 

 

American Revolution
 

 

Create a means of communicating information about the revolutions in your chosen empire to your classmates and instructor. You may create one of the following:

 

 

 

A website consisting of at least 700-1,050 words of content
 

 

A 700- to 1,050-word paper
 

 

A 10- to 12-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation with speaker notes
 

 

A 700- to 1,050-word newsletter
 

 

Another communication medium, as approved by your instructor
 

 

Summarize both revolutions. Describe the major events, the people involved, and their motivations.

Describe the societal structures in the empire and how they evolved through the Industrial Revolution, the agricultural revolution, and the Enlightenment.

Relate each revolution to ideas of traditional privileges, rights, and liberties. Explain how these ideas evolved from the Magna Carta through the Enlightenment to influence each revolution.

Relate each revolution to ideas of equality, representation, and democracy. Explain how these ideas evolved from the Magna Carta through the Enlightenment to influence each revolution.

Submit your assignment to the Assignment Files tab.
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