# PSY 315 Entire Course

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PSY/315STATISTICAL REASONING IN PSYCHOLOGY The Latest Version A+ Study Guide **********************************************PSY 315 Entire Course Linkhttps://uopcourses.com/category/psy-315/**********************************************  PSY 315 Week 1 Week One Practice Problems WorksheetResource: Statistics for PsychologyComplete the Week One Practice Problems Worksheet.Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.Note. Computation methods may include the use of Microsoft® Excel®, SPSS™, Lotus®, SAS®, Minitab®, or by-hand computation.Week One Practice Problems Prepare a written response to the following questions. Chapter 1
1. Explain and give an example for each of the following types of variables:

1. Equal interval:
2. Rank-order:
3. Nominal:
4. Ratio scale:
5. Continuous:
6. Discrete:

1. Following are the speeds of 40 cars clocked by radar on a particular road in a 35-mph zone on a particular afternoon:
30, 36, 42, 36, 30, 52, 36, 34, 36, 33, 30, 32, 35, 32, 37, 34, 36, 31, 35, 2024, 46, 23, 31, 32, 45, 34, 37, 28, 40, 34, 38, 40, 52, 31, 33, 15, 27, 36, 40Make a frequency table and a histogram, then describe the general shape of the distribution
1. Raskauskas and Stoltz (2007) asked a group of 84 adolescents about their involvement in traditional and electronic bullying. The researchers defined electronic bullying as “…a means of bullying in which peers use electronics {such as text messages, emails, and defaming Web sites} to taunt, threaten, harass, and/or intimidate a peer” (p.565). The table below is a frequency table showing the adolescents’ reported incidence of being victims or perpetrators or traditional and electronic bullying.

1. Using this table as an example, explain the idea of a frequency table to a person who has never had a course in statistics.
2. Explain the general meaning of the pattern of results.
Incidence of Traditional and Electronic Bullying and Victimization (N=84)Forms of BullyingN%Electronic victims4148.8 Text-message victim2732.1 Internet victim (websites, chatrooms)1315.5 Picture-phone victim89.5Traditional Victims6071.4 Physical victim3845.2 Teasing victim5059.5 Rumors victim3238.6 Exclusion victim3050Electronic Bullies1821.4 Text-message bully1821.4 Internet bully1113.1Traditional Bullies564.3 Physical bully2934.5 Teasing bully3845.2 Rumor bully2226.2 Exclusion bully3541.7
1. Kärnä and colleagues (2013) tested the effects of a new antibullying program, called KiVa, among students in grades 1–3 and grades 7–9 in 147 schools in Finland. The schools were randomly assigned to receive the new antibullying program or no program. At the beginning, middle, and end of the school year, all of the students completed a number of questionnaires, which included the following two questions: “How often have you been bullied at school in the last couple of months?” and “How often have you bullied others at school in the last couple of months?” The table below is a frequency table that shows students’ responses to these two questions at the end of the school year (referred to as “Wave 3” in the title of the table). Note that the table shows the results combined for all of the students in the study. In the table, “victimization” refers to students’ reports of being bullied and “bullying” is students’ reports of bullying other students.
2. Using this table as an example, explain the idea of a frequency table to a person who has never had a course in statistics.
3. Explain the general meaning of the pattern of results. (You may be interested to know that the KiVa program successfully reduced victimization and bullying among students in grades 1–3 but the results were mixed with regards to the effectiveness of the program among those in grades 7–9.).
1. For the following scores, find the mean, median, sum of squared deviations, variance, and standard deviation:
1,112; 1,245; 1,361; 1,372; 1,472
1. A psychologist interested in political behavior measured the square footage of the desks in the official office for four U.S. governors and of four chief executive officers (CEOs) of major U.S. corporations. The figures for the governors were 44, 36, 52, and 40 square feet. The figures for the CEOs were 32, 60, 48, 36 square feet.
1. Figure the means and standard deviations for the governors and CEOs.
2. Explain, to a person who has never had a course in statistics, what you have done.
3. Note the waus in which the means and standard deviations differ, and speculate on the possible meaning of these differences, presuming that they are representative of U.S. governors and large corporations’ CEOs in general.

1. Radel and colleagues (2011) conducted a study of how feeling overly controlled makes you desire—even unconsciously—more freedom. In their study, 52 Canadian undergraduates played a video game in a laboratory and were randomly assigned to either:
2. an automony deprivation condition, in which they were told to follow instructions precisely, constantly given instructions over a loudspeaker, and carefully observed on everything they did.
3. a neutral condition, which was much more laid back.
After this activity, they were asked to do a “lexical decision task” (a standard approach for measuring unconscious responses) in which they were shown a series of words and nonwords in random order and had to press “C” if it was a real word or “N” if not. Half of the real words were related to autonomy (e.g., freedom, choice) and half were neutral (e.g., whisper, hammer). The key focus of the study was on how long it took people to press the button *(“response latency”) for each kind of real word, averaged over the many words of each type. The table below shows the mean and standard deviation across the participants of these four categories of results. Thus, for example, 782 milliseconds (thousandths of a second) is the average time it took participants in the autonomy-deprived condition to respond to the autonomy-related words, and 211 is the standard deviation across the 26 participants’ average response time in that condition. Explain the numbers in this table to a person who has never had a course in statistics. (Be sure to explain some specific numbers, as well as the general principle of the mean and standard deviation.) For your interest, the pattern of results shown here supported the researchers’ hypothesis: “Relative to a neutral instructional climate, a controlling climate thwarting the need for autonomy…enhanced accessibility for autonomy-related words.” (p.924). Mean Latencies (in Milliseconds) in the Lexical Task Assessing Accessibility for Autonomy-Related Constructs (Experiment 1)ConditionAutonomy DeprivationNeutralConstructMSDMSDAutonomy-related words782211857243Neutral words835258841301  Chapter 3
1. On a standard measure of hearing ability, the mean is 300 and the standard deviation is 20. Give the raw scores for persons whose Z scores for persons who score 340, 310, and 260. Give the raw scores for persons whose Z scores on this test are 2.4, 1.5, and -4.5.

1. The amount of time it takes to recover physiologically from a certain kind of sudden noise is found to be normally distributed with a mean of 80 seconds and a standard deviation of 10 seconds. Using the 50%–34%–14% figures, approximately what percentage of scores (on time to recover) will be:
Above 100?Below 100?Above 90?Below 90?Above 80?Below 80?Above 70?Below 70?Above 60?Below 60?
1. Suppose that the scores of architects on a particular creativity test are normally distributed. Using a normal curve table, what percentage of architects have Z scores:
Above .10?Below .10?Above .20?Below .20?Above 1.10?Below 1.10?Above -.10?Below -.10?
1. Suppose that you are designing an instrument panel for a large industrial machine. The machine requires the person using it to reach 2 feet from a particular position. The reach from this position for adult women is known to have a mean of 2.8 feet with a standard deviation of .5. The reach for adult men is known to have a mean of 3.1 feet with a standard deviation of .6. Both women’s and men’s reach from this position is normally distributed. If this design is implemented:
What percentage of women will not be able to work on this instrument panel?What percentage of men will not be able to work on this instrument panel?Explain your answers to a person who has never had a course in statistics.
1. Suppose that you were going to conduct a survey of visitors to your campus. You want the survey to be as representative as possible.
How would you select the people to survey?Why would that be your best method?  PSY 315 Week 2 Descriptive and Inferential Statistics PresentationResource: Assigned journal articleCreate a 7- to 10-slide presentation with speaker notes examining the differences between descriptive and inferential statistics used in the journal article you were assigned.Address the following items as they apply to the article:
• Describe the functions of statistics.
• Define descriptive and inferential statistics.
• Provide at least one example of the relationship between descriptive and inferential statistics.
Format your presentation consistent with APA guidelines.Note: A minimum of 3 scholarly sources are required. Scholarly sources are journal articles or books. Websites will only be considered supplemental sources and will not be included as a part of the minimum of 3 scholarly sources required for papers.Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment. PSY 315 Week 3 Week Three Practice Problems WorksheetResource: Statistics for PsychologyComplete the Week Three Practice Problems Worksheet.Click the assignment files tab to submit your assignment.Note. Methods of computation may include the usage of Microsoft® Excel®, SPSS, Lotus®, SAS®, Minitab®, or by-hand computation.Week Three Practice Problems Prepare a written response to the following questions. Chapter 4
1. List the five steps of hypothesis testing, and explain the procedure and logic of each.

1. Based on the information given for the following studies, decide whether to reject the null hypothesis. Assume that all populations are normally distributed. For each, give:
1. The Z-score cutoff (or cutoffs) on the comparison distribution at which the null hypothesis should be rejected.
2. The Z-score on the comparison distribution for the sample score.
StudyµσSampleScorepTails of TestsA5170.051 (high predicted)B5170.052C5170.011 (High predicted)D5170.012
1. A researcher predicts that listening to music while solving math problems will make a particular brain area more active. To test this, a research participant has her brain scanned while listening to music and solving math problems, and the brain area of interest has a percentage signal change of 58. From many previous studies with this same math problem’s procedure (but not listening to music), it is known that the signal change in this brain is normally distributed with a mean of 35 and a standard deviation of 10.
1. Using the .01 level, what should the researcher conclude? Solve this problem explicity using all five steps of hypothesis testing, and illustrate your answer with a sketch showing the comparison distribution, the cutoff (or cutoffs), and the score of the sample on this distribution.
2. Explain your answer to someone who has never had a course in statistics (but who is familiar with mean, standard deviation, and Z scores).
PSY 315 Week 3 Research Article CritiqueSelect an article from the university library.Provide a 1050 to 1400 word paper in which you include the following information about the article:
• A brief summary of the background of the topic of the article
• The researchers’ hypothesis
• Explain the 5 steps of hypothesis testing and explain how the researchers used them in their study
• Provide your team’s critique of the research including the limitations of the study
Format your paper in APA style.Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment. PSY 315 Week 4 Week Four Practice Problems WorksheetResource: Statistics for PsychologyComplete the Week Four Practice Problems Worksheet.Click on the assignment files tab to submit your assignment.Note. Methods of computation may include the usage of Microsoft® Excel®, SPSS™, Lotus®, SAS®, Minitab®, or by-hand computation.Week Four Practice Problems Prepare a written response to the following questions. Chapter 7
1. The table below shows ratings of various aspects of work and home life of 100 middle-class men in India who were fathers. Pick three rows of interest to you and explain the results to someone who is familiar with the mean, variance, and Zscores, but knows nothing else about statistics.
Comparison of Fathers’ Mean Psychological States in the Job and Home Spheres (= 100) Sphere ScaleRangeWorkHomeWork vs. homeImportant0-95.985.066.86***Attention0-96.155.137.96***Challenge0-94.112.4111.49***Choice0-94.284.74-3.38***Wish doing else0-91.51.440.61Hurried0-31.81.393.21**Social Anxiety0-30.810.643.17**Affect1-74.844.98-2.64**Social Climate1-75.645.954.17***  Note: Values for column 3 are scores; df = 90 for all tests.**< .01 ***< .001     Chapter 8
1. Barker and colleagues (2012) compared 61 parents fo children who had a serious mental illness (SMI) to 321 parents of children withour such an illness. The researchers examined the parents’ reported levels of stress, their levels of a hormone called cortisol (levels of this hormone provide an indication of chronic stress), and their use of several types of medication. The table below shows the results of the study. Focusing on the parents’ number of stressors (the first row of the table) and the parents’ use of medications for anxiety or depression (the last row in the table), explain these results to a person who knows about the test for a single sample but is unfamiliar with the t test for independent means.
Descriptive Statistics and Mean-Level ComparisonsSMI ParentsComparison Parents N = 61N = 321 MeanSD MeanSD tpStress Number of stressors0.650.560.420.37-3.080.00Stress severity sum1.891.631.161.1-3.30.00Cortisol (nmol/L) Wake17.4610.7216.757.38-0.140.90Out of bed22.8311.4824.1910.591.130.26Bed5.728.564.225.57-1.860.06Cortisol awakening response5.629.77.488.341.550.12Decline from out of bed17.1311.3520.1110.711.970.05Medication use (proportion) Allergy0.260.440.160.37-1.710.09Steroid0.20.40.120.33-1.320.19Hormone0.130.340.140.350.250.80Anxiety or depression0.260.44 0.120.33 -2.360.02
1. For each of the following studies, say whether you would use a test for dependent means or a test for independent means.
2. A researcher measures the heights of 40 university students who are the firstborn in their families and compares the 15 who come from large families to the 25 who come from smaller families.
3. A researcher tests performance on a math skills test of each of 250 individuals before and after they complete a one-day seminar on managing test anxiety.
4. A researcher compares the resting heart rate of 15 individuals who have been taking a particular drug to the resting heart rate of 48 other individuals who have not been taking the drug.
Chapter 9
1. An experiment is conducted in which 60 participants each fill out a personality test, but not according to the way the participants see themselves. Instead, 15 are randomly assigned to fill it out according to the way they think theur mothers see them (that is, the way they think their mothers would fill it out to describe the participants); 15 as their fathers would fill it out for them; 15 as their best friends would fill it out for them; 15 as the professors they know best would fill it out for them. The main results appear in Table 9-17. Explain these results to a person who has never had a course in statistics.
Means for Main Personality Scales for Each Experimental ConditionScaleMotherFatherFriendProfessorF(3, 56)Conformity242112164.21**Extroversion141315132.05Maturity151522193.11*Self-Confidence384227323.58*  *< .05, **< .01
1. Rosalie Friend (2001), and educational psychologist, compared three methods of teaching writing. Students were randomly assigned to three different experimental conditions involving different methods of writing a summary. At the end of the two days of instructions, participants wrote a summary. One of the ways it was scored was the percentage of specific details of information it included from the original material. Here is a selection from her article describing one of the findings:
The effect of summarization method on inclusion of important information was significantF(2, 144) = 4.1032, < .019. The mean scores (with standard deviations in parantheses) were as follows: Argument Repetition, 59.6% (17.9); Generalization, 59.8% (15.2); and Self-Reflection, 50.2% (18.0). (p.14)
1. Explain these results to a person who has never had a course in statistics.
2. Using the information in the preceding description, figure the effect size for the study.
PSY 315 Week 4 Hypothesis Testing OutlineSelect a research issue, problem, or opportunity in the field of psychology.Prepare a document outlining the information you plan to discuss in your Week 5 paper. Your outline should include at minimum the following:
• Describe your selected research issue, problem, or opportunity.
• Formulate a hypothesis statement concerning your selected research issue, problem, or opportunity.
• Determine your population and describe which sampling method you would use to generate your sample
• Describe how you would collect your data, the level of measurement of your data and which statistical technique you would use to analyze the data.  Explain why you chose that statistical technique.
• At least 3 scholarly sources you plan to use for your paper
• Include a conclusion of your anticipated findings.
Note: A minimum of 3 scholarly sources are required. Scholarly sources are journal articles or books. Websites will only be considered supplemental sources and will not be included as a part of the minimum of 3 scholarly sources required for papers.Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment. PSY 315 Week 5 Hypothesis Testing PaperResource: Instructor approved research issue, problem, or opportunity in the field of psychologyPrepare a 1,400- to 1,750-word paper in which you formulate a hypothesis based on your selected research issue, problem, or opportunity.Address the following:
• Describe your selected research issue, problem, or opportunity.
• Formulate a hypothesis statement concerning your selected research issue, problem, or opportunity.
• Determine your population and describe which sampling method you would use to generate your sample
• Describe how you would collect your data, the level of measurement of your data and which statistical technique you would use to analyze the data.  Explain why you chose that statistical technique.
Include a conclusion of your anticipated findings.Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment. PSY 315 Week 5 Correlation Study WorksheetResource: Statistics for PsychologyComplete the Correlation Study Worksheet.Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.Correlation Study Worksheet  Your research team has been tasked with finding the correlation of the following scenario: Four research participants take a test of manual dexterity (high scores mean better dexterity) and an anxiety test (high scores mean more anxiety). The scores are as follows: Person                           Dexterity                       Anxiety 1                                  1                                  102                                  1                                    83                                  2                                    44                                  4                                  -2 Describe the process that your research team would go through by completing the following:
1. Make a scatter diagram of the scores.
2. Describe in words the general pattern of correlation, if any.
3. Figure the correlation coefficient.
4. Figure whether the correlation is statistically significant (use the .05 significance level, two-tailed).
5. Explain the logic of what you have done, writing as if you are speaking to someone who has never heard of correlation (but who does understand the mean, standard deviation, Z scores, and hypothesis testing).
6. Give three logically possible directions of causality, indicating for each direction whether it is a reasonable explanation for the correlation in light of the variables involved (and why).