# Test Bank For Essentials of Marketing Research (Irwin Marketing) 3rd Edition by Jr., Joseph Hair,

Description

Essentials of Marketing Research (Irwin Marketing) 3rd Edition by Jr., Joseph Hair, Mary Celsi, Robert Bush Test Bank

Chapter 06

Sampling: Theory and Methods

Multiple Choice Questions

Sampling units are the:

target population elements available for selection during the sampling process.

identifiable groups of elements of interest to the researcher and pertinent to the information problem.

complete set of elements identified for investigation.

list of all population elements from which to draw a sample.

number of units accidentally left out of the sampling frame.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 137

Spectrum Inc., an automobile manufacturer, is interested in determining the satisfaction of the users of one of its brands, Credence. Instead of sampling the entire population of car owners, Spectrum Inc. samples those who owned a Credence. Spectrum is drawing its sample from a:

sampling unit.

defined target population.

designated sampling population.

subset relevant population.

full-set relevant population.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 137

Jamie Nelson works for a telephone company. She is interested in determining the satisfaction of people with the service provided by the company (for landline customers only). She decides to draw her sample from the telephone directory. For Jamie’s research, the telephone directory is serving as a(n):

sampling unit.

element chart.

sampling frame.

element.

census.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 138

The difference between probability sampling and nonprobability sampling is that in nonprobability sampling:

each sampling unit in the defined target population has a known probability of being selected for the sample.

observed differences in sample findings can be partially attributed to the existence of sampling errors.

the results can be generalized to the target population within a specified margin of error.

the researcher is able to judge the reliability and validity of data collected by calculating the probability.

sampling error is not known.

Answer: E

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 140

_____ sampling is a probability sampling procedure in which every sampling unit has a known and equal chance of being selected.

Judgment

Quota

Cluster

Simple random

Convenience

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 140

Which one of the following is a nonprobability sample method?

Simple random sampling

Cluster sampling

Snowball sampling

Area sampling

Stratified random sampling

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 140

Which of the following is true of simple random sampling?

It produces unbiased estimates of the target population’s characteristics.

It has the benefit of obtaining a complete and accurate listing of the target population elements.

It is less costly when compared to systematic random sampling because it can be done quickly.

It requires that the defined target population be ordered in some way, usually in the form of a customer list, taxpayer roll, or membership roster.

Unlike systematic random sampling, it does not require the sampling units to be given any special code prior to drawing the sample.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 141

The difference between simple random sampling and systematic random sampling is that systematic random sampling:

A. is attributable to mistakes in either drawing a sample or determining the sample size.

requires that the defined target population be ordered in some way.

is a nonprobability sampling procedure.

has a known and equal chance of being selected.

is based on intuitive judgment or researcher knowledge.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 141

In a systematic sampling study, if the sampling frame has 1,500 names and the desired sample size is 50, the “skip interval” should be:

25.

0.03.

50.

30.

15.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 141

Which of the following is true of proportionately stratified sampling?

Each stratum is dependent on its size relative to the defined target population.

It is used when stratification of the target population produces sample sizes for subgroups that differ from their relative importance to the study.

The size of each stratum is independent of its relative size in the population.

The smaller strata are sampled more heavily because they make up a larger percentage of the target population.

Sampling units are divided into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive subpopulations called clusters.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 143

Before polling students in the School of Business, the researcher divides all the current students into groups based on their class standing (freshman, sophomores, etc.). Then, she randomly draws a sample of 50 students from each of these groups to create a representative sample of the entire student body in the school. Which of the following sampling methods is the researcher practicing?

Simple random sampling

Systematic random sampling

Stratified random sampling

Cluster sampling

Snowball sampling

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 143

The difference between stratified random sampling and cluster sampling is that in cluster sampling:

the researcher must be able to secure a complete listing of the potential sampling units that make up the defined target population.

a large number of respondents is interviewed in a relatively short time.

representativeness of the sample cannot be measured because sampling error estimates cannot be calculated.

the sampling units are divided into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive subpopulations.

the target population is separated into different groups.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 143

Which of the following is true of cluster sampling?

Each cluster is assumed to be representative of the homogeneity of the target population.

The prospective sampling units are selected for the sample using systematic random sampling.

Area sampling is a form of cluster sampling.

In practice, cluster sampling is difficult to implement.

Cluster sampling requires a substantially large budget.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 144

Which of the following is true of convenience sampling?

Using convenience samples to develop constructs and scales can be risky.

It is a time-consuming process when there are a large number of respondents.

It is commonly used in the later stages of research.

The representativeness of the sample can be measured because sampling error estimates are not calculated.

It is commonly used to generalize results to the target population.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 145

A college professor wants to know if students in U.S. colleges will find the new textbook that he has written to be useful and interesting. He decides to sample all marketing majors at the school he teaches. He believes that this group of students will be representative of the U.S. college student population. His method of sampling is most probably:

census sampling.

convenience sampling.

judgment sampling.

quota sampling.

cluster sampling.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Hard

Page: 145

A researcher does not have the resources or time to do a probability sample. She wants to do a convenience sample, but she also wants to make sure that all ethnicities are fairly represented in her sample. What kind of sampling would you recommend to her?

Judgment sampling

Quota sampling

Stratified sampling

Cluster sampling

Census sampling

Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 146

Which method of sampling relies on the assumption that rare groups of people tend to form their own unique social circles?

Judgment sampling

Quota sampling

Cluster sampling

Snowball sampling

Convenience sampling

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 146

When a market researcher asks if a project will be international, national, or regional in nature, the researcher is trying to determine:

time frame requirements.

degree of accuracy.

scope of the research.

availability of resources.

research objectives.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 147

Which of the following is true of probability sample sizes?

The more precise the required sample results, the larger the sample size.

The larger the desired error, the larger the sample size.

The shorter the variability in the data being estimated, the larger the sample size needed.

The lower the level of confidence desired, the larger the sample size needed.

The population standard deviation is a measure of the dispersion of the population and its square root is referred to as the population variance.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 147

If the estimated population standard deviation based on previous studies is 20 percent, and the acceptable error is plus or minus 5 percent, and the z-value for a 95 percent level of confidence is 1.96, the needed sample size is approximately:

48.

210.

62.

153.

196.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Hard

Page: 148

If the estimated population proportion is 30 percent based on previous studies, and the acceptable error is plus or minus 5 percent, and the z-value for a 95 percent level of confidence is 1.96, the needed sample size is approximately:

323.

187.

36.

212.

554.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Hard

Page: 148

If the estimate of expected population proportion having a desired characteristic based on intuition is 60 percent and the acceptable error is plus or minus 5 percent, and the z-value for a 95 percent level of confidence is 1.96, the needed sample size is approximately:

187

368

295

196

950

Answer: B

Difficulty: Hard

Page: 148

For a given level of precision and confidence level, a researcher determines that he needs a sample size of 400. The study was to find out that the proportion of people who smoke is 30 percent. For the same level of precision and confidence, he would have needed the same sample size if the proportion of those who smoked were to change to:

40 percent.

50 percent.

60 percent.

70 percent.

100 percent.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Hard

Page: 148

Which of the following statements is true of sample size formulas for nonprobability samples?

The sample size formula must be adjusted for confidence level before it can be used for nonprobability samples.

The sample size formula must be adjusted for error tolerance before it can be used for nonprobability samples.

The sample size formula must be adjusted for population variance before it can be used for nonprobability samples.

The sample size formula must be adjusted for confidence level and error tolerance before it can be used for nonprobability samples.

Sample size formulas cannot be used for nonprobability samples.

Answer: E

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 149

In which stage of the sampling plan will random-digit dialing probably be considered?

Selecting the data collection method

Defining the target population

Selecting the appropriate sampling method

Creating an operating plan for selecting sampling units

Identifying the sampling frame

Answer: E

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 151

True/False Questions

Conducting a census is less time-consuming and less costly than sampling.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 136

A population is an identifiable group of elements of interest to the researcher and pertinent to the information problem.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 137

A voters list is a common source of a sampling frame.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 138

The central limit theorem (CLT) is the theoretical backbone of survey research.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 138

A benefit associated with detecting sampling error is that it can be determined before the sample is drawn and data collection is completed.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 139

Nonsampling errors reduce the overall quality of the data regardless of the data collection method.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 140

Sampling errors are related to the accuracy of data whereas nonsampling errors relate to the representativeness of the sample to the defined target population.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 140

Systematic random sampling works better than simple random sampling especially in those situations where there might be a hidden pattern in population.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 141

Simple random sampling succeeds in obtaining a complete and accurate listing of the target population elements.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 141

When executed properly, systematic random sampling creates a sample of objects or prospective respondents that is very similar in quality to a sample drawn using simple random sampling.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 141

The skip interval in systematic random sampling is computed by dividing the number of potential sampling units on the list by the desired sample size.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 141

The primary difficulty encountered with stratified sampling is determining the basis for stratifying.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 143

Cluster sampling is an example of a nonprobability sampling method.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 143

In cluster sampling, each cluster is assumed to be representative of the heterogeneity of the target population.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 143

Any geographical unit with identifiable boundaries can be used in area sampling.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 144

Referral sampling involves identifying a set of respondents who can help the researcher identify additional people to include in the study.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 146

Since quota sampling is a nonprobability sampling method, the representativeness of the sample can be measured.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 146

Snowball sampling prohibits bias to enter the study.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 146

The lesser the variability in the data being estimated, the larger the sample size needed.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 147

In any sampling plan, the first task of the researcher is to choose a method of data collection.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 151

Essay Questions

List some of the steps a researcher can conduct once he understands the basics of the central limit theorem.

Answer: With an understanding of the basics of the central limit theorem, the researcher can do the following:

Draw representative samples from any target population.

Obtain sample statistics from a random sample that serve as accurate estimates of the target population’s parameters.

Draw one random sample, instead of many, reducing the costs of data collection.

More accurately assess the reliability and validity of constructs and scale measurements.

Statistically analyze data and transform it into meaningful information about the target population.

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 139

Distinguish between sampling error and nonsampling error.

Answer: Sampling error is any bias that results from mistakes in either the selection process for prospective sampling units or in determining the sample size. Moreover, random sampling error tends to occur because of chance variations in the selection of sampling units. Even if the sampling units are properly selected, those units still might not be a perfect representation of the defined target population, but they generally are reliable estimates.

Nonsampling error occurs regardless of whether a sample or a census is used. These errors can occur at any stage of the research process. In general, the more extensive a study, the greater the potential for nonsampling errors. Unlike sampling error, there are no statistical procedures to assess the impact of nonsampling errors on the quality of the data collected. Nonsampling errors usually are related to the accuracy of the data, whereas sampling errors relate to the representativeness of the sample to the defined target population.

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 139-140

List the advantages and disadvantages of simple random sampling.

Answer: Simple random sampling has several advantages. The technique is easily understood and the survey’s results can be generalized to the defined target population with a prespecified margin of error. Another advantage is that simple random samples produce unbiased estimates of the population’s characteristics. This method guarantees that every sampling unit has a known and equal chance of being selected, no matter the actual size of the sample, resulting in a valid representation of the defined target population.

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 141

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of quota sampling.

Answer: The greatest advantage of quota sampling is that the sample generated contains specific subgroups in proportions desired by the researcher. Use of quotas ensures that the appropriate subgroups are identified and included in the survey. Also, quota sampling reduces selection bias by field workers. An inherent limitation of quota sampling is that the success of the study is dependent on subjective decisions made by researchers. Since it is a nonprobability sampling method, the representativeness of the sample cannot be measured. Therefore, generalizing the results beyond the sampled respondents is questionable.

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 146

List the steps to be followed in developing a sampling plan.

Answer:

Step 1: Define the target population.

Step 2: Select the data collection method.

Step 3: Identify the sampling frames needed.

Step 4: Select the appropriate sampling method.

Step 5: Determine necessary sample sizes and overall contact rates.

Step 6: Create an operating plan for selecting sampling units.

Step 7: Execute the operational plan.

Difficulty: Medium

Essentials of Marketing Research (Irwin Marketing) 3rd Edition by Jr., Joseph Hair, Mary Celsi, Robert Bush Test Bank

Chapter 06

Sampling: Theory and Methods

Multiple Choice Questions

Sampling units are the:

target population elements available for selection during the sampling process.

identifiable groups of elements of interest to the researcher and pertinent to the information problem.

complete set of elements identified for investigation.

list of all population elements from which to draw a sample.

number of units accidentally left out of the sampling frame.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 137

Spectrum Inc., an automobile manufacturer, is interested in determining the satisfaction of the users of one of its brands, Credence. Instead of sampling the entire population of car owners, Spectrum Inc. samples those who owned a Credence. Spectrum is drawing its sample from a:

sampling unit.

defined target population.

designated sampling population.

subset relevant population.

full-set relevant population.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 137

Jamie Nelson works for a telephone company. She is interested in determining the satisfaction of people with the service provided by the company (for landline customers only). She decides to draw her sample from the telephone directory. For Jamie’s research, the telephone directory is serving as a(n):

sampling unit.

element chart.

sampling frame.

element.

census.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 138

The difference between probability sampling and nonprobability sampling is that in nonprobability sampling:

each sampling unit in the defined target population has a known probability of being selected for the sample.

observed differences in sample findings can be partially attributed to the existence of sampling errors.

the results can be generalized to the target population within a specified margin of error.

the researcher is able to judge the reliability and validity of data collected by calculating the probability.

sampling error is not known.

Answer: E

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 140

_____ sampling is a probability sampling procedure in which every sampling unit has a known and equal chance of being selected.

Judgment

Quota

Cluster

Simple random

Convenience

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 140

Which one of the following is a nonprobability sample method?

Simple random sampling

Cluster sampling

Snowball sampling

Area sampling

Stratified random sampling

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 140

Which of the following is true of simple random sampling?

It produces unbiased estimates of the target population’s characteristics.

It has the benefit of obtaining a complete and accurate listing of the target population elements.

It is less costly when compared to systematic random sampling because it can be done quickly.

It requires that the defined target population be ordered in some way, usually in the form of a customer list, taxpayer roll, or membership roster.

Unlike systematic random sampling, it does not require the sampling units to be given any special code prior to drawing the sample.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 141

The difference between simple random sampling and systematic random sampling is that systematic random sampling:

A. is attributable to mistakes in either drawing a sample or determining the sample size.

requires that the defined target population be ordered in some way.

is a nonprobability sampling procedure.

has a known and equal chance of being selected.

is based on intuitive judgment or researcher knowledge.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 141

In a systematic sampling study, if the sampling frame has 1,500 names and the desired sample size is 50, the “skip interval” should be:

25.

0.03.

50.

30.

15.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 141

Which of the following is true of proportionately stratified sampling?

Each stratum is dependent on its size relative to the defined target population.

It is used when stratification of the target population produces sample sizes for subgroups that differ from their relative importance to the study.

The size of each stratum is independent of its relative size in the population.

The smaller strata are sampled more heavily because they make up a larger percentage of the target population.

Sampling units are divided into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive subpopulations called clusters.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 143

Before polling students in the School of Business, the researcher divides all the current students into groups based on their class standing (freshman, sophomores, etc.). Then, she randomly draws a sample of 50 students from each of these groups to create a representative sample of the entire student body in the school. Which of the following sampling methods is the researcher practicing?

Simple random sampling

Systematic random sampling

Stratified random sampling

Cluster sampling

Snowball sampling

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 143

The difference between stratified random sampling and cluster sampling is that in cluster sampling:

the researcher must be able to secure a complete listing of the potential sampling units that make up the defined target population.

a large number of respondents is interviewed in a relatively short time.

representativeness of the sample cannot be measured because sampling error estimates cannot be calculated.

the sampling units are divided into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive subpopulations.

the target population is separated into different groups.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 143

Which of the following is true of cluster sampling?

Each cluster is assumed to be representative of the homogeneity of the target population.

The prospective sampling units are selected for the sample using systematic random sampling.

Area sampling is a form of cluster sampling.

In practice, cluster sampling is difficult to implement.

Cluster sampling requires a substantially large budget.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 144

Which of the following is true of convenience sampling?

Using convenience samples to develop constructs and scales can be risky.

It is a time-consuming process when there are a large number of respondents.

It is commonly used in the later stages of research.

The representativeness of the sample can be measured because sampling error estimates are not calculated.

It is commonly used to generalize results to the target population.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 145

A college professor wants to know if students in U.S. colleges will find the new textbook that he has written to be useful and interesting. He decides to sample all marketing majors at the school he teaches. He believes that this group of students will be representative of the U.S. college student population. His method of sampling is most probably:

census sampling.

convenience sampling.

judgment sampling.

quota sampling.

cluster sampling.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Hard

Page: 145

A researcher does not have the resources or time to do a probability sample. She wants to do a convenience sample, but she also wants to make sure that all ethnicities are fairly represented in her sample. What kind of sampling would you recommend to her?

Judgment sampling

Quota sampling

Stratified sampling

Cluster sampling

Census sampling

Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 146

Which method of sampling relies on the assumption that rare groups of people tend to form their own unique social circles?

Judgment sampling

Quota sampling

Cluster sampling

Snowball sampling

Convenience sampling

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 146

When a market researcher asks if a project will be international, national, or regional in nature, the researcher is trying to determine:

time frame requirements.

degree of accuracy.

scope of the research.

availability of resources.

research objectives.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 147

Which of the following is true of probability sample sizes?

The more precise the required sample results, the larger the sample size.

The larger the desired error, the larger the sample size.

The shorter the variability in the data being estimated, the larger the sample size needed.

The lower the level of confidence desired, the larger the sample size needed.

The population standard deviation is a measure of the dispersion of the population and its square root is referred to as the population variance.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 147

If the estimated population standard deviation based on previous studies is 20 percent, and the acceptable error is plus or minus 5 percent, and the z-value for a 95 percent level of confidence is 1.96, the needed sample size is approximately:

48.

210.

62.

153.

196.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Hard

Page: 148

If the estimated population proportion is 30 percent based on previous studies, and the acceptable error is plus or minus 5 percent, and the z-value for a 95 percent level of confidence is 1.96, the needed sample size is approximately:

323.

187.

36.

212.

554.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Hard

Page: 148

If the estimate of expected population proportion having a desired characteristic based on intuition is 60 percent and the acceptable error is plus or minus 5 percent, and the z-value for a 95 percent level of confidence is 1.96, the needed sample size is approximately:

187

368

295

196

950

Answer: B

Difficulty: Hard

Page: 148

For a given level of precision and confidence level, a researcher determines that he needs a sample size of 400. The study was to find out that the proportion of people who smoke is 30 percent. For the same level of precision and confidence, he would have needed the same sample size if the proportion of those who smoked were to change to:

40 percent.

50 percent.

60 percent.

70 percent.

100 percent.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Hard

Page: 148

Which of the following statements is true of sample size formulas for nonprobability samples?

The sample size formula must be adjusted for confidence level before it can be used for nonprobability samples.

The sample size formula must be adjusted for error tolerance before it can be used for nonprobability samples.

The sample size formula must be adjusted for population variance before it can be used for nonprobability samples.

The sample size formula must be adjusted for confidence level and error tolerance before it can be used for nonprobability samples.

Sample size formulas cannot be used for nonprobability samples.

Answer: E

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 149

In which stage of the sampling plan will random-digit dialing probably be considered?

Selecting the data collection method

Defining the target population

Selecting the appropriate sampling method

Creating an operating plan for selecting sampling units

Identifying the sampling frame

Answer: E

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 151

True/False Questions

Conducting a census is less time-consuming and less costly than sampling.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 136

A population is an identifiable group of elements of interest to the researcher and pertinent to the information problem.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 137

A voters list is a common source of a sampling frame.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 138

The central limit theorem (CLT) is the theoretical backbone of survey research.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 138

A benefit associated with detecting sampling error is that it can be determined before the sample is drawn and data collection is completed.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 139

Nonsampling errors reduce the overall quality of the data regardless of the data collection method.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 140

Sampling errors are related to the accuracy of data whereas nonsampling errors relate to the representativeness of the sample to the defined target population.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 140

Systematic random sampling works better than simple random sampling especially in those situations where there might be a hidden pattern in population.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 141

Simple random sampling succeeds in obtaining a complete and accurate listing of the target population elements.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 141

When executed properly, systematic random sampling creates a sample of objects or prospective respondents that is very similar in quality to a sample drawn using simple random sampling.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 141

The skip interval in systematic random sampling is computed by dividing the number of potential sampling units on the list by the desired sample size.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 141

The primary difficulty encountered with stratified sampling is determining the basis for stratifying.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 143

Cluster sampling is an example of a nonprobability sampling method.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 143

In cluster sampling, each cluster is assumed to be representative of the heterogeneity of the target population.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 143

Any geographical unit with identifiable boundaries can be used in area sampling.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 144

Referral sampling involves identifying a set of respondents who can help the researcher identify additional people to include in the study.

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 146

Since quota sampling is a nonprobability sampling method, the representativeness of the sample can be measured.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 146

Snowball sampling prohibits bias to enter the study.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 146

The lesser the variability in the data being estimated, the larger the sample size needed.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 147

In any sampling plan, the first task of the researcher is to choose a method of data collection.

Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 151

Essay Questions

List some of the steps a researcher can conduct once he understands the basics of the central limit theorem.

Answer: With an understanding of the basics of the central limit theorem, the researcher can do the following:

Draw representative samples from any target population.

Obtain sample statistics from a random sample that serve as accurate estimates of the target population’s parameters.

Draw one random sample, instead of many, reducing the costs of data collection.

More accurately assess the reliability and validity of constructs and scale measurements.

Statistically analyze data and transform it into meaningful information about the target population.

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 139

Distinguish between sampling error and nonsampling error.

Answer: Sampling error is any bias that results from mistakes in either the selection process for prospective sampling units or in determining the sample size. Moreover, random sampling error tends to occur because of chance variations in the selection of sampling units. Even if the sampling units are properly selected, those units still might not be a perfect representation of the defined target population, but they generally are reliable estimates.

Nonsampling error occurs regardless of whether a sample or a census is used. These errors can occur at any stage of the research process. In general, the more extensive a study, the greater the potential for nonsampling errors. Unlike sampling error, there are no statistical procedures to assess the impact of nonsampling errors on the quality of the data collected. Nonsampling errors usually are related to the accuracy of the data, whereas sampling errors relate to the representativeness of the sample to the defined target population.

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 139-140

List the advantages and disadvantages of simple random sampling.

Answer: Simple random sampling has several advantages. The technique is easily understood and the survey’s results can be generalized to the defined target population with a prespecified margin of error. Another advantage is that simple random samples produce unbiased estimates of the population’s characteristics. This method guarantees that every sampling unit has a known and equal chance of being selected, no matter the actual size of the sample, resulting in a valid representation of the defined target population.

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 141

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of quota sampling.

Answer: The greatest advantage of quota sampling is that the sample generated contains specific subgroups in proportions desired by the researcher. Use of quotas ensures that the appropriate subgroups are identified and included in the survey. Also, quota sampling reduces selection bias by field workers. An inherent limitation of quota sampling is that the success of the study is dependent on subjective decisions made by researchers. Since it is a nonprobability sampling method, the representativeness of the sample cannot be measured. Therefore, generalizing the results beyond the sampled respondents is questionable.

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 146

List the steps to be followed in developing a sampling plan.

Answer:

Step 1: Define the target population.

Step 2: Select the data collection method.

Step 3: Identify the sampling frames needed.

Step 4: Select the appropriate sampling method.

Step 5: Determine necessary sample sizes and overall contact rates.

Step 6: Create an operating plan for selecting sampling units.

Step 7: Execute the operational plan.

Difficulty: Medium

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