# Programming Assignment #4: Tries Solution

Abstract
In this programming assignment, you will gain experience with an
advanced tree data structure that is used to store strings, and which
allows for efficient insertion and lookup: a trie!
By completing this assignment and reflecting upon the awesomeness of
tries, you will fortify your knowledge of algorithms and data structures
and solidify your mastery of many C programming topics you have been
practicing all semester: dynamic memory allocation, file I/O, processing
command line arguments, dealing with structs and pointers to structs, and
so much more.
In the end, you will have implemented a tremendously useful data
structure that has many applications in text processing and corpus
linguistics.
Attachments
Trie.h, corpus{01-05}.txt, input{01-05}.txt, output{01-05}.txt, printTrie.txt
Deliverables
Trie.c
1. Overview: Tries
We have seen in class that the trie data structure can be used to store strings. It provides for efficient
string insertion and lookup; insertion into a trie is O(k) (where k is the length of the string being
inserted), and searching for a string is an O(k) operation (worst-case). In a trie, a node does not store
the string it represents; rather, the edges taken to reach that node from the root indicate the string it
represents. Each node contains a flag (or count) variable that indicates whether the string represented
by that node has been inserted into the trie (or how many times it has been inserted). For example:
Figure 1:
This is a trie that codifies the words “and,” “cherry,” “chocolate,” “like,”
and “pie.” The string “pie” is represented (or counted) twice. All other
strings are counted only once.
0
0 0 1 0 0
0
0
1
0
2
0
1
a
h
d
p
i
e
i l
i
k
e
c
0
n
0 0
e o
0 0
0 0
1 0
r
r
y
c
o
l
0
0
1
a
t
e
root
“pie” (2)
“like” (1)
“chocolate” (1)
“cherry” (1)
“and” (1)
1.1. TrieNode Struct (Trie.h)
In this assignment, you will insert words from a corpus (that is, a body of text from an input file) into a
trie. The struct you will use for your trie nodes is as follows:
typedef struct TrieNode
{
// number of times this string occurs in the corpus
int count;
// 26 TrieNode pointers, one for each letter of the alphabet
struct TrieNode *children[26];
// the co-occurrence subtrie for this string
struct TrieNode *subtrie;
} TrieNode;
You must use this trie node struct, which is specified in Trie.h without any modifications. You should
#include the header file from Trie.c like so:
#include "Trie.h"
Notice that the trie node, because it only has 26 children, represents strings in a case insensitive way
(i.e., “apple” and “AppLE” are treated the same in this trie).
1.2. Co-occurrence Subtries
Words that appear together in the same sentence are said to “co-occur.” Consider, for example, the
following sentence:
I like cherry pie and chocolate pie .
In the example sentence, the word “chocolate” co-occurs with the following terms (with counts in
parentheses): and (1), cherry (1), i (1), like (1), pie (2).
For the purposes of this assignment, we will never consider a word to co-occur with itself. So, in the
example sentence above, “pie” co-occurs with: and (1), cherry (1), chocolate (1), i (1), like (1). Notice
that “pie” itself is not in the list of words co-occurring with “pie.”
If we place these terms (and their associated counts) into their own tries, those tries will look like this:
Figure 2:
Co-occcurrence subtries for “chocolate” (left) and “pie” (right), based on
the sentence, “I like cherry pie and chocolate pie.”
In Figure 2, the trie on the left is what we will call the co-occurrence subtrie for the word “chocolate,”
based on the example sentence above (I like cherry pie and chocolate pie). Its root should be stored in
the subtrie pointer field of the node marked “chocolate” in the original trie diagram in Figure 1 (see
page 2 above).
Similarly, the trie on the right in Figure 2 is the co-occurrence subtrie for the word “pie.” Its root
should be stored in the subtrie pointer field of the node marked “pie” in the original trie diagram in
Figure 1 (see page 2, above).
Within these subtries, all subtrie pointers should be initialized to NULL, because we will NOT produce
sub-subtries in this assignment!
0
0 0 1 0 0
0
0
1
0
2
0
1
a
h
d
p
i
e
i l
i
k
e
c
0
n
0
e
0
0
1
r
r
y
root 0
0 0 1 0
0
0
1
0
1
a
h
d
i l
i
k
e
c
0
n
0
e
0
0
1
r
r
y
root
0
0
c
0
0
0
o
l
a
o
0
1
e
t
2. Input Files and Output Format
2.1. Command Line Arguments
Your program will take two command line arguments, specifying two files to be read at runtime:
./a.out corpus01.txt input01.txt
The first filename specifies a corpus that will be used to construct your trie and subtries. The second
filename specifies an input file with strings to be processed based on the contents of your trie.
For more information on processing command line arguments with argc and argv, see the instructions
from the Program #3 PDF. You can assume that I will always specify valid input files when I run your
program.
2.2. Corpus File
2.2.1 Format
The corpus file contains a series of sentences. Each line contains a single sentence with at least 1 word
and no more than 20 words. Each word contains fewer than 1024 characters. Each sentence is
terminated with a single period, and that period is always preceded by a space. For example:
corpus01.txt:
I like cherry pie and chocolate pie .
2.2.2 Building the Main Trie
First and foremost, each word from the corpus file should be inserted into your trie. If a word occurs
multiple times in the corpus, you should increment count variables accordingly. For example, the trie in
Figure 1 (see page 2, above) corresponds to the text given in the corpus01.txt file above.
2.2.3 Building Subtries
For each sentence in the corpus, update the co-occurrence subtrie for each word in that sentence. The
structure of the co-occurrence subtries is described above in Section 1.2, “Co-occurrence Subtries.”
If a string in the main trie does not co-occur with any other words, its subtrie pointer should be NULL.
2.3. Input File
The input file (the second filename specified as a command line argument) will contain any number of
lines of text. Each line will contain either a single word, or an exclamation point (!). If you encounter
an exclamation point, you should print the strings represented in your main trie in alphabetical order,
with the occurrence count in parentheses.
Otherwise, if you encounter a string, it will consist strictly of alphabetical characters. They may be
upper- or lowercase, but they will not contain punctuation, spaces, numbers, or any other nonalphabetical
characters. The string will contain fewer than 1024 characters. Process these strings as
follows:
– If the string you encounter is in the trie, you should print the string, followed by a printout of its
subtrie contents, using the output format shown below.
– If the string you encounter is in the trie, but its subtrie is empty, you should print that string,
followed on the next line by “(EMPTY)”.
– If the string you encounter is not in the trie at all, you should print that string, followed on the
next line by “(INVALID STRING)”.
For example, the following corpus and input files would produce the following output:
corpus01.txt:
I like cherry pie and chocolate pie .
input01.txt:
!
chocolaTE
apricot
program output:
and (1)
cherry (1)
chocolate (1)
i (1)
like (1)
pie (2)
chocolaTE
- and (1)
- cherry (1)
- i (1)
- like (1)
- pie (2)
apricot
(INVALID STRING)
For an example of what would cause an empty co-occurrence subtrie, consider the following input
files:
corpus02.txt:
spin straw to gold .
spin all night long .
spin spin spin .
spindle .
input02.txt:
spin
spindle
nikstlitslepmur
program output:
spin
- all (1)
- gold (1)
- long (1)
- night (1)
- straw (1)
- to (1)
spindle
(EMPTY)
nikstlitslepmur
(INVALID STRING)
You must follow the output format above precisely. Be sure to consult the included text files for further
examples.
I have included some functions that will help you print the contents of your trie(s) in the required
format, because I think those functions are a bit too tricky to expect you to write them on your own.
See printTrie.txt (attachment) for those functions. You’re welcome to copy and paste them into
your Trie.c source file if you want to use them!
2.4. Final Thoughts on Test Cases, Input, and Output
I have attached a few sample input and output files so you can check that your program is working as
intended. Be sure to use diff on Eustis to make sure your output matches ours exactly. I also
encourage you to develop your own test cases; ours are by no means comprehensive.
3. Function Requirements
3.1. Required Function
You have a lot of leeway with how to approach this assignment. Other than main(), there is only one
required function. How you structure the rest of your program is up to you.
TrieNode *buildTrie(char *filename);
Description: filename is the name of a corpus text file to process. Open the file and create a
trie (including all its appropriate subtries) as described above.
Returns: The root of the new trie.
3.2. Suggested Functions
These functions are not required, but I think they will simplify your task immensely if you implement
them properly and call them when processing your corpus/input files. Think of these function
descriptions as hints at how to proceed. If you want, you can even implement these functions with
different parameters, return types, and so on.
TrieNode *createTrieNode(void);
Description: Dynamically allocate space for a new TrieNode struct. Initialize all the struct
members appropriately.
Returns: A pointer to the new node.
TrieNode *getNode(TrieNode *root, char *str);
Description: Searches the trie for the specified string, str.
Returns: If the string is represented in the trie, return its terminal node (the last node in the
sequence, which represents that string). Otherwise, return NULL.
void insertString(TrieNode *root, char *str);
Description: Inserts the string str into the trie. Since it has no return value, it assumes the root
already exists (i.e., root is not NULL). If str is already represented in the trie, simply increment
its count member.
4. Compilation and Testing (Linux/Mac Command Line)
To compile at the command line:
gcc Trie.c
By default, this will produce an executable file called a.out that you can run by typing, e.g.:
./a.out corpus01.txt input01.txt
If you want to name the executable something else, use:
gcc Trie.c -o Trie.exe
...and then run the program using:
./Trie.exe corpus01.txt input01.txt
Running the program could potentially dump a lot of output to the screen. If you want to redirect your
output to a text file in Linux, it’s easy. Just run the program using the following:
./Trie.exe corpus01.txt input01.txt whatever.txt
This will create a file called whatever.txt that contains the output from your program.
Linux has a helpful command called diff for comparing the contents of two files, which is really
helpful here since we’ve provided sample output files. You can see whether your output matches ours
exactly by typing, e.g.:
diff whatever.txt output01.txt
If the contents of whatever.txt and output01.txt are exactly the same, diff won’t have any output.
It will just look like this:
[email protected]:~\$ diff whatever.txt output01.txt
[email protected]:~\$ _
If the files differ, it will spit out some information about the lines that aren’t the same. For example:
[email protected]:~\$ diff whatever.txt output01.txt
14c14
< INVALID STRING
---
(INVALID STRING)
[email protected]:~\$ _
5.1. Deliverables
Submit a single source file, named Trie.c, through [email protected] The source file should contain
definitions for the required function (listed above), as well as any auxiliary functions you decide to
implement. Don’t forget to #include "Trie.h" in your source code. We will compile your program
using:
gcc Trie.c
Be sure to include your name and PID as a comment at the top of your source file.
5.2. Additional Restrictions: Use Tries; Do Not Use Global Variables
You must use tries to receive credit for this assignment. Also, please do not use global variables in this
program. Doing so may result in a huge loss of points.
The expected scoring breakdown for this programming assignment is:
80% Correct Output for Test Cases
20% Unit Testing of buildTrie() Function
Your program must compile and run on Eustis to receive credit. Programs that do not compile