# Final Exam

1. The four steps of evidence-based practice include:

Evaluating the evidence

Defining the question

Integrating the evidence with a patient

Collecting evidence

Which of the following places these steps in the correct sequence?

A. Collecting, Evaluating, Integrating, Defining

B. Evaluation, Integrating, Defining, Collecting

C. Defining, Collecting, Evaluating, Integrating

D. Integrating, Defining, Collecting, Evaluating

A study was developed to determine if placement of the hospital bed in the rooms of stroke

patients improved their visual inattention (often called visual neglect or hemianopsia).

2. Which is the independent variable?

A. Placement of the hospital bed

B. Visual inattention

3. Which is the dependent variable?

A. Placement of the hospital bed

B. Visual inattention

For questions 4-8, use the following key to match the experimental research level of evidence

with the appropriate definition:

A. Level I

B. Level II

C. Level III

D. Level IV

E. Level V

4. A single subject serving as their own control.

5. Has one or more treatment groups and a control group, but subjects are not randomly

assigned to the study groups.

6. No control group and no randomization of subjects to the one or more treatment groups.

7. Compares one or more treatment groups with a control group that does not receive

treatment and the study subjects are randomly assigned to the study groups.

8. Reporting on a case example that has already occurred and there was no initial intent to

design a study.

9. What type of systematic review is represented by a meta-analysis?

A. Quantitative

B. Qualitative

For questions 10-12, use the following key to match the research design type with the definition:

A. Experimental

B. Exploratory

C. Descriptive

10. The systematic investigation of relationships among two or more variables.

11. Designed to document the factors that describe the characteristics, behaviors, and

conditions of individuals and groups.

12. A means of evaluating the cause-and-effect relationship between a set of independent and

dependent variables.

For questions 13-16, use the following key to match the terms with the definitions:

A. Cross-sectional research

B. Longitudinal research

C. Prospective research

D. Retrospective research

13. Variables are measured through direct recording in the present where the researcher

follows subjects as they progress through their treatment or evaluation.

14. The examination of data that have been collected in the past, often obtained from medical

records or databases.

15. The researcher follows a cohort of subjects over time, performing repeated measurements

at prescribed intervals.

16. The researcher studies a group of subjects at one point in time and draws conclusions

about a population by comparing the characteristics.

For questions 17-20, use the following key to match the given variable to the variable type:

A. Interval

B. Ratio

C. Nominal

D. Ordinal

17. Hand dominance

18. Blood pressure

19. Patient satisfaction

20. Temperature of treatment/surgical devices

Use these data to answer questions 21-28:

9, 13, 15, 16, 20, 17, 15, 14, 10, 15, 17, 13, 11, 12, 16

21. What is the mode?

22. What is the median?

23. What is the mean?

24. What is the range?

25. What is the standard deviation?

26. What is the coefficient of variation?

27. What would be the standardized score (z-score) for the subject in this data group with a

score of 11?

28. What is the 95% confidence interval (format the answer to give the exact range of the

confidence interval - e.g., 73.68-79.26)?

In a local hospital, data were collected regarding the number of persons employed within specific

health care professions with the following frequencies:

Nurse – 94

Social Worker – 5

Occupational Therapist – 10

Physical Therapist – 13

Speech Language Pathologist – 3

Represent these data in these three types of graphs/chart:

29. Bar Graph (what Excel calls a “column chart”)

30. Pie Chart

31. Line Graph

Construct these charts using Microsoft Excel and then copy/paste the completed charts into the

answer sheet.

Use the following key to answer questions 32-41:

A. Inter-Rater Reliability

B. Intra-Rater Reliability

C. Internal Validity

D. External Validity

E. Parametric Statistics

F. Nonparametric Statistics

G. Null Hypothesis

H. Alternative Hypothesis

I. Type I Error

J. Type II Error

32. The degree to which results of a study can be generalized to persons or settings outside

the experimental situation.

33. A statement of no difference or no relationship between variables.

34. Most often used when the data measured are on the nominal or ordinal scales.

35. The degree to which two or more raters can obtain the same ratings for a given variable.

36. An incorrect decision to accept the null hypothesis, concluding that no relationship exists

when in fact it does.

37. A statement of an expected relationship between variables.

38. The degree to which the relationship between the independent and dependent variables is

free from the effects of extraneous factors.

39. The degree to which one rater can obtain the same rating on multiple occasions of

measuring the same variable.

40. Most often used when the data measured are on the ratio or interval scales.

41. An incorrect decision to reject the null hypothesis, concluding that a relationship exists

when in fact it does not.

42. A study examined whether male or female students worked more hours in a job while in

college. There were 10 males and 10 females in the study. The mean work time for

males per week was 15.1. The mean work time for females per week was 13.5. The

standard deviation for work time per week across both males and females was 2.31.

Calculate the Cohen’s d effect size for this study.

43. Using the following table, what would be the suggested sample size needed for .80 power

when Cohen’s d is .35?

44. This line graph represents the intervention phase of a single subject study with the splitmiddle line from the baseline data. Using the table provided, what is the two-tailed probability of the binomial test?

For the remainder of the exam, there are seven “problems” requiring the use of statistical

tests to analyze the results. The following tests are used for these seven problems:

Chi Square (used twice)

Dependent and Independent t Tests (each used once)

Mann-Whitney U (used once)

Wilcoxon Signed Ranks (used once)

One-Way ANOVA (used once)

Pearson r (used once)

In a recent survey, 20 health care professionals were asked to judge the average time it takes

them to complete documentation in the medical record for an evaluation vs. a treatment session.

They were asked to rate each using the following scale:

1. 1-15 minutes

2. 16-30 minutes

3. 31-45 minutes

4. 46-60 minutes

5. More than 60 minutes

Results:

Subject Evaluation Treatment

1 3 2

2 4 2

3 4 3

4 5 4

5 5 3

6 2 3

7 2 1

8 3 2

9 3 4

10 4 4

11 5 3

12 4 4

13 4 3

14 4 2

15 3 2

16 4 4

17 3 3

18 3 2

19 2 1

20 2 2

45. Which statistical test would you use?

46. What is the p value?

47. Is there a statistical difference between documentation time for an evaluation vs. a

treatment? (Yes or No)

In a recent survey, health care professionals were asked whether they work primarily with

children, adults, or geriatric patients with the following results: 30% children, 40% adults, and

30% geriatric. National statistics note the averages as follows: 22% children, 45% adult, and

33% geriatrics.

48. Which statistical test would you use?

49. What is the p value?

50. Is there a statistical difference between the survey participants and national averages?

(Yes or No)

Over the past two years, two other groups have taken this course. Major changes in how the

course is taught occurred between teaching these two groups. Final course scores for each group

were as follows:

Group A Group B

97 90

88 88

89 85

92 91

95 78

89 90

76 82

87 79

91 83

80 81

85 81

74

51. Which statistical test would you use?

52. What is the p value?

53. Is there a statistical difference between the two groups? (Yes or No)

Health care professionals working full time in the Green Bay and Milwaukee areas were

surveyed regarding their income. They were asked to respond to a question using the following

scale for salary:

1. Less than $30,000

2. $30,000-$39,999

3. $40,000-$49,999

4. $50,000-$59,999

5. $60,000 or more

Results:

Green Bay Milwaukee

3 4

2 2

1 3

2 4

3 3

3 5

5 4

1 3

2 2

3 4

4 5

3 5

3 3

3 4

1

54. Which statistical test would you use?

55. What is the p value?

56. Is there a statistical difference between Green Bay and Milwaukee area salaries? (Yes or

No)

Is there a significant difference between the number of males vs. females in a group if we expect

equal numbers of each and there are 13 males and 37 females?

57. Which statistical test would you use?

58. What is the p value?

59. Is there a statistical difference? (Yes or No)

In a recent study, height and weight measurements were taken on 17 male subjects with the

following data collected:

Subject Height (inches) Weight (pounds)

1 72 176

2 62 155

3 74 187

4 68 162

5 69 164

6 75 190

7 69 165

8 65 154

9 67 159

10 72 183

11 76 194

12 70 169

13 69 165

14 64 154

15 73 181

16 68 161

17 74 190

We would like to determine if height and weight are correlated.

60. Which statistical test would you use?

61. What is the r value?

62. What is the regression equation?

A group of 27 patients had limited hand grip strength due to lateral epicondylitis. They were

randomly assigned in equal numbers to three different treatment groups: Icing, Hot Packs, and

Massage. After a two-week period of treatment, the following increases in grip strength were

recorded:

Icing Group Hot Pack Group Massage Group

22 27 18

37 27 22

34 35 25

28 36 22

27 27 22

30 30 21

29 28 20

32 28 19

31 33 24

63. Which statistical test would you use?

64. What is the p value?

65. Is there a statistical difference between the means of these 3 groups? (Yes or No)

Due to feedback received half way through a class, the instructor made significant changes in

how the course material was offered. Therefore, he wants to know if there was a difference in

scores obtained on the mid-semester and final exams. The following results were obtained from

the 12 students in the class:

Student Mid-Semester Exam Score Final Exam Score

1 90 86

2 93 95

3 84 87

4 78 82

5 96 91

6 92 88

7 87 90

8 85 85

9 95 96

10 90 95

11 86 88

12 90 88

66. Which statistical test would you use?

67. What is the p value?

68. Is there a statistical difference between the mid-semester and final exam scores? (Yes or

Evaluating the evidence

Defining the question

Integrating the evidence with a patient

Collecting evidence

Which of the following places these steps in the correct sequence?

A. Collecting, Evaluating, Integrating, Defining

B. Evaluation, Integrating, Defining, Collecting

C. Defining, Collecting, Evaluating, Integrating

D. Integrating, Defining, Collecting, Evaluating

A study was developed to determine if placement of the hospital bed in the rooms of stroke

patients improved their visual inattention (often called visual neglect or hemianopsia).

2. Which is the independent variable?

A. Placement of the hospital bed

B. Visual inattention

3. Which is the dependent variable?

A. Placement of the hospital bed

B. Visual inattention

For questions 4-8, use the following key to match the experimental research level of evidence

with the appropriate definition:

A. Level I

B. Level II

C. Level III

D. Level IV

E. Level V

4. A single subject serving as their own control.

5. Has one or more treatment groups and a control group, but subjects are not randomly

assigned to the study groups.

6. No control group and no randomization of subjects to the one or more treatment groups.

7. Compares one or more treatment groups with a control group that does not receive

treatment and the study subjects are randomly assigned to the study groups.

8. Reporting on a case example that has already occurred and there was no initial intent to

design a study.

9. What type of systematic review is represented by a meta-analysis?

A. Quantitative

B. Qualitative

For questions 10-12, use the following key to match the research design type with the definition:

A. Experimental

B. Exploratory

C. Descriptive

10. The systematic investigation of relationships among two or more variables.

11. Designed to document the factors that describe the characteristics, behaviors, and

conditions of individuals and groups.

12. A means of evaluating the cause-and-effect relationship between a set of independent and

dependent variables.

For questions 13-16, use the following key to match the terms with the definitions:

A. Cross-sectional research

B. Longitudinal research

C. Prospective research

D. Retrospective research

13. Variables are measured through direct recording in the present where the researcher

follows subjects as they progress through their treatment or evaluation.

14. The examination of data that have been collected in the past, often obtained from medical

records or databases.

15. The researcher follows a cohort of subjects over time, performing repeated measurements

at prescribed intervals.

16. The researcher studies a group of subjects at one point in time and draws conclusions

about a population by comparing the characteristics.

For questions 17-20, use the following key to match the given variable to the variable type:

A. Interval

B. Ratio

C. Nominal

D. Ordinal

17. Hand dominance

18. Blood pressure

19. Patient satisfaction

20. Temperature of treatment/surgical devices

Use these data to answer questions 21-28:

9, 13, 15, 16, 20, 17, 15, 14, 10, 15, 17, 13, 11, 12, 16

21. What is the mode?

22. What is the median?

23. What is the mean?

24. What is the range?

25. What is the standard deviation?

26. What is the coefficient of variation?

27. What would be the standardized score (z-score) for the subject in this data group with a

score of 11?

28. What is the 95% confidence interval (format the answer to give the exact range of the

confidence interval - e.g., 73.68-79.26)?

In a local hospital, data were collected regarding the number of persons employed within specific

health care professions with the following frequencies:

Nurse – 94

Social Worker – 5

Occupational Therapist – 10

Physical Therapist – 13

Speech Language Pathologist – 3

Represent these data in these three types of graphs/chart:

29. Bar Graph (what Excel calls a “column chart”)

30. Pie Chart

31. Line Graph

Construct these charts using Microsoft Excel and then copy/paste the completed charts into the

answer sheet.

Use the following key to answer questions 32-41:

A. Inter-Rater Reliability

B. Intra-Rater Reliability

C. Internal Validity

D. External Validity

E. Parametric Statistics

F. Nonparametric Statistics

G. Null Hypothesis

H. Alternative Hypothesis

I. Type I Error

J. Type II Error

32. The degree to which results of a study can be generalized to persons or settings outside

the experimental situation.

33. A statement of no difference or no relationship between variables.

34. Most often used when the data measured are on the nominal or ordinal scales.

35. The degree to which two or more raters can obtain the same ratings for a given variable.

36. An incorrect decision to accept the null hypothesis, concluding that no relationship exists

when in fact it does.

37. A statement of an expected relationship between variables.

38. The degree to which the relationship between the independent and dependent variables is

free from the effects of extraneous factors.

39. The degree to which one rater can obtain the same rating on multiple occasions of

measuring the same variable.

40. Most often used when the data measured are on the ratio or interval scales.

41. An incorrect decision to reject the null hypothesis, concluding that a relationship exists

when in fact it does not.

42. A study examined whether male or female students worked more hours in a job while in

college. There were 10 males and 10 females in the study. The mean work time for

males per week was 15.1. The mean work time for females per week was 13.5. The

standard deviation for work time per week across both males and females was 2.31.

Calculate the Cohen’s d effect size for this study.

43. Using the following table, what would be the suggested sample size needed for .80 power

when Cohen’s d is .35?

44. This line graph represents the intervention phase of a single subject study with the splitmiddle line from the baseline data. Using the table provided, what is the two-tailed probability of the binomial test?

For the remainder of the exam, there are seven “problems” requiring the use of statistical

tests to analyze the results. The following tests are used for these seven problems:

Chi Square (used twice)

Dependent and Independent t Tests (each used once)

Mann-Whitney U (used once)

Wilcoxon Signed Ranks (used once)

One-Way ANOVA (used once)

Pearson r (used once)

In a recent survey, 20 health care professionals were asked to judge the average time it takes

them to complete documentation in the medical record for an evaluation vs. a treatment session.

They were asked to rate each using the following scale:

1. 1-15 minutes

2. 16-30 minutes

3. 31-45 minutes

4. 46-60 minutes

5. More than 60 minutes

Results:

Subject Evaluation Treatment

1 3 2

2 4 2

3 4 3

4 5 4

5 5 3

6 2 3

7 2 1

8 3 2

9 3 4

10 4 4

11 5 3

12 4 4

13 4 3

14 4 2

15 3 2

16 4 4

17 3 3

18 3 2

19 2 1

20 2 2

45. Which statistical test would you use?

46. What is the p value?

47. Is there a statistical difference between documentation time for an evaluation vs. a

treatment? (Yes or No)

In a recent survey, health care professionals were asked whether they work primarily with

children, adults, or geriatric patients with the following results: 30% children, 40% adults, and

30% geriatric. National statistics note the averages as follows: 22% children, 45% adult, and

33% geriatrics.

48. Which statistical test would you use?

49. What is the p value?

50. Is there a statistical difference between the survey participants and national averages?

(Yes or No)

Over the past two years, two other groups have taken this course. Major changes in how the

course is taught occurred between teaching these two groups. Final course scores for each group

were as follows:

Group A Group B

97 90

88 88

89 85

92 91

95 78

89 90

76 82

87 79

91 83

80 81

85 81

74

51. Which statistical test would you use?

52. What is the p value?

53. Is there a statistical difference between the two groups? (Yes or No)

Health care professionals working full time in the Green Bay and Milwaukee areas were

surveyed regarding their income. They were asked to respond to a question using the following

scale for salary:

1. Less than $30,000

2. $30,000-$39,999

3. $40,000-$49,999

4. $50,000-$59,999

5. $60,000 or more

Results:

Green Bay Milwaukee

3 4

2 2

1 3

2 4

3 3

3 5

5 4

1 3

2 2

3 4

4 5

3 5

3 3

3 4

1

54. Which statistical test would you use?

55. What is the p value?

56. Is there a statistical difference between Green Bay and Milwaukee area salaries? (Yes or

No)

Is there a significant difference between the number of males vs. females in a group if we expect

equal numbers of each and there are 13 males and 37 females?

57. Which statistical test would you use?

58. What is the p value?

59. Is there a statistical difference? (Yes or No)

In a recent study, height and weight measurements were taken on 17 male subjects with the

following data collected:

Subject Height (inches) Weight (pounds)

1 72 176

2 62 155

3 74 187

4 68 162

5 69 164

6 75 190

7 69 165

8 65 154

9 67 159

10 72 183

11 76 194

12 70 169

13 69 165

14 64 154

15 73 181

16 68 161

17 74 190

We would like to determine if height and weight are correlated.

60. Which statistical test would you use?

61. What is the r value?

62. What is the regression equation?

A group of 27 patients had limited hand grip strength due to lateral epicondylitis. They were

randomly assigned in equal numbers to three different treatment groups: Icing, Hot Packs, and

Massage. After a two-week period of treatment, the following increases in grip strength were

recorded:

Icing Group Hot Pack Group Massage Group

22 27 18

37 27 22

34 35 25

28 36 22

27 27 22

30 30 21

29 28 20

32 28 19

31 33 24

63. Which statistical test would you use?

64. What is the p value?

65. Is there a statistical difference between the means of these 3 groups? (Yes or No)

Due to feedback received half way through a class, the instructor made significant changes in

how the course material was offered. Therefore, he wants to know if there was a difference in

scores obtained on the mid-semester and final exams. The following results were obtained from

the 12 students in the class:

Student Mid-Semester Exam Score Final Exam Score

1 90 86

2 93 95

3 84 87

4 78 82

5 96 91

6 92 88

7 87 90

8 85 85

9 95 96

10 90 95

11 86 88

12 90 88

66. Which statistical test would you use?

67. What is the p value?

68. Is there a statistical difference between the mid-semester and final exam scores? (Yes or

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