# RES 341 Complete Class

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Should an organization create research testing for all problems confronting the business? Why or why not?

Describe the null and alternate hypotheses. Why do the null and alternate have to be mutually exclusive?

XYZ Corp. is seeking a Widget machine that is faster than their current machines. Currently, their machine makes 100 widgets per hour. XYZ is going to test any new machines before purchasing.Write the null and alternate hypotheses for the tests. Write the null and alternate in both the standard verbal format and the scientific notation format described in your text readings.Should a company be pro-active or reactive in the use of research methodologies? Why or Why Not? Give examples that you have seen where a company should have been pro-active or reactive.What is an example of a hypothesis that you have used in your personal and/or professional life? Please state what the hypothesis is, how you utilized it and what the outcome of the situation was?

What are the advantages of secondary data sources? What are some of the disadvantages?Discuss the differences between quantitative and qualitative data? What are some examples of each?Discuss the differences between primary and secondary data? Give examples of each.What types of ethical issues arise when an organization conducts research?Why should you question the motivation of the sources of secondary research? Does the motivation affect the results?Discuss the use of loaded questions in survey design. What is an example of a loaded question?What are real-world examples of a sample and a population? Compare and contrast probability sampling with non-probability sampling, providing an example of each.Describe the data scales best suited for presentation in a pie chart. How effective are the pie charts that often accompany a newspaper article in explaining the statistics used in the article? Where could a Pareto chart be used within your company?Does all data have a mean, median, or mode? Why or why not? When is the mean the best measure of central tendency? When is the median the best measure of central tendency?

**RES 341 Complete Class**/**RES 341 Research and Evaluation I****Week 1:****Res 341 Individual Assignment: Current Business Research Project Paper**- Use the University Library or the Electronic Reserve Readings to locate a peer-reviewed article that reports original research.

• Search “major databases (e.g. – ProQuest)” in the Online Collection, and use the key search words, “research studies in” to obtain an article. You can select communication, finance, economics, marketing, technology, or another faculty approved topic for the research study.

• Write a 350- to 700-word synopsis of the article, including the following:

• Define the business research and its purpose.• Explain the business problems under investigation.• Describe the data collection methods used in the research project.• What did the researchers conclude as a result of their research?

**Discussion Questions**How do statistics relate to research?Should an organization create research testing for all problems confronting the business? Why or why not?

Describe the null and alternate hypotheses. Why do the null and alternate have to be mutually exclusive?

XYZ Corp. is seeking a Widget machine that is faster than their current machines. Currently, their machine makes 100 widgets per hour. XYZ is going to test any new machines before purchasing.Write the null and alternate hypotheses for the tests. Write the null and alternate in both the standard verbal format and the scientific notation format described in your text readings.Should a company be pro-active or reactive in the use of research methodologies? Why or Why Not? Give examples that you have seen where a company should have been pro-active or reactive.What is an example of a hypothesis that you have used in your personal and/or professional life? Please state what the hypothesis is, how you utilized it and what the outcome of the situation was?

**Week 2:****Res 341 Individual Assignment: Research Terminology Matching Assignment**- Resource: Research Terminology Matching Assignment• Complete the Research Terminology Matching Assignment located on your student website.

**Res 341 Learning Team Assignment: Research Process Paper**- Resources: Data sets available on your student website

• Identify a research issue, opportunity, or problem from one of the data sets available on your student website. The data should consist of at least 30 or more observations of ratio or interval scale data from one of the provided data sets. This issue or problem will serve as the basis for this and subsequent Learning Team assignments, so be sure to obtain instructor approval before completing your Research Process Paper.

• Prepare a 1,050- to 1,750-word paper describing your selected research issue or problem.

• Include a definition of your selection using quantifiable measures.

• Include the following steps of the business research process that must follow for addressing or finding a solution to your selected issue or problem:

o Purpose of the research

• Describe the research problem.• Explain why the research problem is important.

o Problem definition

• Explain what question you are answering by your research.

o Research hypothesis

• Explain three possible outcomes that may result from this research.• Define operational definitions for each variable.

o Identify the variables to be tested.o Define the level of measurement for each variable.o Define the measurement scale for each variable.

• Discuss briefly the remaining steps in the research process you will follow to complete your final project in Week Four.

**Discussion Questions**What are the advantages of secondary data sources? What are some of the disadvantages?Discuss the differences between quantitative and qualitative data? What are some examples of each?Discuss the differences between primary and secondary data? Give examples of each.What types of ethical issues arise when an organization conducts research?Why should you question the motivation of the sources of secondary research? Does the motivation affect the results?Discuss the use of loaded questions in survey design. What is an example of a loaded question?What are real-world examples of a sample and a population? Compare and contrast probability sampling with non-probability sampling, providing an example of each.Describe the data scales best suited for presentation in a pie chart. How effective are the pie charts that often accompany a newspaper article in explaining the statistics used in the article? Where could a Pareto chart be used within your company?Does all data have a mean, median, or mode? Why or why not? When is the mean the best measure of central tendency? When is the median the best measure of central tendency?

**Week 3:****Res 341 Individual Assignment: Survey Paper**- Develop a problem statement using the business problem selected in Week Two, which can be addressed with survey research.

• Write a 10- to 13-question survey to collect primary data regarding your selected problem statement. You will not administer this survey as part of this assignment.

• Include a mixture of categorical (nominal and ordinal) and quantitative (interval and ratio) variables in your survey questions.

• Write a 700- to 1,050-word analysis of your survey. In your analysis, include the following:

• Explain how the proposed survey addresses your problem statement.• Determine if your survey questions are appropriate for researching your business problem, and explain why they are.• Identify the level of measurement being used for each of your survey questions.• Explain which ethical implications must be considered when developing survey questions.

• Attach your survey as an appendix to your survey paper. Do not use a survey written by someone other than you. The purpose of this assignment is to evaluate your ability to draft survey questions.

**Res 341 Individual Assignment: Statistical Symbols and Definitions Matching Assignment**- Resources: Statistical Symbols and Definitions Matching Assignment• Complete the Statistical Symbols and Definitions Matching Assignment located on your student website.

**Res 341 Learning Team Assignment: Data Collection Paper**- Resource: Week Two paper, the Internet, the University Library, Electronic Reserve Readings, and other resources• Locate at least four peer-reviewed, scholarly research articles that are relevant to your research topic.• Write a 1,050- to 1,750-word paper in which you include an edited version of last week’s Learning Team paper and the following components of the research process:

o Review of literature

• Summarize the peer-reviewed articles.• Describe how the articles apply to your research topic.

o Sampling design

• Define the population from which your samples came.• Was the sample size appropriate for this research topic? Explain.• Identify the possible sources of bias or error that could occur when sampling (validity and reliability).

o Data collection

• Display your data in both tabular and graphical formats.Identify some primary data collection methods that could be used to collect data.

• Discuss any possible ethical concerns regarding the collection of data.

**Discussion Questions**Define and discuss discrete and continuous data. What are some differences between discrete and continuous data?Define and discuss the Pareto chart. Where/How would a Pareto chart be used in your company?Can discrete data be analyzed using a normal distribution? Why or why not?Define and discuss Bayes’s Theorem?State the General Law of Addition of Probabilities. Demonstrate the use of the General Law of Addition of Probabilities with an example from your work or life.State the General Law of Multiplication of Probabilities. Demonstrate the General Law of Multiplication of Probabilities using an example from your life or work.What type of graphical representation can be used with continuous data? What type of graphical representation can be used with discrete data?What are some differences between discrete and continuous data?Is the measurement of money continuous or discrete? Explain.Can discrete data be analyzed using a normal distribution? Why or why not?What are some differences between discrete and continuous data? Can discrete data be analyzed using a normal distribution? Why or why not?Is the measurement of money continuous or discrete? Explain.Can discrete data be analyzed using a normal distribution? Why or why not?**Week 4:****Res 341 Individual Assignment: Exercises From the E-Text**- Resource: Applied Statistics in Business and Economics• Prepare answers to the following exercises from Applied Statistics in Business and Economics:

• Chapter 5: Exercises 5.62 and 5.70

Note. Methods of computation could include the usage of Microsoft® Excel®, SPSS, Lotus, SAS®, Minitab®, or by hand computation.

**Res 341 Learning Team Assignment: Descriptive Statistics Paper**- Write and submit a 1,050-1,750-word paper, adding to your Week Three paper, examining the data you have collected and drawing conclusions based on your findings.

• Include the following:

o Data analysis using descriptive statistics

• Calculate the measures of central tendency, dispersion, and skew for your data.• Display your descriptive statistical data using graphic and tabular techniques.

o Frequency distributiono Histogram

• Based on your skew value and histogram, discuss the best measures of central tendency and dispersion of your data. Justify your selection.

o Conclusions

• Discuss whether your research findings answered your problem statement—the research question—or if more research might be necessary.

**Discussion Questions**Why is the population shape a concern when estimating a mean? What effect does sample size, n, have on the estimate of the mean?Is it possible to normalize the data when the population shape has a known skew?Define and discuss confidence intervals. Why are estimations and confidence intervals important? How can you use confidence intervals to establish statistical significance and/or lack of statistical significance?How does the student’s t distribution compare to the normal z distribution? When do you use the student’s t-test and when do you use the Z-test?How can organizations be encouraged to adopt higher ethical standards?In your opinion, who or what entity should be responsible for encouraging and maintaining higher standards?A stakeholder is an individuals or groups who have a stake in what the organization does or how it performs. A stakeholder profits or losses from the actions that a company makes. Ch. 8 of Managing Business Ethics (Trevino & Nelson, 2007) separates stakeholders into four major stakeholder groups. How do you define stakeholders?**Week 5:****Res 341 Individual Assignment: Exercises From the E-Text**- Resources: Ch. 8 Applied Statistics in Business and Economics• Prepare answers to the following exercises in Ch. 8 of Applied Statistics in Business and Economics:

• Chapter Review questions 5 and 6• Chapter Exercises 8.46 and 8.62

Note. Methods of computation could include the usage of Microsoft® Excel®, SPSS, Lotus, SAS®, Minitab®, or by hand computation.

**Res 341 Individual Assignment: Using Probability Distribution in Research Simulation**- Resource: Using Probability Distribution in Research simulation

• Complete the Using Probability Distribution in Research simulation located on your student website. During the third cycle of the simulation, you need to make a decision about buying machinery. The stakeholders in the simulation have different opinions as to the proper course of action the organization should take.

• Write a 350-word memo to the stakeholders in the simulation.

• Explain the decisions you made in the third cycle of the simulation.

• State the reasons for your decision and include an explanation of why you did not follow the recommendations of the stakeholders.

**Res 341 Learning Team Assignment: Final Conclusions Memo**- Compute the confidence intervals of your data from the Week 4 Learning Team paper. • Based on your confidence intervals, determine if you would change the conclusions given in your Week 4 Learning Team paper. • Write a 350- to 700-word memo in which you discuss the confidence intervals and how they affect your business decision.

**Res 341 Learning Team Assignment: Final Research Project Presentation**- Prepare 8-10 Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides with speaker notes, illustrating your Research Project. Your presentation should include any final edits to the Week 4 Learning Team paper and the following items:

• Purpose of the research• Research question• Research hypothesis, developed from the research question• Review of literature• Sampling design• Data collection• Data analysis using descriptive statistics• Conclusions

• Confidence intervals• Final recommendations based on your findings

**Discussion Questions**What is a control chart?What are the grand mean, the UCL, and the LCL of a control chart for the mean?Why do you suppose ±3 standard errors are used in control charts and not two or even one standard error? Explain.A significance test is used to prevent a machine from under filling or overfilling quart bottles. On the basis of a sample, the null hypothesis is rejected and the machine is shut down for inspection. A thorough examination reveals that there is nothing wrong with the filling machine. From a statistical standpoint, was there a type error made? If yes, which type? Explain.Suppose that you perform a significance test regarding a population mean and that the evidence does not warrant rejection of the null hypothesis. When formulating the conclusion to the test, why is the phrase fail to reject the null hypothesis more accurate than the phrase accept the null hypothesis? Why can the null hypothesis not be proved? Explain.
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