Expert Answer - Four year old Georgia

1. Four year old Georgia is a child with special needs about to enter preschool. Together with her family, a team of multidisciplinary specialists is working on a plan that identifies appropriate and meaningful goals and objectives for Georgia and her family. This plan is called a(n) 
A. family-school interface plan. 
B. individualized education plan. 
C. individualized family service plan. 
D. family-school disabilities plan for educational activities. 
2. Whose contribution to child development includes the identification of the physical milestones? 
A. Arnold Gesell 
B. Abraham Maslow 
C. Jean Piaget 
D. B. F. Skinner 
3. According to the text, the two key elements in keeping children safe are 
A. self-reflection and a safe environment. 
B. supervision and a safe environment. 
C. observation and supervision. 
D. redirection and dual focus. 
4. The current approach to tantrums in early childhood education includes three of the following. Which is not included? 
A. Prevention of tantrums by paying attention to children's stress and frustration levels 
B. Encouraging the expression of feelings, but not through tantrums 
C. Keeping a child safe during a tantrum 
D. Not making a big fuss over tantrums to avoid rewarding them 
5. What is the first step in developing an emergent curriculum? 
A. Identifying the children's zone of proximal development 
B. Making a lesson plan 
C. Finding out what children are interested in as individuals and as a group 
D. Preparing a plan for assessment 

6. Which of the following statements about behavioral expectations for children at different ages and stages is false? 
A. When school-age children are argumentative, it's a signal that they lack socialization. 
B. Two-year-old children are naturally defiant as they struggle to experience their own autonomy. 
C. Because they're still learning to distinguish fantasy from reality, three-year-old children often tell untruths. 
D. When four-year-old children steal items, it may reflect that they're in an early stage of moral development. 
7. Regarding brain development, which of the following statements is false? 
A. Social and emotional development are intimately connected to learning and cognition. 
B. Babies are born with many more brain cells than they actually need, so unused connections are eliminated through a pruning process. 
C. Using flashcards with infants is a developmentally appropriate practice. 
D. Scientific research on the brain is proving the idea that the early years matter. 
8. The class of three-year-olds at Ms. Cherry's Preschool is getting ready to take a field trip to a local supermarket. While the two teachers are preparing the van, which of the following is the best strategy for the student teacher to take while supervising the children? 
A. Allow the children to play in the classroom, while keeping a watchful eye, ready to intervene as necessary. 
B. Have the children sit in circle time and report what they did over the weekend. 
C. Put on a puppet show for the children. 
D. Stand the children in line, going over the safety rules and regulations for field trips. 
9. Early childhood education is a branch of education that deals with children from 
A. birth to age twelve. 
B. preschool age to age eight. 
C. birth to age eight. 
D. preschool age to age twelve. 
10. Which of the following is a true statement about the adult's role as teacher in children's play? 
A. Helping children learn how to play is a teacher's secondary goal; it can be accomplished only when there's enough time and developmentally appropriate resources are available. 
B. Because children know how to play on their own, teachers need to provide only a rich environment in which children can explore. 
C. In teaching a child to play, the basic goals are to get the child to begin to play with one or more children and to provide the skills to keep on playing. 
D. Very young children can be taught the social skills necessary for play: sharing, turn taking, and empathy. 
11. Which of the following statements about supervision skills for beginning early childhood professionals is 

A. Because they mostly work by themselves, family child care professionals tend to become experts at the dual-focus technique. 
B. Early childhood beginners tend to focus their supervision too broadly or too narrowly. 
C. The development of dual focus is the secret to effective supervision. 
D. Dual focus is best learned by practice in the college classroom, not through experience on the job. 

12. The author of your text refers to the unwritten curriculum. What is she referencing? 
A. The lesson plans made by the teacher before the formal classroom time 
B. The lesson plans teachers make on the fly, responding to changes in the classroom environment 
C. The interface between adult and children, where the greatest learning takes place 
D. Plans for addressing each child as a whole child 
13. Francesca is working on her early childhood education degree. As part of her degree requirements, 
she'll observe a first-grade classroom for three different periods. As an observer, Francesca should do all 
but one of the following. Which should she not do? 
A. Write down what she sees during the observation without trying to determine the children's or teacher's motives. 
B. Pay attention to her inner responses and reactions to the observations. 
C. Make arrangements to observe ahead of time, and check in with the person in charge when she arrives. 
D. Assist the teacher by interacting with the children when they respond to Francesca's presence. 
14. Compared to arguing, the goal of dialoguing is to do three of the following. Which is not a goal of dialoguing? 
A. To ask, rather than tell 
B. To learn, rather than persuade or convince 
C. To find the one best point of view 
D. To gather information, rather than win 
15. Charlize is the lead teacher at Perfections Preschool. Over time, Charlize has developed the ability to talk with another adult while still being aware of what's going on with the children in the center. Charlize's skill is called 
B. feedforward. 
C. dialoging. 
D. soft eyes. 
16. Julia is a student teacher at Midtown Day Care Center. While the children eat their snacks, her coworker has to change an infant's diaper. Because her coworker is gone, Julia moves to the edge of the room to keep an eye on things. Now Julia can see what's going on, but has no interaction with the children. 
Julia's behavior is an example of which type of focus? 
A. Narrow focus 
B. Self-reflective focus 
C. Broad focus 
D. Dual focus 
17. Four kindergarten children are engaged in different play activities. Three are engaged in sensorimotor play. Which is not engaged in sensorimotor play? 
A. Debra doodles on some construction paper. 
B. Antwone plays in the sink while he washes his hands. 
C. Curt plays chase with another child. 
D. Brittany sings her ABCs. 

18. At the beginning of each school year, preschool teacher Jonny Kesteroni collects contact information for the children's families. He also asks each parent to list some of their family's special interests. He then compiles this information and distributes it to each of the families. Which aspect of supporting families is he implementing? 
A. Helping parents support each other 
B. Helping parents further appreciate and enjoy their children 
C. Having concern for the parents' welfare 
D. Creating and maintaining relationships with parents 
19. Of the following statements about play, which is(are) true? 
Statement 1: Play helps children build knowledge by finding meaning in their own experience instead of passively receiving information from teachers. 
Statement 2: Play helps children manage themselves, instead of depending on the teacher. 
Statement 3: Play helps children gain confidence and increase their self-esteem. 
A. Statements 1 and 2 
B. Statement 1 only 
C. Statements 1, 2, and 3 
D. Statements 2 and 3 
20. Which of the following statements most accurately describes IDEA? 
A. A strategy for resolving conflict 
B. A team of specialists who collaborate with families on the creation of goals and objectives for children with special needs 
C. A U.S. government act requiring programs to create plans for responding to children with special needs 
D. An approach for respecting the diversity of children, families, and other early childhood professionals 
21. Which of the following statements about praise is false? 
A. Children shouldn't be given recognition regularly, only when they've earned it by accomplishing something. 
B. Overabundant praise can cloud a child's reality and give children a false sense of themselves. 
C. Adults should give praise for risk-taking, even when children are unsuccessful in their efforts. 
D. Adults should avoid interrupting play to give praise. 
22. Of the following types of programs, which is least likely to be funded by government fees? 
A. Surround care 
B. Head Start preschool 
C. Family child care 
D. Kindergarten 
23. Four early childhood education students are observing children in a preschool program for two-yearolds. 
Based on the guidelines presented in your text, which student observation is the best? 
A. "Rodney aggravates Guillermo, and Guillermo throws a toy at him." 
B. "Guillermo picks up a toy and throws it at Rodney." 
C. "Guillermo, obviously frustrated with Rodney, picks up a toy and throws it at Rodney." 
D. "Guillermo picks up a toy and throws it at Rodney. Guillermo's tendency toward violence has been previously noted." 

24. Three-year-old Faye has just begun being cared for at Babytime Child Care Center while her grandmother works during the day. In Faye's culture, children are spoon fed until they've advanced to motor skills that allow them to eat well on their own. When Faye's grandmother arrives to pick Faye up, 
she's dismayed at Faye's appearance. Faye has food stains on her clothes after attempting to feed herself. 
The provider explains that the center policy encourages children to practice their motor skills by trying to feed themselves. The grandmother and the child care provider talk for a few days about this problem and eventually come to a resolution. Of the following solutions to this conflict, which represents a resolution through mutual education? 
A. After seeing how important this value is to Faye's family, the child care provider agrees to spoon feed Faye. 
B. After hearing the reasoning behind the center's policy, Faye's grandmother agrees to try letting her feed herself at the center and at home. 
C. After seeing how upset Faye's grandmother is, the child care provider reluctantly agrees to spoon-feed Faye. She feels resentful every time she feeds Faye. 
D. Both parties find a third space and agree that Faye will be spoon fed at home, but while at the center she'll wear a bib or older clothes and continue practicing her skills. 
25. According to Magda Gerber, early childhood professionals should approach children with a(n) 
A. open mind. 
B. dual-focus. 
C. well-honed set of observation skills. 
D. open heart. 
26. If early childhood educator Monica Moniz wishes to be consistent with Piaget's ideas about child development, which of the following should she do with her students? 
A. She should deemphasize play, especially of the dramatic variety. 
B. She should mold and shape her students' behaviors through a system of rewards. 
C. She should emphasize the right answers to particular problems and activities. 
D. She should provide a rich environment and let the children interact in an exploratory way. 
27. Review the following statements regarding time-out as a guidance tool. Which is(are) are true? 
Statement 1: Compared to the other guidance tools, time-out is one of the most useful alternatives. 
Statement 2: When placing a child in time-out, the adult should determine the amount of time and set a 
timer so the child knows when he or she can leave time out. 
Statement 3: Time-out is a nonviolent alternative to spanking. 
A. Statements 2 and 3 
B. Statements 1, 2, and 3 
C. Statements 1 and 3 
D. Statement 3 only 
28. Which of the following statements regarding children's development is false? 
A. Rising cortisol levels, caused by stress, result in the destruction of neurons, but they don't affect brain synapses. 
B. A child's intelligence has its origins in specific emotional experiences. 
C. Babies who have close relationships with caregivers are more likely to be resilient and to thrive than babies who don't. 
D. One of the most important findings of recent brain research is the importance of emotional security in the development of children's brains.

29. Family day care provider Alicia Magnus always has an interesting activity set up for the children as they arrive in the morning. This gives Alicia a chance to have quick chats with parents as they drop off their children. Magnus is trying to facilitate communication with families by 
A. being available. 
B. developing listening skills. 
C. figuring out problems together. 
D. being receptive. 
30. The element of competence in self-esteem is a matter of how 
A. talented a person is. 
B. skilled a person is. 
C. loved a person feels. 
D. a person approaches challenges.

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