HST 276 Week 3 Week Three Worksheet

HST 276 Week 3 Week Three Worksheet

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 HST 276 Week 3 Week Three Worksheet

Complete the University of Phoenix Material: Week Three Worksheet.

Submit your worksheet to the Assignment Files tab.

Week 3 Worksheet


As you read this week’s required materials, complete this worksheet. This is a multipage assignment; double-check that you completed each page before submitting.




Part I: Fill in the Blanks


Fill in the blanks to complete the following sentences.


1.    Reformation Germany and Switzerland





The Reformation began in German and Swiss , small city-states within the Holy Roman Empire. Initially, the Reformation’s supporters were those with a history of            with authorities. Many towns had complaints against mismanagement or other inappropriate behavior among their bishops, abbots, or prelates, who had                              their benefices.


The Northern Renaissance, a movement of humanists from more  social backgrounds than their Italian counterparts, was more committed to               reform than other humanist movements were.


Martin Luther’s  Theses, posted in 1517 in protest of indulgences and other disputes with the Roman Church, became a focus for humanists and reformers. Luther’s capacity for free action was enhanced by the distraction caused by the election of the new Holy Roman Emperor,                      ; concessions made by the new emperor during his campaign; Luther’s allies who hid him in 1521 and 1522; and attacks against the Hapsburg holdings. When German peasants rebelled, demanding economic and spiritual equality and an end to serfdom, Luther sided against the                                            , calling them un-Christian.


The success of Protestants in Germany led to reforms like compulsory education, humanist revisions of curriculum, and instruction for lay people about . From Germany, Lutheranism spread in the first half of the 16th century to Poland, Denmark, and           .


The city of  became the center of the Swiss reformation because of the efforts of a popular priest,            , who opposed practices that were not specifically written in scripture. His disagreement with Luther about the nature of the bread and wine in the             prevented a unified Protestant movement.


The early movement for adult baptism and withdrawal from society to form a more perfect community–called –was condemned by the pope, Lutherans, and Zwinglians, but found adherents among the rural poor.


In Geneva,  led a reform movement focused on creating a godly society. He taught the godly            , those predestined for salvation.


In the late 16th century, the Holy Roman Empire was highly  among highly independent Lutheran,            , and Catholic realms, in contrast to unified nations like Spain, England, or France. The most destructive of the wars of religion, the                    , ravaged the empire from 1618 to 1648. The Treaty of Westphalia, which ended this war, granted legal recognition to                        and recognized the independence of the United Provinces of Holland and                                 . The German states of                and Brandenburg-Prussia emerged from this war as the most important early modern German powers.




2.    Tudor England





In the late 1520s and early 1530s, King  of England sought to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, aunt of                                               , because he did not have a male heir. Pope Clement VII, who was being held prisoner by                       , denied the annulment. Parliament, the king, and his Lutheran ministers Thomas Cranmer and               gradually seized more power away from the pope. In 1533, the king married              , and in 1534, Parliament named the king as head of the Church of England in the                        .


King , who ruled England from 1509 to 1547, refused to implement            policies like allowing clergy to marry or denying transubstantiation. His son,              , imposed many Protestant reforms between 1547 and 1553. His successor and half-sister,               , restored Catholicism and relations with the pope. Upon her death in 1558,               took the throne and repealed her half-sister’s anti-                laws in a compromise that tolerated Catholicism and encouraged the Protestant Church of England, but discouraged                       who sought to purge the Church of England of all Catholic traditions.


In the 1570s, England signed a mutual defense agreement with  and encouraged piracy against                    Elizabeth I’s decision to execute Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, a                    rival, was the final reason for the Kingdom of            to attack England. The invasion Armada numbered         ships, but English and Dutch ships were victorious and sank or captured more than one third of the fleet.




3.    Spain and Portugal: 1400-1650





Portugal’s Prince  captured the African city of            , near the straits between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, from the Moors. Following this capture, Portuguese sailors and traders mapped the African coast, seeking first gold and slaves from West Africa and, later, a sea route to           to acquire spices. The Portuguese expedition led by Vasco de Gama reached           in 1498.


Christopher Columbus sought to find a shorter sea route to  by sailing west. Instead, in 1492, Columbus discovered the                     , although he believed at the time that he was in the Japanese islands. Explorers Amerigo Vespucci and Ferdinand Magellan followed, mapping the coastline of                   .


King  of Spain, a Hapsburg, succeeded his grandfather as Holy Roman Emperor               in 1519, combining in his hands authority over the Netherlands, Spain, portions of Italy, and much of Central Europe. Wars with           and the                    absorbed much of the emperor’s time and resources.


Wealth from  colonies in the Americas financed the kingdom’s role in religious and political struggles. King               led these efforts, joining in the Holy League with Venice and the pope to defeat Ottoman forces at              in 1571. His wars against Calvinists in the Netherlands, Protestant Elizabeth I in England, and Protestant principalities in Germany weakened the empire before finally ending with the Treaty of                  in 1648.




4.    Colonial Brazil





Portugal’s claims in Brazil were confirmed by the pope’s 1494 Treaty of , which divided the Spanish and Portuguese empires with a single line through the Atlantic.


The indigenous peoples of Brazil were  and did not form large, centralized empires like those of the Inca or Aztec. Because of the lack of indigenous peoples for a workforce, Portuguese colonists imported more                as slaves than most other colonies did. Portugal’s relatively small population reduced governance from Europe, and instead the crown relied on granting                to private individuals to govern and exploit territory.


Brazil’s early economy was based on  plantations and slave labor. A           rush in the late 1600s brought many Portuguese immigrants to the          part of Brazil, but labor was still provided by            . Slavery was not abolished in Brazil until           , and over 1 million slaves were imported to Brazil in the 19th century.




5.    French and English Colonization





The economic system by which England and France regulated trade to try to maximize national wealth is now known as .


French  traders and missionaries from the             order came to the               River valley of New France in the 17th century. The largest French settlement in North America at this time was            . The French did not have as much conflict with                                      as did most other colonial powers, because local tribes traded and the French did not pressure them to surrender their territory.


The English founded or took control of colonies for various reasons. In North America, English settlers founded  and took control of                    –renaming it New York–for wealth from agriculture and trade. North Carolina and                   were awards granted by the monarch. Many colonies were founded by those seeking religious freedom: Pilgrims and Puritans in           , Baptists in             , Quakers in            , and Roman Catholics in         . One colony,           , was founded by                             to provide a place for English debtors.


 slaves were first brought to British North America in            . Much later,             led the world by abolishing slavery in 1794.


The primary economic activity of England’s North American colonies was . The port cities were generally small towns through which goods were traded with               and English colonies in the                      . By the 1770s,                 , the City of Brotherly Love, was the second-largest English-speaking city in the world.


Both the French and English had sugar-producing colonies in the                  . The plantations on these islands relied on the labor of           from            . Plantations were also used in British North America as far north as                      , generally growing cotton, tobacco, or sugar.




6.    African Civilizations During the Expansion of Slavery





Historian Alfred Crosby refers to the flow of species, knowledge, and disease across the Atlantic as the . Africa’s primary export to the American colonies was        . African societies gained important new crops from the Americas, including           (also known as corn) and             (also known as cassava).


Slavery was present in Africa before it was seen as a source of slaves for Europe, following patterns similar to those of other    Sub-Saharan Africa had long been a source of slaves for North African societies that practiced the           religion. The occidental slave trade with Europe and the Americas targeted                     and Central Africa. Slave traders most frequently obtained slaves by                                      African leaders. Slaves were also exported to India and southwest Asia in what is known as the            slave trade.


Africa’s primary import in the slaving era was gold, silver, and jewelry; much of the continent experienced an exchange of productive human beings for   Historians estimate that more than                    Africans were forcibly transported to the Americas between the 1500s and the 1800s. Many died of disease during the                            , the voyage by ship across the Atlantic Ocean.



Part II: Cultural Contributions


Complete the following matrix with at least one element for each category.









































































































Intellectual Contributions
Artistic Forms or Contributions
Religious Beliefs
German or Swiss
Tudor England
Spanish or Portuguese
Colonial Brazil
French or English Colonies
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