Expert Answers

Expert Answers

Question: Diocletian attempted to prevent rebellion in the Roman Empire by
A Redistributing imperial defense among local militia
B Entering into treaties with bordering states
C Removing the distinction between “better people” and “humbler people”
D Separating civil and military authority in the provinces

Question: Roman morality primarily emphasized
A A personal relationship with the gods
B Virtue, faithfulness, and respect
C Power, status, and wealth
D Democracy, equality, and generosity

Question: Muhammad changed his attitude toward the Jews because they refused to
A Pay the zakat
B Recognize him as a prophet and convert
C Take part in the battle of Badr
D Resettle in either Mecca or Medina

Question: Concerns about national security and a desire for wealth led the Romans to
A Undertake expansionist campaigns against their neighbors
B Arrange foreign marriages in the hope of creating ties with their neighbors
C Negotiate defensive treaties with all of Rome's major trading partners
D Establish temples to all the major gods of the most powerful foreign nations

Question: The Hijra was
A A tax levied on nonbelievers living in an Islamic state
B The chief religious official of Islam
C Muhammad's departure from Mecca for Medina
D The religious court that decided cases of alleged blasphemy

Question: The Umayyad caliphate's (r. c. 661–750) policy toward Christians and Jews was
A Toleration and protection, but these groups had to pay a special tax
B Banishment from the lands of Islam
C A choice between conversion and death
D To kill males and sell females into slavery

Question: The First Triumvirate of Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar formed in 60 BCE when
A The three men teamed up for an assault on Egypt
B Spartacus's slave army threatened to overrun Rome
C The Senate's challenge to Pompey forced him into a coalition with his two greatest rivals
D The Senate recognized that the empire had grown too large for only two consuls

Question: The poet Ovid (43 BCE–17 CE), fell out of favor with Augustus in 8 BCE when he
A Published the irreverent and bawdy Art of Love
B Refused to write a poem praising the first ten years of Augustus's reign
C Became involved in a scandal with Augustus's granddaughter
D Criticized Augustus's transformation of government in Metamorphoses

Question: Which of the following is not a reason for the practice of iconoclasm?
A Icons violated biblical injunctions against graven images
B The Muslims believed they succeeded in battle because they avoided images of humans
C Monasteries holding icons undermined the emperor's place in Christianity ?
D They drained the economy by pouring money into art instead of useful commodities

Question: The Roman legend known as the “Rape of the Sabine Women” illustrates
A The Roman belief that one man can make a decisive difference in the course of his nation's history
B Rome's tradition of absorbing different peoples into its citizen body, a practice that helped make Rome a world power
C The Romans' reverence for virtuous matrons and their dedication to justice
D The Romans' wanton disregard for women, whom they treated little better than slaves

Question: What was the main tactic used by the plebeians to force the patricians to make political and economic concessions?
A They went “on strike,” withdrawing from the city and refusing to work or engage in military service
B They invaded patrician estates and freed their slaves
C They instructed their tribunes to veto every measure that the patricians strove to pass in the assembly
D They rioted, destroying a significant part of the Roman forum

Question: Augustus fulfilled his role as Rome's patron by providing
A The first public fire department in Western history
B Free public baths for the poor
C Free medical care for all children
D A mail system for Rome and the Italian peninsula

Question: The Roman governor Pontius Pilate (r. 26–36 CE) executed Jesus of Nazareth because
A He felt offended by Jesus' teachings, which criticized deeply held notions of social hierarchy
B He feared that Jesus harbored political aspirations and might incite a Jewish revolt
C Jesus had argued that the Roman Empire was fundamentally corrupt and that Jews should refuse to pay taxes
D All of the above

Question: During the Roman republic, the political career of a patrician typically consisted of
A Achieving success in business or agriculture, financing a shrine or other public building, then being elected, in succession, to the offices of aedile, consul, and, finally, pontifex maximus
B Military service, an appointment to the Senate, and then being elected, in succession, to the offices of censor, tribune, and, finally, consul
C Military service, and then being elected, in succession, to the offices of quaestor, aedile, praetor, and, finally, consul
D Military service culminating in a generalship, and then being elected, in succession, to the offices of quaestor, censor, and, finally, consul or pontifex maximus

Question: One fundamental difference between slavery in Rome and in Greece was that
A Roman men could raise their children by female slaves as legitimate children and heirs
B Greeks tended not to enslave other Greeks, but Romans preferred Italian-born slaves
C Roman slaves gained citizenship with their freedom, but Greek slaves did not
D Greek slaves had some legal protections against abuse, but Roman slaves did not

Question: The office of tribune differed from most other political offices because
A It was established to serve and protect the plebeian order, not all of society
B Former slaves who had served in the military could stand for election as tribunes
C It was the only official position that had been retained from the era of the monarchy
D Senators were eligible to be elected to the post

Question: Which of the following accurately compares Spain and Italy regarding ecclesiastical authority?
A In Spain, bishops supported their kings, whereas in Italy, the papacy was forever at odds with neighboring monarchs
B The Spanish bishops opposed their king, whom they blamed for the Muslim invasion, whereas the pope supported the Lombard king as a bulwark against Byzantine influence
C The Spanish were more receptive than the Italians to the teachings of the Catholic church, with its emphasis on asceticism
D The papacy consisted of a highly organized hierarchy, whereas the Spanish church was merely a loose collection of parishes

Question: Between 630 and 730, the Byzantine Empire
A Revived the urban lifestyle of the Roman Empire
B Lost much of its territory to invading Islamic armies
C Recognized the bishop of Rome as the leader of all Christendom
D Ordered all official documents to be written in Latin instead of Greek

Question: Roman Christianity's organization was based on bishops' and archbishops' control of territorial units called
A Abbeys
B Shires
C Themes
D Dioceses

Question: Theodoric ruled from 493 to 526 over an Ostrogoth kingdom that
A Tried to maintain the Roman Empire's prestige by retaining elements of its rule, such as the Senate
B Sought to eliminate all reminders of Roman rule in order to emphasize the power of the new king
C Was supposedly ruled by the puppet emperor Romulus Augustulus
D Forcibly converted its inhabitants to Arian Christianity

Question: When Diocletian came to power in 284, he indicated his autocratic intentions by
A Rreplacing the title princeps with dominus, the term that slaves called their masters
B Proclaiming himself the head of the state and of the Christian church
C Eliminating the Senate, consuls, and all other vestiges of republican rule
D Appointing only fellow Dalmatians to important positions

Question: Which of the following was not a reason that Christianity was attractive after the reign of Constantine?
A Christianity's new official status attracted believers in the military, who no longer faced a conflict between serving the state and serving Christ
B Christian merchants, who could now be open about their faith, offered lower prices to fellow Christians
C Christianity offered people a strong sense of community with co-religionists
D Christianity's adherents took up charitable works and philanthropy
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