HSA 535 Midterm and Final Q&a

 

Physical, biological, social, cultural, and behaviors that
influence health are known as ____.

 

 

 

 

The course of a disease, if left untreated, is referred to
as ____.

 

 

 

 

A disease or condition that affects a greater than expected
(normal) number of individuals within a population, community, or region at the
same time is referred to as an ____.

 

 

 

 

HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is currently a ____.

 

 

 

 

The normal occurrence of a disease or condition common to
persons within a localized area is known as a(n) ____.

 

 

 

 

One of the important concepts from the Nuremberg Code is
that of ____, which means that the subject understands the scope of the study
and can make an informed decision to participate.

 

 

 

 

Social epidemiology studies ____.

 

 

 

 

Risk factors or exposures that we think might affect the
outcome are known as ____.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The time between infection and clinical disease is referred
to as a(n) ____.

 

 

 

 

The aspect of consistency means that ____.

 

 

 

 

A test given to people who have no symptoms to check for the
presence of a particular disease is known as a ____.

 

 

 

 

Determining the cause of a disease is referred to as ____.

 

 

 

 

The modern epidemiologic triangle includes groups of populations,
causative factors, and ____.

 

 

 

 

James Lind (1716-1794) observed the effect of time, place,
weather, and diet on the spread of disease by ____.

 

 

 

 

The number of existing cases of disease  divided by the
population is known as ____.

 

 

 

 

Consider a food borne illness that is being investigated
from a restaurant during a one week period.  Anyone who ate at that
restaurant, and had vomiting and diarrhea during that week, could be considered
a(n) ____ even if they had not gone to see their doctor.

 

 

 

 

While many people are used to hearing proportions
represented as a percentage, many population samples in epidemiology are often
presented per ____.

 

 

 

 

By definition, the disease or condition used to identify a
case is determined by the ____.

 

 

 

 

The representation of a numerator as a fraction of a
denominator is known as a(n) ____.

 

 

 

 

The number of new cases of disease in a specified time
(usually one year) divided by the population “at-risk” to develop the disease
is known as ____.

 

 

 

 

Prevalence equals ____.

 

 

 

 

A proportion measured over a period of time is known as a
____.

 

 

 

 

The disease carrier of most concern is known as a(n) ____,
which is an infected person who never gets clinically ill, but can transmit the
etiologic agent to others.

 

 

 

 

There is ____ in the overall crude death rate in the United
States from the year 1900 until 1996.

 

 

 

 

How many new cases of HIV infection were reported in the
United States for the year 2009?

 

 

 

 

The probability of death due to infectious disease in
sub-Saharan Africa is ____%, but only ____% in developed countries, such as the
United States.

 

 

 

 

Infectious diseases are responsible for ____% of worldwide
deaths in children under 15 years old and ____% of deaths in people aged 15-59
years old.

 

 

 

 

____ is the transmission of a disease from person to person,
and may be directly from one person to another, or indirectly from one person
through an intermediate item to another person.

 

 

 

 

A(n) ____ is an infected individual capable of transmitting
disease during and after clinical disease.

 

 

 

 

____ is the transmission of a disease from mother to child
during pregnancy or delivery.

 

 

 

 

Physical, biological, social, cultural, and behaviors that
influence health are known as ____.

 

 

 

 

The course of a disease, if left untreated, is referred to
as ____.

 

 

 

 

A disease or condition that affects a greater than expected
(normal) number of individuals within a population, community, or region at the
same time is referred to as an ____.

 

 

 

 

HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is currently a ____.

 

 

 

 

The normal occurrence of a disease or condition common to
persons within a localized area is known as a(n) ____.

 

 

 

 

One of the important concepts from the Nuremberg Code is
that of ____, which means that the subject understands the scope of the study
and can make an informed decision to participate.

 

 

 

 

Social epidemiology studies ____.

 

 

 

 

Risk factors or exposures that we think might affect the
outcome are known as ____.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The time between infection and clinical disease is referred
to as a(n) ____.

 

 

 

 

The aspect of consistency means that ____.

 

 

 

 

A test given to people who have no symptoms to check for the
presence of a particular disease is known as a ____.

 

 

 

 

Determining the cause of a disease is referred to as ____.

 

 

 

 

The modern epidemiologic triangle includes groups of populations,
causative factors, and ____.

 

 

 

 

James Lind (1716-1794) observed the effect of time, place,
weather, and diet on the spread of disease by ____.

 

 

 

 

The number of existing cases of disease  divided by the
population is known as ____.

 

 

 

 

Consider a food borne illness that is being investigated
from a restaurant during a one week period.  Anyone who ate at that
restaurant, and had vomiting and diarrhea during that week, could be considered
a(n) ____ even if they had not gone to see their doctor.

 

 

 

 

While many people are used to hearing proportions
represented as a percentage, many population samples in epidemiology are often
presented per ____.

 

 

 

 

By definition, the disease or condition used to identify a
case is determined by the ____.

 

 

 

 

The representation of a numerator as a fraction of a
denominator is known as a(n) ____.

 

 

 

 

The number of new cases of disease in a specified time
(usually one year) divided by the population “at-risk” to develop the disease
is known as ____.

 

 

 

 

Prevalence equals ____.

 

 

 

 

A proportion measured over a period of time is known as a
____.

 

 

 

 

The disease carrier of most concern is known as a(n) ____,
which is an infected person who never gets clinically ill, but can transmit the
etiologic agent to others.

 

 

 

 

There is ____ in the overall crude death rate in the United
States from the year 1900 until 1996.

 

 

 

 

How many new cases of HIV infection were reported in the
United States for the year 2009?

 

 

 

 

The probability of death due to infectious disease in
sub-Saharan Africa is ____%, but only ____% in developed countries, such as the
United States.

 

 

 

 

Infectious diseases are responsible for ____% of worldwide
deaths in children under 15 years old and ____% of deaths in people aged 15-59
years old.

 

 

 

 

____ is the transmission of a disease from person to person,
and may be directly from one person to another, or indirectly from one person
through an intermediate item to another person.

 

 

 

 

A(n) ____ is an infected individual capable of transmitting
disease during and after clinical disease.

 

 

 

 

____ is the transmission of a disease from mother to child
during pregnancy or delivery.

 

 

 

a(n) ____.Answer |

The normal occurrence of a disease or condition common to
persons within a localized area is known as

| The biological cause of a problem or disease is known as
____.Answer | | | |

| |

| Reproductive health studies ____.Answer | | | |

| HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is currently a
____.Answer | | | |

| The course of a disease, if left untreated, is referred to
as ____.Answer | | | |

| A disease or condition that affects a greater than
expected (normal) number of individuals within a

population, community, or region at the same time is
referred to as an ____.Answer | | | |

| The first step in any epidemiological investigation is to
____.Answer | | | |

| Identifying diseases prior to the clinical stage means
that prevention efforts can begin immediately.

Because the disease is already present, this is an example
of ____ prevention.Answer | | | |

| Determining the cause of a disease is referred to as
____.Answer | | | |

| While Austin Bradford Hill is well-known for his work in
developing guidelines for establishing causality

for studies of non-infectious diseases, his other
contributions to the field of epidemiology and ____ are

remarkable.Answer | | | |

| Risk factors or exposures that we think might affect the
outcome are known as ____.Answer | | | |

| The aspect of consistency means that ____.Answer | | | |

| James Lind (1716-1794) observed the effect of time, place,
weather, and diet on the spread of disease

range from a few months to many years.Answer | | | |

| For chronic diseases, the time between exposure and
symptoms is called the ____ period, which can

Anyone who ate at that restaurant, and had vomiting and
diarrhea during that week, could be

| Consider a food borne illness that is being investigated
from a restaurant during a one week period. 

considered a(n) ____ even if they had not gone to see their
doctor.Answer | | | |

| By definition, the disease or condition used to identify a
case is determined by the ____.Answer | | | |

| A proportion measured over a period of time is known as a
____.Answer | | | |

| While many people are used to hearing proportions
represented as a percentage, many population

samples in epidemiology are often presented per ____.Answer
| | | |

| The representation of a numerator as a fraction of a
denominator is known as a(n) ____.Answer | | | |

| A table in epidemiology that arranges numbers to allow the
comparison of exposure and outcome is

called a ____ table.Answer | | | |

| The number of new cases of disease in a specified time
(usually one year) divided by the population

“at-risk” to develop the disease is known as ____.Answer | |
| |

| A(n) ____ is an infected individual capable of
transmitting disease during and after clinical

disease.Answer | | | |

| The probability of death due to infectious disease in
sub-Saharan Africa is ____%, but only ____% in

developed countries, such as the United States.Answer | | |
|

| How many new cases of HIV infection were reported in the
United States for the year 2009?Answer | |

| If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is
called a ____.Answer | | | |

| ____ is the transmission of a disease from mother to child
during pregnancy or delivery.Answer | | | |

| ____ is the transmission of a disease from person to
person, and may be directly from one person to

another, or indirectly from one person through an intermediate
item to another person.Answer | | | |

| The disease carrier of most concern is known as a(n) ____,
which is an infected person who never gets

clinically ill, but can transmit the etiologic agent to
others.Answer | | | |

| Infectious diseases are responsible for ____% of worldwide
deaths in children under 15 years old and

____% of deaths in people aged 15-59 years old.Answer | | |
|

| The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) is responsible for
(give the best answer):Answer | | | |

| John Snow, author of Snow on Cholera:Answer | | | |

| In the Yearly Mortality Bill for 1632, consumption
referred to:Answer | | | |

| Cyclic variations in the occurrence of pneumonia and
influenza mortality may reflect:Answer | | | |

| Which of the following is not usually an aim of
epidemiology?Answer | | | |

| Which of the following activities characterizes a clinical
approach (as opposed to an epidemiologic

approach)?Answer | | | |

| Which of the following activities characterizes an
epidemiologic approach (as opposed to a clinical

approach)?Answer | | | |

| In 1900, the death rate per 100,000 members of the population
for influenza and pneumonia (I & P)

was 202.2; it was 22.4 in 2003. How much did the death rate
due to I & P decline?Answer | | | |

| Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by
nutritional counseling for pregnant

womenAnswer | | | |

| Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by
screening for breast cancerAnswer | | | |

| Increases in lung cancer mortality, especially among
women, illustrate which of the following trends in

disease occurrence?Answer | | | |

| According to the natural history of disease model, the
time before the precursors of disease and the

host interact is called the period of:Answer | | | |

| Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by
pasteurization of milkAnswer | | | |

| Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by
immunization against rubellaAnswer | | | |

| The fundamental tool for etiologic studies of both acute
and chronic diseases. Is this a use for

incidence or prevalence data?Answer | | | |

| The risk of acquiring a given disease during a time period
is best determined by:Answer | | | |

| The incidence of a disease is five times greater in men
than in women, but the prevalence shows no

sex difference. The most likely explanation is that:Answer |
| | |

| An epidemiologic survey of roller-skating injuries in
Metroville, a city with a population of 100,000 (during the midpoint of the
year), produced the following data for a particular year:

  Number of skaters in Metroville during any given
month | 12,000 |

Roller-skating injuries in Metroville | 600 |

Total number of residents injured from roller-skating |
1,800 |

Total number of deaths from roller-skating | 90 |

Total number of deaths from all causes | 900 |

 

The crude death rate for all causes was:Answer | | | |

| Estimating the frequency of exposure. Is this a use for incidence
or prevalence data?Answer | | | |

| To express the burden or extent of some condition or
attribute in a population. Is this a use for

incidence or prevalence data?Answer | | | |

| An epidemiologic survey of roller-skating injuries in
Metroville, a city with a population of 100,000

(during the midpoint of the year), produced the following
data for a particular year:

  Number of skaters in Metroville during any given
month | 12,000 |

Roller-skating injuries in Metroville | 600 |

Total number of residents injured from roller-skating |
1,800 |

Total number of deaths from roller-skating | 90 |

Total number of deaths from all causes | 900 |

The proportional mortality ratio (%) due to roller-skating
was:Answer | | | |

(during the midpoint of the year), produced the following
data for a particular year:

| An epidemiologic survey of roller-skating injuries in
Metroville, a city with a population of 100,000

  Number of skaters in Metroville during any given
month | 12,000 |

Roller-skating injuries in Metroville | 600 |

Total number of residents injured from roller-skating |
1,800 |

Total number of deaths from roller-skating | 90 |

Total number of deaths from all causes | 900 |

 

The cause-specific mortality rate from roller-skating
was:Answer | | | |

| Which of the following statements most accurately
expresses the breeder hypothesis for

schizophrenia?Answer | | | |

| Which of Mill’s four canons suggests that there is an
association between frequency of disease and the potency of a causative
factor?Answer | | | |

| The use of GIS may be thought of as following the heritage
of:Answer | | | |

 

| According to classic studies, age-standardized morbidity
rates in the United States for acute conditions, chronic conditions

differences:Answer | | | |

| A null hypothesis is most similar to which of the
following?Answer | | | |

| Descriptive epidemiology has the following characteristics
(Choose the incorrect

| Which of the following statements most accurately
expresses the downward-drift hypothesis for schizophrenia?Answer | | |

| Studies of nativity and migration have reported that:Answer
| | | |

 

 
Powered by