# Sometimes market activities - Expert Answers

1. Sometimes market activities (production, buying, and selling) have unintended positive or negative effects outside the market's scope. These are called externalities. As a policy maker concerned with correcting the effects of gases and particulates emitted by and local power plant, answer the following questions: 1.What 1 policy could you use to reduce the total amount of emissions? 2.Why do you think the policy would reduce the total amount of emissions? 3.What would be the benefits of each action (besides emissions reduction)? 4.What would be the costs of each action? 5.How would you decide what was the best level of emission reduction?

Question 2

A firm currently uses 50,000 workers to produce 120,000 units of output per day. The daily wage per worker is \$100, and the price of the firm's output is \$48. The cost of other variable inputs is \$400,000 per day.

Assume that total fixed cost equals \$900,000. Calculate the values following four formulas:

Total Variable Cost = (Number of WorkersÂ x Worker's Daily Wage) + Other Variable Costs

Average Variable Cost = Total Variable Cost / Units of Output per Day

Average Total Cost = (Total Variable Cost + Total Fixed Cost) / Units of Output per Day

Worker Productivity = Units of Output per Day / Number of Workers

Complete the following:

Calculate the firm' profit or loss.

Compare the firm's output price and the calculated average variable cost and average total cost.
Should the firm shut down immediately when the total fixed cost equals \$1,000,000?

If the firm can operate at a loss in the short run, how many employees need to be laid off company to break even? (Assume that after layoffs, the remaining workers maintain output at 200,000 units per day.)

To calculate the number of workers to be laid off, divide the loss two situations by the daily wage per worker.

Given a lower number of employees now working at the company, what is the change in worker productivity?

Provide a report to management of the firm that discusses what should be done.

Be sure to show your work to support the decision you outline in your report.