HSA 535 midterm and final exam

HSA 535 midterm and final exam

·         Physical, biological, social, cultural, and behaviors that influence health are known as ____.         The course of a disease, if left untreated, is referred to as ____.         A disease or condition that affects a greater than expected (normal) number of individuals within a population, community, or region at the same time is referred to as an ____.         HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is currently a ____.         The normal occurrence of a disease or condition common to persons within a localized area is known as a(n) ____.         One of the important concepts from the Nuremberg Code is that of ____, which means that the subject understands the scope of the study and can make an informed decision to participate.         Social epidemiology studies ____.         Risk factors or exposures that we think might affect the outcome are known as ____.             The time between infection and clinical disease is referred to as a(n) ____.         The aspect of consistency means that ____.         A test given to people who have no symptoms to check for the presence of a particular disease is known as a ____.         Determining the cause of a disease is referred to as ____.         The modern epidemiologic triangle includes groups of populations, causative factors, and ____.         James Lind (1716-1794) observed the effect of time, place, weather, and diet on the spread of disease by ____.         The number of existing cases of disease  divided by the population is known as ____.         Consider a food borne illness that is being investigated from a restaurant during a one week period.  Anyone who ate at that restaurant, and had vomiting and diarrhea during that week, could be considered a(n) ____ even if they had not gone to see their doctor.         While many people are used to hearing proportions represented as a percentage, many population samples in epidemiology are often presented per ____.         By definition, the disease or condition used to identify a case is determined by the ____.         The representation of a numerator as a fraction of a denominator is known as a(n) ____.         The number of new cases of disease in a specified time (usually one year) divided by the population “at-risk” to develop the disease is known as ____.         Prevalence equals ____.         A proportion measured over a period of time is known as a ____.         The disease carrier of most concern is known as a(n) ____, which is an infected person who never gets clinically ill, but can transmit the etiologic agent to others.         There is ____ in the overall crude death rate in the United States from the year 1900 until 1996.         How many new cases of HIV infection were reported in the United States for the year 2009?         The probability of death due to infectious disease in sub-Saharan Africa is ____%, but only ____% in developed countries, such as the United States.         Infectious diseases are responsible for ____% of worldwide deaths in children under 15 years old and ____% of deaths in people aged 15-59 years old.         ____ is the transmission of a disease from person to person, and may be directly from one person to another, or indirectly from one person through an intermediate item to another person.         A(n) ____ is an infected individual capable of transmitting disease during and after clinical disease.         ____ is the transmission of a disease from mother to child during pregnancy or delivery.         Physical, biological, social, cultural, and behaviors that influence health are known as ____.         The course of a disease, if left untreated, is referred to as ____.         A disease or condition that affects a greater than expected (normal) number of individuals within a population, community, or region at the same time is referred to as an ____.         HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is currently a ____.         The normal occurrence of a disease or condition common to persons within a localized area is known as a(n) ____.         One of the important concepts from the Nuremberg Code is that of ____, which means that the subject understands the scope of the study and can make an informed decision to participate.         Social epidemiology studies ____.         Risk factors or exposures that we think might affect the outcome are known as ____.             The time between infection and clinical disease is referred to as a(n) ____.         The aspect of consistency means that ____.         A test given to people who have no symptoms to check for the presence of a particular disease is known as a ____.         Determining the cause of a disease is referred to as ____.         The modern epidemiologic triangle includes groups of populations, causative factors, and ____.         James Lind (1716-1794) observed the effect of time, place, weather, and diet on the spread of disease by ____.         The number of existing cases of disease  divided by the population is known as ____.         Consider a food borne illness that is being investigated from a restaurant during a one week period.  Anyone who ate at that restaurant, and had vomiting and diarrhea during that week, could be considered a(n) ____ even if they had not gone to see their doctor.         While many people are used to hearing proportions represented as a percentage, many population samples in epidemiology are often presented per ____.         By definition, the disease or condition used to identify a case is determined by the ____.         The representation of a numerator as a fraction of a denominator is known as a(n) ____.         The number of new cases of disease in a specified time (usually one year) divided by the population “at-risk” to develop the disease is known as ____.         Prevalence equals ____.         A proportion measured over a period of time is known as a ____.         The disease carrier of most concern is known as a(n) ____, which is an infected person who never gets clinically ill, but can transmit the etiologic agent to others.         There is ____ in the overall crude death rate in the United States from the year 1900 until 1996.         How many new cases of HIV infection were reported in the United States for the year 2009?         The probability of death due to infectious disease in sub-Saharan Africa is ____%, but only ____% in developed countries, such as the United States.         Infectious diseases are responsible for ____% of worldwide deaths in children under 15 years old and ____% of deaths in people aged 15-59 years old.         ____ is the transmission of a disease from person to person, and may be directly from one person to another, or indirectly from one person through an intermediate item to another person.         A(n) ____ is an infected individual capable of transmitting disease during and after clinical disease.         ____ is the transmission of a disease from mother to child during pregnancy or delivery.

·             a(n) ____.Answer | The normal occurrence of a disease or condition common to persons within a localized area is known as | The biological cause of a problem or disease is known as ____.Answer | | | | | | | Reproductive health studies ____.Answer | | | | | HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is currently a ____.Answer | | | | | The course of a disease, if left untreated, is referred to as ____.Answer | | | | | A disease or condition that affects a greater than expected (normal) number of individuals within a population, community, or region at the same time is referred to as an ____.Answer | | | | | The first step in any epidemiological investigation is to ____.Answer | | | | | Identifying diseases prior to the clinical stage means that prevention efforts can begin immediately. Because the disease is already present, this is an example of ____ prevention.Answer | | | | | Determining the cause of a disease is referred to as ____.Answer | | | | | While Austin Bradford Hill is well-known for his work in developing guidelines for establishing causality for studies of non-infectious diseases, his other contributions to the field of epidemiology and ____ are remarkable.Answer | | | | | Risk factors or exposures that we think might affect the outcome are known as ____.Answer | | | | | The aspect of consistency means that ____.Answer | | | | | James Lind (1716-1794) observed the effect of time, place, weather, and diet on the spread of disease range from a few months to many years.Answer | | | | | For chronic diseases, the time between exposure and symptoms is called the ____ period, which can Anyone who ate at that restaurant, and had vomiting and diarrhea during that week, could be | Consider a food borne illness that is being investigated from a restaurant during a one week period.  considered a(n) ____ even if they had not gone to see their doctor.Answer | | | | | By definition, the disease or condition used to identify a case is determined by the ____.Answer | | | | | A proportion measured over a period of time is known as a ____.Answer | | | | | While many people are used to hearing proportions represented as a percentage, many population samples in epidemiology are often presented per ____.Answer | | | | | The representation of a numerator as a fraction of a denominator is known as a(n) ____.Answer | | | | | A table in epidemiology that arranges numbers to allow the comparison of exposure and outcome is called a ____ table.Answer | | | | | The number of new cases of disease in a specified time (usually one year) divided by the population “at-risk” to develop the disease is known as ____.Answer | | | | | A(n) ____ is an infected individual capable of transmitting disease during and after clinical disease.Answer | | | | | The probability of death due to infectious disease in sub-Saharan Africa is ____%, but only ____% in developed countries, such as the United States.Answer | | | | | How many new cases of HIV infection were reported in the United States for the year 2009?Answer | | | If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called a ____.Answer | | | | | ____ is the transmission of a disease from mother to child during pregnancy or delivery.Answer | | | | | ____ is the transmission of a disease from person to person, and may be directly from one person to another, or indirectly from one person through an intermediate item to another person.Answer | | | | | The disease carrier of most concern is known as a(n) ____, which is an infected person who never gets clinically ill, but can transmit the etiologic agent to others.Answer | | | | | Infectious diseases are responsible for ____% of worldwide deaths in children under 15 years old and ____% of deaths in people aged 15-59 years old.Answer | | | | | The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) is responsible for (give the best answer):Answer | | | | | John Snow, author of Snow on Cholera:Answer | | | | | In the Yearly Mortality Bill for 1632, consumption referred to:Answer | | | | | Cyclic variations in the occurrence of pneumonia and influenza mortality may reflect:Answer | | | | | Which of the following is not usually an aim of epidemiology?Answer | | | | | Which of the following activities characterizes a clinical approach (as opposed to an epidemiologic approach)?Answer | | | | | Which of the following activities characterizes an epidemiologic approach (as opposed to a clinical approach)?Answer | | | | | In 1900, the death rate per 100,000 members of the population for influenza and pneumonia (I & P) was 202.2; it was 22.4 in 2003. How much did the death rate due to I & P decline?Answer | | | | | Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by nutritional counseling for pregnant womenAnswer | | | | | Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by screening for breast cancerAnswer | | | | | Increases in lung cancer mortality, especially among women, illustrate which of the following trends in disease occurrence?Answer | | | | | According to the natural history of disease model, the time before the precursors of disease and the host interact is called the period of:Answer | | | | | Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by pasteurization of milkAnswer | | | | | Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by immunization against rubellaAnswer | | | | | The fundamental tool for etiologic studies of both acute and chronic diseases. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data?Answer | | | | | The risk of acquiring a given disease during a time period is best determined by:Answer | | | | | The incidence of a disease is five times greater in men than in women, but the prevalence shows no sex difference. The most likely explanation is that:Answer | | | | | An epidemiologic survey of roller-skating injuries in Metroville, a city with a population of 100,000 (during the midpoint of the year), produced the following data for a particular year:   Number of skaters in Metroville during any given month | 12,000 | Roller-skating injuries in Metroville | 600 | Total number of residents injured from roller-skating | 1,800 | Total number of deaths from roller-skating | 90 | Total number of deaths from all causes | 900 |   The crude death rate for all causes was:Answer | | | | | Estimating the frequency of exposure. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data?Answer | | | | | To express the burden or extent of some condition or attribute in a population. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data?Answer | | | | | An epidemiologic survey of roller-skating injuries in Metroville, a city with a population of 100,000 (during the midpoint of the year), produced the following data for a particular year:   Number of skaters in Metroville during any given month | 12,000 | Roller-skating injuries in Metroville | 600 | Total number of residents injured from roller-skating | 1,800 | Total number of deaths from roller-skating | 90 | Total number of deaths from all causes | 900 | The proportional mortality ratio (%) due to roller-skating was:Answer | | | | (during the midpoint of the year), produced the following data for a particular year: | An epidemiologic survey of roller-skating injuries in Metroville, a city with a population of 100,000   Number of skaters in Metroville during any given month | 12,000 | Roller-skating injuries in Metroville | 600 | Total number of residents injured from roller-skating | 1,800 | Total number of deaths from roller-skating | 90 | Total number of deaths from all causes | 900 |   The cause-specific mortality rate from roller-skating was:Answer | | | | | Which of the following statements most accurately expresses the breeder hypothesis for schizophrenia?Answer | | | | | Which of Mill’s four canons suggests that there is an association between frequency of disease and the potency of a causative factor?Answer | | | | | The use of GIS may be thought of as following the heritage of:Answer | | | |   | According to classic studies, age-standardized morbidity rates in the United States for acute conditions, chronic conditions differences:Answer | | | | | A null hypothesis is most similar to which of the following?Answer | | | | | Descriptive epidemiology has the following characteristics (Choose the incorrect | Which of the following statements most accurately expresses the downward-drift hypothesis for schizophrenia?Answer | | | | Studies of nativity and migration have reported that:Answer | | | |
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