Pearl's Fashion Supplies Solution

###Objectives

Implement a branch and bound algorithm solution to an NP-hard problem common in industry.

Choose and implement an appropriate data structure.

Consider the time and space complexity of a branch and bound solution.

Consider improvements to branch and bound.

###Important

Your program should compile to produce a program named `pfs` using the command: `make`

Your program must run using the command:

pfs <inputfile

where `<inputfile` is a file in the format described in the input section.

###Pearl's Fashion Supplies

Pearl owns a fully automated jacket factory which makes jackets to order. The factory consists of 3 machines: machine A cuts, machine B sews, machine C presses. Depending on the particular jacket being made, we may require diiferent amounts of time on each machine. We will call these times aji ,bji and cji respectively for each jacket ji.

Each machine can only process one jacket at a time, one jacket can only be processed on one machine at a time, but transfer between machines is assumed to be instantaneous. All jackets go through each machine in the same sequence, but the total time required depends on which sequence is used.

For example, there is currently an order for 4 jackets, which require the following times (in minutes).
![f](https://github.com/GoldOne/See-pei-pei/blob/master/fig_bed/order%20for%20jackets.png)

####Calculating the time for a sequence

Beginning at time 0, we can calculate the time required to make a particular sequence of jackets. If the first *r* jackets in the sequence are Jr = j1,j2,...,jr, where *r* <= n, we can calculate the time that the *rth* jacket will finish on each machine.

The finish time for the jacket jr on machine *x* is simply start time + processing time.
![f](https://github.com/GoldOne/See-pei-pei/blob/master/fig_bed/finish%20time.png)

The start time for a jacket is determined based on previously calculated times. Specifically, jr cannot start processing on machine *x* until:

+ The jacket jr has finished processing on the previous1 machine *x*-1 and
+ the previous2 jacket jr-1 has finished processing on machine *x*.

So we must use the maximum of these two times as the start time.

For example, if the jackets are made in the sequence 1; 2; 3; 4 the start and finish times for each jacket ji are as follows:
![f](https://github.com/GoldOne/See-pei-pei/blob/master/fig_bed/time%20for%20each%20jackets.png)

For 4 jackets, there are 4! possible sequences. If we use the sequence above, the jackets will be finished in 63 mins. However, if the jackets are instead made in the sequence 2, 3, 1, 4, then the jackets will be finished in 62 minutes. If we use the sequence 2, 1, 4, 3 the jackets will take 64 minutes, while any sequence which starts 1,3 will take at least 72 minutes! Clearly, it will be possible to process many more orders if the best sequence for each order can be established.

1. For machine A there is no previous machine, so the jacket starts as soon as the previous jacket is finished processing on machine A.
2. For jacket j1 there is no previous jacket, so
- it starts on machine A at time 0,
- it spends aj1 minutes on machine A, and starts on machine B at time aj1,
- it spends bj1 minutes on machine B, and starts on machine C at time aj1 + bj1 and
- it spends cj1 minutes on machine B, and starts on machine C at time aj1 + bj1 + cji

###Task

You are to write a program which finds the optimal sequence for making *n* jackets, given their processing times on each of 3 machines, using branch and bound. An optimal sequence is one for which the finish time for the entire order is less than or equal to all other possible finish times.

####Input

The input file will contain the number of jackets *n* to be processed, then a line for each machine (in the order A, B, C). Each line will contain the processing times (in whole minutes) for each jacket (from 1 to n) on that machine, separated by whitespace. A sample input file matching this example is provided in `input.txt`.

####Output

You should output

1. the sequence of jackets with the optimal time
2. the optimal time
3. the number of nodes which you created during your search

####Calculating the lower bound for a sequence

Once we know the finishing time for jacket jr in the sequence Jr, we can calculate a lower bound estimate for doing all *n* jackets. We do this by assuming that each machine finishes processing Jr and then immediately processes all remaining jackets with no waiting time, then the final jacket is processed on any subsequent machines.

There are 3 cases, one for each machine. The lower bound for all n jackets is whichever of these takes the longest.
+ All jackets in the sequence Jr are finished on machine A, the rest finish on machine A with no waiting and the final jacket is processed immediately on machines B and C.
+ All jackets in the sequence Jr are finished on machine B, the rest finish on machine B with no waiting and the final jacket is processed immediately on machine C.
+ All jackets in the sequence Jr are finished on machine C, the rest, including the final jacket, finish on machine C with no waiting.

Of course, we don't know what the final jacket jn will be, so we assume that it is the one which takes the minimum total processing time on the subsequent machines.
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