BUSI 340 quiz 7 Liberty University complete answers

BUSI 340 quiz 7 Liberty University complete answers

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The competency perspective of leadership identifies drive, integrity, and emotional intelligence as the

According to the competency (trait) perspective of leadership

According to the behavioral perspective of leadership, _____ includes defining and structuring work roles, clarifying employees' work duties and procedures, and pushing employees to reach their performance capacity

People with an external locus of control tend to be more satisfied with _____ leadership styles

When people have leadership prototypes, they

Implicit leadership theory states that

Transformational leaders

Which of the following is a limitation of the competency perspective of leadership

Which of the following leadership styles in path-goal theory is most closely associated with goal-setting and positive self-fulfilling prophecy

_____ leadership refers to how well leaders are aware of, feel comfortable with, and act consistently with their self-concept

The competency perspective of leadership indicates leadership

Organizational behavior research indicates that transformational leaders produce _____ followers, whereas charismatic leaders produce dependent followers

_____ is the degree to which organizations standardize behavior through rules, procedures, formal training, and related mechanisms

A steel manufacturing firm with about 1,000 employees operates in an environment that is simple and integrated (it makes a small number of steel products to a few key customers) but also dynamic and hostile (rapidly changing technology and customer needs with many competitors). Based on the environment in which this company operates, it would be more successful with a(n):

An organization that wants to compete through innovation should:

Larger organizations

In organizational structures, integrator roles serve mainly as

Formalization in organizational structures tends to

Coordination through formal hierarchy relies on

Dividing work into more specialized jobs

When functional structures are compared with divisionalized structures, functional structures are known to

Creative Advertising Corp. wants its 100 employees to work together around specific clients yet maintain an equal emphasis on alignment with their skill specializations (advertising, graphics, copywriting and public relations). Which of the following organizational structures would work best for Creative Advertising Corp.

Team-based organizations have

Which of the following fundamental requirements do all organizational structures have

Candoo Ltd. will soon flatten its hierarchy by removing two of the five layers of management. If the number of employees in the organization remains constant, which of the following must also occur

 

Successful leaders have a positive self­evaluation, including high self­esteem, self­ efficacy, and internal locus of control. This refers to the leaders'            .

Telling, selling, participating, and delegating represent the four leadership styles identified in

Which of the following refers to "walking the talk"?

Fiedler's contingency model of leadership has made an important and lasting contribution to the study of leadership because it:

Which of the following leadership styles should be used by leaders when team cohesiveness is low?

Leadership prototypes refer to

According to the behavioral perspective of leadership,            includes defining and structuring work roles, clarifying employees' work duties and procedures, and pushing employees to reach their performance capacity.

Transformational leaders

Sanco Systems uses performance­based reward systems across various departments to keep employees directed toward organizational goals. The management at Sanco Systems believes that these rewards might replace or reduce the need for task­oriented leadership. Which of the following leadership theories supports this action?

Which of the following statements about emotional intelligence and leadership is true

Which of the following clusters of leadership behaviors are identified by the behavioral perspective of leadership

Charisma refers to

Team­based organizational structures are usually found

A divisionalized structure is recommended mainly for

Creative Advertising Corp. wants its 100 employees to work together around specific clients yet maintain an equal emphasis on alignment with their skill specializations (advertising, graphics, copywriting and public relations). Which of the following organizational structures would work best for Creative Advertising Corp.

Communication flows in all directions with little concern for the formal hierarchy in a(n)            , but this structure is costly to maintain due to the need for ongoing interpersonal skill training

(blank) is the degree to which organizations standardize behavior through rules, procedures, formal training, and related mechanisms

As organizations grow older, they tend to

When work activities are too complex to standardize through procedures or goals, companies often coordinate work effort

Dividing work into more specialized jobs

A wider span of control is possible if

Which of the following is typically most important among people working in hospital surgical operations

Many of the best­performing production plants are able to widen their span of control to more than 70 employees per supervisor by

Formalization in organizational structures tends to

The            structure tends to duplicate resources, such as production equipment and engineering or information technology expertise

 

Question 1 _____ leadership refers to how well leaders are aware of, feel comfortable with, and act consistently with their self-concepts.

Question 2 Sanco Systems uses performance-based reward systems across various departments to keep employees directed toward organizational goals. The management at Sanco Systems believes that these rewards might replace or reduce the need for task-oriented leadership. Which of the following leadership theories supports this action?

Question 3 Which of the following explicitly argues that people have a preferred leadership style based on their personality, so organizations should move leaders into situations that fit their preferred style?

Question 4 Fiedler's contingency model of leadership states that the best leadership style depends on:

Question 5 Which of the following characteristics addresses leaders' high need for achievement?

Question 6 Which of the following leadership theories or perspectives explicitly includes the participative and the directive styles?

Question 7 When people have leadership prototypes, they:

Question 8 The concept of leadership prototypes is an important component of:

Question 9 The competency perspective of leadership indicates leadership:

Question 10 _____ represents the heart of transformational leadership.

Question 11 Which of the following is the most accurate definition of leadership?

Question 12 Which of the following leadership styles in path-goal theory is the same as task-oriented leadership?

Question 13 When work activities are too complex to standardize through procedures or goals, companies often coordinate work effort:

Question 14 Coordination through formal hierarchy relies on:

Question 15 The simple structure usually depends on _____ to coordinate work activities, so it is very difficult to operate as the company grows and becomes more complex.

Question 16 Which of the following fundamental requirements do all organizational structures have?

Question 17 A steel manufacturing firm with about 1,000 employees operates in an environment that is simple and integrated (it makes a small number of steel products to a few key customers) but also dynamic and hostile (rapidly changing technology and customer needs with many competitors). Based on the environment in which this company operates, it would be more successful with a(n):

Question 18 A consumer products firm with a functional structure is expanding from a single product line into several diverse product groups, with most sales within one country. Which of the following should it eventually adopt to manage the new conditions most effectively?

Question 19 A team-based organizational structure has a:

Question 20 _____ establishes the chain of command - the system of common supervision among positions and units within the organization.

Question 21 Team-based organizations have:

Question 22 Freer trade, advances in information technology, and more global customers are pressuring many large global companies to:

Question 23 A divisionalized structure is recommended mainly for:

Question 24 ABC Production ABC Production, a consumer products firm with a functional structure, is expanding from a single product line into several diverse product groups, with most sales within one country. What form of departmentalization should it eventually adopt to manage the new conditions most effectively?

Question 25 Span of control, centralization, and formalization together form a cluster around two broader organizational forms called:

 

A combination of _____ leadership is best for employees who are (or perceive themselves to be) inexperienced and unskilled

When people have leadership prototypes, they

The competency perspective of leadership identifies drive, integrity, and emotional intelligence as the

Sanco Systems uses performance-based reward systems across various departments to keep employees directed toward organizational goals. The management at Sanco Systems believes that these rewards might replace or reduce the need for task-oriented leadership. Which of the following leadership theories supports this action

According to the situational leadership theory (SLT) developed by Hersey and Blanchard, effective leaders vary their style with the

A problem associated with path-goal theory is that

Which of the following refers to "walking the talk"?

Which of the following leadership theories or perspectives explicitly includes the participative and the directive style

Which of the following statements is most consistent with the view of shared leadership

Which of the following clusters of leadership behaviors are identified by the behavioral perspective of leadership

Which leadership theory or perspective adopts the view that leaders are agents of change

_____ represents the substance of transformational leadership

Creative Advertising Corp. wants its 100 employees to work together around specific clients yet maintain an equal emphasis on alignment with their skill specializations (advertising, graphics, copywriting and public relations). Which of the following organizational structures would work best for Creative Advertising Corp.?

Many of the best-performing production plants are able to widen their span of control to more than 70 employees per supervisor by

Larger organizations

A wider span of control is possible if:

When functional structures are compared with divisionalized structures, functional structures are known to:

A steel manufacturing firm with about 1,000 employees operates in an environment that is simple and integrated (it makes a small number of steel products to a few key customers) but also dynamic and hostile (rapidly changing technology and customer needs with many competitors). Based on the environment in which this company operates, it would be more successful with a(n):

Which of the following organizational design elements determines the sharing of resources and encourages coordination through informal communication?

_____ establishes the chain of command—the system of common supervision among positions and units within the organization

Flatter organizational structures

When work activities are too complex to standardize through procedures or goals, companies often coordinate work effort

Team-based organizational structures are usually found:

Most employees at Quokka Systems are organized into project teams. Employees report to the project leader, but they also report to a leader responsible for their functional specialization (such as engineering or marketing). Quokka Systems has a

An organic structure has

 

1.
An organization's structure is the same as its organizational chart. 
 
True    False
 

2.
The two fundamental requirements of all organizational structures are divisionalization and decentralization. 
 
True    False
 

3.
Division of labor leads to increased job specialization. 
 
True    False
 

4.
When work is divided among people, a coordinating mechanism is needed to ensure that everyone works in concert. 
 
True    False
 

5.
Informal communication is a coordination mechanism only in small and a few medium-sized organizations. 
 
True    False
 

6.
Large organizations can encourage informal communication as a coordinating mechanism by keeping each production site small. 
 
True    False
 

7.
Integrator roles increase informal communication as a coordinating mechanism. 
 
True    False
 

8.
Concurrent engineering can be used to encourage informal communication as a coordinating mechanism. 
 
True    False
 

9.
Formal hierarchy is the least time-consuming coordinating mechanism where employees work in non-routine and ambiguous situations. 
 
True    False
 

10.
Job description helps improve quality and consistency of a product or service by standardizing work activities. 
 
True    False
 

11.
Standardizing processes is less effective in non-routine and complex work. 
 
True    False
 

12.
When work activities are too complex to standardize through extensive training for employees, companies need to coordinate work effort through precise job descriptions. 
 
True    False
 

13.
A narrow span of control exists when a manager has many direct reports. 
 
True    False
 

14.
Generally, a narrow span of control is necessary where employees perform highly interdependent work with others. 
 
True    False
 

15.
Span of control is interconnected with organizational size and the number of layers in the hierarchy. 
 
True    False
 

16.
Tall hierarchies encourage employee empowerment and engagement because they focus power around employees rather than managers. 
 
True    False
 

17.
The number of layers in an organization's hierarchy depends on the number of people employed and the average span of control. 
 
True    False
 

18.
Most organizations begin with centralized structures and become more decentralized as they grow larger and divide work into more specialized functions. 
 
True    False
 

19.
Companies can be centralized in some parts of the organization and decentralized in other parts. 
 
True    False
 

20.
Organizations tend to become less formalized as they age and grow larger in terms of the number of employees. 
 
True    False
 

21.
Formalization represents the establishment of standardization as a coordinating mechanism. 
 
True    False
 

22.
A mechanistic structure is decentralized, has a wide span of control and little formalization. 
 
True    False
 

23.
Mechanistic structures operate better in stable environments than in rapidly changing environments. 
 
True    False
 

24.
As external environments become more complex and dynamic, organizational structures should become more mechanistic and less organic. 
 
True    False
 

25.
Departmentalization establishes interdependencies among employees and subunits and frames the membership of formal work teams. 
 
True    False
 

26.
A problem with departmentalization is that it discourages coordination through informal communication. 
 
True    False
 

27.
A simple structure is one of the best structures in which to accommodate organizational growth and diversification. 
 
True    False
 

28.
Functional structures foster professional identity and permit greater specialization than most other forms of departmentalization. 
 
True    False
 

29.
Functional structures tend to have higher dysfunctional conflict and poorer coordination across units than other forms of departmentalization. 
 
True    False
 

30.
Divisional structures may be formed around products, geography, or clients. 
 
True    False
 

31.
The primary source of environmental diversity or uncertainty mainly determines the best form of divisional structure an organization should adopt. 
 
True    False
 

32.
Companies with divisionalized structures are increasingly adopting the geographically-based structure. 
 
True    False
 

33.
A problem with the divisional structure is that it increases the risk of duplication and underutilization of resources. 
 
True    False
 

34.
Organizations move toward a team-based structure by flattening the hierarchy, reducing formalization, and making extensive use of self-directed work teams. 
 
True    False
 

35.
Team-based organizational structures are usually found within larger divisionalized structures. 
 
True    False
 

36.
A problem with the team-based organizational structure is that employees may experience more stress due to ambiguity of their roles. 
 
True    False
 

37.
Employees working at the matrix level have two bosses. 
 
True    False
 

38.
Conflict and ambiguity associated with the matrix structure causes some employees to experience more stress. 
 
True    False
 

39.
In a typical matrix structure, several satellite organizations are bee-hived around a core firm. 
 
True    False
 

40.
One of the main forces pushing organizations toward a matrix structure is the recognition that an organization has only a few core competencies. 
 
True    False
 

41.
One of the main advantages of network structures is that they ensure the core organization has a high degree of control over production, marketing and other functions. 
 
True    False
 

42.
Network structures come close to the perfect example of a mechanistic organizational structure. 
 
True    False
 

43.
Mechanistic structures are better suited to dynamic environments than to stable environments. 
 
True    False
 

44.
Decentralization is the preferred strategy for organizations in simple, integrated (one market), and hostile environments. 
 
True    False
 

45.
The more integrated the environment, the more the firm would benefit from a divisionalized form of departmentalization. 
 
True    False
 

46.
Larger firms tend to be more centralized and make greater use of direct supervision than do smaller firms. 
 
True    False
 

47.
A mechanistic structure works better than an organic structure where tasks have high variety and low analyzability. 
 
True    False
 

48.
Contingencies, such as size, technology, and environment do not necessarily determine an organization's structure. 
 
True    False
 

49.
Organizational strategy influences both the contingencies of structure and the structure itself. 
 
True    False
 

50.
If a company's strategy is to compete through innovation, a more organic structure would be preferred. 
 
True    False
 

51.
If a company chooses a low-cost strategy, an organic structure is preferred because it maximizes production and service efficiency. 
 
True    False
 

52.
Which of the following fundamental requirements do all organizational structures have? 
 



A. 
Flatter span of control and decentralization
 

B. 
Division of labor and coordination
 

C. 
Decentralization and divisionalization
 

D. 
Coordination and decentralization
 

E. 
Centralization and outsourcing
 
 

53.
Dividing work into more specialized jobs: 
 



A. 
increases training costs.
 

B. 
reduces work efficiency.
 

C. 
reduces the opportunity to match people with appropriate jobs.
 

D. 
increases the time taken in changing from one task to another.
 

E. 
gives an opportunity to the job incumbents to master their tasks quickly.
 
 

54.
To increase work efficiency and make it easier to match employee competencies with job requirements, companies: 
 



A. 
divide work into more specialized jobs.
 

B. 
rely on formal hierarchy as a coordinating mechanism.
 

C. 
rely on a narrow span of control.
 

D. 
centralize decision making.
 

E. 
rely on formal hierarchy and a narrow span of control.
 
 

55.
Coordination of work activities is: 
 



A. 
required whenever there is division of labor.
 

B. 
required only in team-based organizations.
 

C. 
required whenever the organization has more than approximately 100 employees.
 

D. 
required only when organizations operate in complex environments.
 

E. 
discouraged in organizations as it leads to a high degree of interdependence among employees.
 
 

56.
In organizational structures, integrator roles serve mainly as: 
 



A. 
a form of standardization.
 

B. 
an informal communication coordinating mechanism.
 

C. 
a form of direct supervision.
 

D. 
technological contingency.
 

E. 
main element in divisionalized structures.
 
 

57.
Coordination through formal hierarchy relies on: 
 



A. 
informal communication.
 

B. 
job descriptions.
 

C. 
goals and objectives.
 

D. 
direct supervision.
 

E. 
specialized skills of the employees.
 
 

58.
Standardizing work through job descriptions and procedures: 
 



A. 
is a form of coordination.
 

B. 
is more common when the work is complex and ambiguous.
 

C. 
tends to reduce quality and consistency.
 

D. 
is unnecessary in large organizations.
 

E. 
is more common in organic rather than mechanistic structures.
 
 

59.
Which of the following is typically most important among people working in hospital surgical operations? 
 



A. 
Organizational goals
 

B. 
Integrator roles
 

C. 
Job descriptions
 

D. 
Extensive training
 

E. 
Company rules
 
 

60.
When work activities are too complex to standardize through procedures or goals, companies often coordinate work effort: 
 



A. 
through direct supervision.
 

B. 
by extensively training employees.
 

C. 
by giving one employee most of the tasks previously divided among many people.
 

D. 
through further division of labor.
 

E. 
through formal hierarchy.
 
 

61.
Many of the best-performing production plants are able to widen their span of control to more than 70 employees per supervisor by: 
 



A. 
teaching supervisors how to more efficiently monitor employees.
 

B. 
giving up on the idea that all employees must perform their fair share of work.
 

C. 
hiring supervisors who intimidate employees more often.
 

D. 
relying on self-directed work teams and other coordinating mechanisms.
 

E. 
introducing video cameras and other technologies to help supervisors to monitor more employees.
 
 

62.
A wider span of control is possible if: 
 



A. 
employees manage themselves rather than being coordinated through close supervision.
 

B. 
the company has a high degree of formalization and operates in a complex environment.
 

C. 
the organization has few employees and a tall hierarchy.
 

D. 
the companies do not rely on self-directed teams.
 

E. 
very few people report directly to a manager.
 
 

63.
Flatter organizational structures: 
 



A. 
tend to reduce overhead costs.
 

B. 
receive lower quality information from the external environment.
 

C. 
undermine employee empowerment and engagement.
 

D. 
receive less timely information from the external environment.
 

E. 
narrow the span of control for supervisors.
 
 

64.
Candoo Ltd. will soon flatten its hierarchy by removing two of the five layers of management. If the number of employees in the organization remains constant, which of the following must also occur? 
 



A. 
It must adopt a matrix form of departmentalization.
 

B. 
It must widen the span of control.
 

C. 
It must rely more on direct supervision than on standardization to coordinate the resulting structure.
 

D. 
It must centralize decision making.
 

E. 
It must discourage employee empowerment.
 
 

65.
Organizational and environmental complexities push organizations toward: 
 



A. 
formalization.
 

B. 
a more mechanistic structure.
 

C. 
decentralization.
 

D. 
a simple structure.
 

E. 
a narrow span of control.
 
 

66.
_____ is the degree to which organizations standardize behavior through rules, procedures, formal training, and related mechanisms. 
 



A. 
Departmentalization
 

B. 
Span of control
 

C. 
Formalization
 

D. 
Centralization
 

E. 
Division of labor
 
 

67.
As organizations grow older, they tend to: 
 



A. 
become more formalized.
 

B. 
have a more centralized structure.
 

C. 
move toward a simple form of departmentalization.
 

D. 
shift from a mechanistic to an organic structure.
 

E. 
operate with a wide span of control and less standardization.
 
 

68.
Formalization in organizational structures tends to: 
 



A. 
reduce organizational flexibility.
 

B. 
encourage organizational learning and creativity.
 

C. 
focus attention on the ultimate objectives of the organization.
 

D. 
reduce organizational flexibility, and make employees feel alienated and powerless.
 

E. 
decrease efficiency and compliance.
 
 

69.
Span of control, centralization, and formalization together form a cluster around two broader organizational forms called: 
 



A. 
hierarchical and delayered structures.
 

B. 
networked and team-based structures.
 

C. 
geographic and product/client divisions.
 

D. 
organic and mechanistic structures.
 

E. 
diverse and integrated structures.
 
 

70.
Mechanistic structures operate best: 
 



A. 
in stable environments.
 

B. 
where employees dislike hierarchy and status.
 

C. 
when there is horizontal rather than vertical communication flows.
 

D. 
where knowledge management is a competitive advantage to the organization.
 

E. 
where employees perform tasks with high variety and low analyzability.
 
 

71.
An organic structure has: 
 



A. 
a narrow span of control.
 

B. 
centralized decision making.
 

C. 
little formalization.
 

D. 
vertical communication flows.
 

E. 
rigidly defined tasks.
 
 

72.
Which of the following organizational design elements determines the sharing of resources and encourages coordination through informal communication? 
 



A. 
Span of control
 

B. 
Formalization
 

C. 
Centralization
 

D. 
Departmentalization
 

E. 
Standardization
 
 

73.
_____ establishes the chain of command—the system of common supervision among positions and units within the organization. 
 



A. 
Span of control
 

B. 
Formalization
 

C. 
Centralization
 

D. 
Job rotation
 

E. 
Departmentalization
 
 

74.
The simple structure usually depends on _____ to coordinate work activities, so it is very difficult to operate as the company grows and becomes more complex. 
 



A. 
the owner's direct supervision
 

B. 
standardization through formal instructions
 

C. 
formal training (standardizing skills)
 

D. 
standardization of product or service outputs
 

E. 
decentralization
 
 

75.
Which of the following forms of departmentalization organizes employees around specific skills or other resources? 
 



A. 
Divisional structure
 

B. 
Functional structure
 

C. 
Simple structure
 

D. 
Matrix structure
 

E. 
Network structure
 
 

76.
One of the defining characteristics of a functional organizational structure is that it: 
 



A. 
has a narrow span of control and high degree of formalization and centralization.
 

B. 
is the structure that organizes employees around specific knowledge or other resources.
 

C. 
overlays two organizational structures in order to leverage the benefits of both types of structure.
 

D. 
uses self-directed work teams rather than individuals as the basic building block of organizations.
 

E. 
is an alliance of several organizations for the purpose of creating a product or serving a client.
 
 

77.
A wholesale grocery business operates in one city and provides one service—stocking retailers with fresh produce. The company wants to ensure that employees develop expertise in their skill specialization and that these specializations are used efficiently. The aim is to create specialized pools of talent that serve everyone in the company. Which of the following forms of departmentalization would be most appropriate here? 
 



A. 
Simple structure
 

B. 
Matrix structure
 

C. 
Geographic divisional structure
 

D. 
Functional structure
 

E. 
Product divisional structure
 
 

78.
When functional structures are compared with divisionalized structures, functional structures are known to: 
 



A. 
create better economies of scale.
 

B. 
be more responsive to local markets.
 

C. 
encourage employees to focus on the organization's superordinate goals.
 

D. 
be more decentralized.
 

E. 
be more responsive to client needs and reduce conflict across work units.
 
 

79.
One problem with a functional structure is that: 
 



A. 
it is more difficult to directly supervise employees within each department.
 

B. 
it produces higher dysfunctional conflict and poorer coordination.
 

C. 
it makes it difficult to permit greater specialization of skills.
 

D. 
it prevents companies from creating economies of scale.
 

E. 
employees have difficulty creating career paths within their area of knowledge.
 
 

80.
A consumer products firm with a functional structure is expanding from a single product line into several diverse product groups, with most sales within one country. Which of the following should it eventually adopt to manage the new conditions most effectively? 
 



A. 
Geographic divisional structure
 

B. 
Client divisional structure
 

C. 
Matrix structure
 

D. 
Product divisional structure
 

E. 
Simple structure
 
 

81.
Many companies are moving away from divisionalized structures that organize people around 
 



A. 
functional specializations.
 

B. 
clients.
 

C. 
geographic clusters.
 

D. 
products.
 

E. 
emerging forms of technology.
 
 

82.
Freer trade, advances in information technology, and more global customers are pressuring many large global companies to: 
 



A. 
shift away from geographically-based to more client-based divisionalized structures.
 

B. 
increase direct supervision as the main coordinating mechanism.
 

C. 
shift away from divisionalized structures into functional structures.
 

D. 
disband their team-based structures in favor of simple structures.
 

E. 
shift from functional structures to geographically-based divisionalized structures.
 
 

83.
The _____ structure tends to duplicate resources, such as production equipment and engineering or information technology expertise. 
 



A. 
divisional
 

B. 
functional
 

C. 
simple
 

D. 
matrix
 

E. 
network
 
 

84.
Team-based organizations have: 
 



A. 
hourly wages and generous employee benefits.
 

B. 
supervisors as the main source of direction and control.
 

C. 
a tall hierarchy.
 

D. 
communities of practice.
 

E. 
a wide span of control.
 
 

85.
A team-based organizational structure has a: 
 



A. 
tall organizational hierarchy.
 

B. 
high degree of formalization.
 

C. 
decentralized organization structure.
 

D. 
mechanistic organizational structure.
 

E. 
narrow span of control.
 
 

86.
Communication flows in all directions with little concern for the formal hierarchy in a(n) _____, but this structure is costly to maintain due to the need for ongoing interpersonal skill training. 
 



A. 
mechanistic
 

B. 
centralized
 

C. 
team-based
 

D. 
functional
 

E. 
divisional
 
 

87.
Which form of departmentalization tends to have a very flat hierarchy, little formalization and organizes employees around work processes? 
 



A. 
Geographical structure
 

B. 
Functional structure
 

C. 
Team-based structure
 

D. 
Matrix structure
 

E. 
Network structure
 
 

88.
Team-based organizational structures are usually found: 
 



A. 
in the manufacturing operations of larger divisionalized structures.
 

B. 
in organizations that organize employees around distinct regions of the country or world.
 

C. 
in organizations that encourage employees within each specialization to share information.
 

D. 
in government departments and agencies.
 

E. 
in stand-alone organizations that apply no other organizational structures.
 
 

89.
One of the defining characteristics of a matrix organizational structure is that it: 
 



A. 
overlays two organizational structures in order to leverage the benefits of both.
 

B. 
has a narrow span of control and high degree of formalization and centralization.
 

C. 
is the only structure that organizes employees around specific knowledge or other resources.
 

D. 
uses self-directed work teams rather than individuals as the basic building block of organizations.
 

E. 
is an alliance of several organizations for the purpose of creating a product or serving a client.
 
 

90.
Most employees at Quokka Systems are organized into project teams. Employees report to the project leader, but they also report to a leader responsible for their functional specialization (such as engineering or marketing). Quokka Systems has a: 
 



A. 
simple structure.
 

B. 
client-based divisionalized structure.
 

C. 
matrix structure.
 

D. 
product-based divisionalized structure.
 

E. 
functional structure.
 
 

91.
Creative Advertising Corp. wants its 100 employees to work together around specific clients yet maintain an equal emphasis on alignment with their skill specializations (advertising, graphics, copywriting and public relations). Which of the following organizational structures would work best for Creative Advertising Corp.? 
 



A. 
Geographical divisional structure
 

B. 
Simple structure with client-based divisional structure
 

C. 
Network structure
 

D. 
Client-based divisionalized form
 

E. 
Matrix structure that overlays project teams with a functional structure
 
 

92.
Which organizational structure actually consists of several organizations? 
 



A. 
Divisionalized structure
 

B. 
Functional structure
 

C. 
Simple structure
 

D. 
Matrix structure
 

E. 
Network structure
 
 

93.
The increasing recognition that an organization has only a few core competencies is one of the forces pushing towards more: 
 



A. 
functional structures.
 

B. 
simple structures.
 

C. 
client-based divisionalized structures.
 

D. 
network structures.
 

E. 
team-based structures.
 
 

94.
Organizational size, technology, and environment are: 
 



A. 
three dimensions of span of control.
 

B. 
three of the four ways to avoid using coordinating mechanisms.
 

C. 
three conditions that do not influence a simple structure.
 

D. 
three factors that distinguish a virtual corporation from a network structure.
 

E. 
three of the four contingencies of organizational design.
 
 

95.
For which of the following types of environment should organizations adopt an organic structure? 
 



A. 
Munificent environment
 

B. 
Dynamic environment
 

C. 
Stable environment
 

D. 
Simple environment
 

E. 
Routine environment
 
 

96.
Organic structures are better than mechanistic structures for: 
 



A. 
hostile environments.
 

B. 
stable environments.
 

C. 
munificent environments.
 

D. 
munificent and complex environments.
 

E. 
simple and stable environments.
 
 

97.
A divisionalized structure is recommended mainly for: 
 



A. 
stable environments.
 

B. 
diverse environments.
 

C. 
munificent environments.
 

D. 
integrated environments.
 

E. 
simple environments.
 
 

98.
A steel manufacturing firm with about 1,000 employees operates in an environment that is simple and integrated (it makes a small number of steel products to a few key customers) but also dynamic and hostile (rapidly changing technology and customer needs with many competitors). Based on the environment in which this company operates, it would be more successful with a(n): 
 



A. 
organic structure.
 

B. 
centralized structure.
 

C. 
divisionalized structure.
 

D. 
matrix structure.
 

E. 
mechanistic structure.
 
 

99.
Larger organizations: 
 



A. 
make greater use of standardization than do smaller firms.
 

B. 
have similar structures to smaller organizations.
 

C. 
operate without any form of departmentalization for long periods of time.
 

D. 
make lesser use of informal communication as a coordinating mechanism.
 

E. 
are never decentralized.
 
 

100.
Two technological contingencies that influence the best type of organizational structure are: 
 



A. 
dynamism and hostility.
 

B. 
organic and mechanistic.
 

C. 
variability and analyzability.
 

D. 
formalization and division of labor.
 

E. 
coordination and formalization.
 
 

101.
An organization that wants to compete through innovation should: 
 



A. 
adopt an organic structure and make extensive use of informal communication to coordinate work.
 

B. 
centralize by typically giving the decision making authority to those at the top of the organizational hierarchy and formalize its organizational structure.
 

C. 
coordinate employees by laying formal rules and procedures.
 

D. 
switch to a cost leadership strategy as quickly as possible.
 

E. 
adopt a mechanistic structure with functional departmentalization.
 
 

 

1.
Leadership is the ability to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute to organizational effectiveness. 
 
True    False
 

2.
A supervisor uses subtle persuasion to ensure that subordinates have the motivation and role clarity to achieve specified goals. This can be considered leadership. 
 
True    False
 

3.
Shared leadership roles are formally assigned by the team and managers. 
 
True    False
 

4.
Shared leadership is the view that anyone in the organization may be a leader in various ways and at various times. 
 
True    False
 

5.
Organizational behavior takes the view that only people in management and other positions of formal authority in organizations can be leaders. 
 
True    False
 

6.
Unlike the traditional view of leadership, shared leadership lacks formal authority. 
 
True    False
 

7.
High level of extroversion is a weak predictor of leadership. 
 
True    False
 

8.
The competency perspective of leadership advocates the view that situational characteristics distinguish great leaders from the rest of us. 
 
True    False
 

9.
According to the competency perspective of leadership, self-concept, integrity, knowledge of the business, and emotional intelligence are important leadership competencies. 
 
True    False
 

10.
Leaders should not monitor others' emotions and discriminate among them. 
 
True    False
 

11.
Integrity is ultimately based on the leader's values, which provide an anchor for consistency. 
 
True    False
 

12.
Effective leaders are good at expressing emotions, as well as regulating emotions in themselves and others. 
 
True    False
 

13.
The competency perspective of leadership assumes that all effective leaders have the same personal characteristics that are equally important in all situations. 
 
True    False
 

14.
Leadership competencies identify leadership potential, not leadership performance. 
 
True    False
 

15.
The behavioral perspective of leadership focuses on the effectiveness of participative and achievement-oriented leadership styles. 
 
True    False
 

16.
Task-oriented leaders clarify duties and procedures, ensure that employees follow company rules and push them to reach their performance capacity. 
 
True    False
 

17.
University students tend to value people-oriented instructors over task-oriented instructors. 
 
True    False
 

18.
Job performance is higher among employees who work for supervisors with low levels of task-oriented leadership and high levels of people-oriented leadership. 
 
True    False
 

19.
Servant leaders try to understand employee needs and facilitate their work performance. 
 
True    False
 

20.
Servant leadership occurs when employees believe that their energy is put into serving their leader rather than accomplishing organizational objectives. 
 
True    False
 

21.
Path-goal theory has its roots in the expectancy theory of motivation. 
 
True    False
 

22.
Supportive leadership is the same as people-oriented leadership. 
 
True    False
 

23.
Participative leadership behaviors encourage and facilitate subordinate involvement in decisions beyond their normal work activities. 
 
True    False
 

24.
In the achievement-oriented leadership style, leaders expect employees to perform at an optimal level and set realistic goals. 
 
True    False
 

25.
The achievement-oriented leadership style applies the goal-setting and self-fulfilling prophecy concepts. 
 
True    False
 

26.
Managers should use directive and supportive styles of leadership when employees have an external locus of control. 
 
True    False
 

27.
According to path-goal leadership theory, directive leadership should never be applied to inexperienced employees. 
 
True    False
 

28.
The directive style is most effective when employees have routine and simple tasks. 
 
True    False
 

29.
According to path-goal theory, supportive leadership is desirable for employees who work in teams with low cohesiveness. 
 
True    False
 

30.
The situational leadership model states that a person's leadership style cannot be changed and leaders should be placed in situations that match their natural style. 
 
True    False
 

31.
The situational leadership model identifies four leadership styles, telling, selling, participating, and delegating. 
 
True    False
 

32.
According to Fiedler's contingency model, leaders should attempt to change their style to fit the situation. 
 
True    False
 

33.
The leadership substitutes theory identifies conditions that either limit the leader's ability to influence subordinates or make a particular leadership style unnecessary. 
 
True    False
 

34.
Employee benefits such as reward systems cannot replace or reduce the need for task-oriented leadership. 
 
True    False
 

35.
Transactional leaders influence others mainly by using rewards and penalties as well as by negotiating services from employees. 
 
True    False
 

36.
Transactional leaders are mainly change agents. 
 
True    False
 

37.
Organizations should use transformational leadership instead of transactional leadership. 
 
True    False
 

38.
Charismatic leadership refers more to a set of behaviors that engage followers toward a better future, whereas transformational leadership refers mainly to personal traits that provide referent power over followers. 
 
True    False
 

39.
Transformational leaders shape a strategic vision of the future that focuses employees on a superordinate organizational goal. 
 
True    False
 

40.
A strategic vision represents the substance of transformational leadership. 
 
True    False
 

41.
Transformational leadership is usually described as a contingency-oriented model rather than a universal model. 
 
True    False
 

42.
Transformational leadership is more appropriate when organizations have stable environmental conditions. 
 
True    False
 

43.
Implicit leadership theory holds the view that leader prototypes are more important than the attribution of leadership. 
 
True    False
 

44.
The implicit leadership theory states that everyone has beliefs about leadership prototypes. 
 
True    False
 

45.
According to the implicit leadership perspective, we are more likely to believe that a leader is effective if the leader looks and acts consistently with our prototype. 
 
True    False
 

46.
Research indicates that male and female leaders widely differ in their levels of task-oriented and people-oriented leadership. 
 
True    False
 

47.
Women tend to use the participative leadership style less readily than their male counterparts. 
 
True    False
 

48.
Surveys report that women are rated lower than men on the emerging leadership qualities of coaching, teamwork, and empowering employees. 
 
True    False
 

49.
Which of the following is the most accurate definition of leadership? 
 



A. 
Leadership refers to transforming the day-to-day activities of an organization to increase its effectiveness.
 

B. 
Leadership refers to the personality traits of an individual which makes him or her guide an organization to better performance and effectiveness.
 

C. 
Leadership refers to the abilities of an individual to act according to the changes in the environment.
 

D. 
Leadership is influencing, motivating, and enabling others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations.
 

E. 
Leadership refers to the capabilities of certain individuals to introduce successful changes in organizational performance.
 
 

50.
Which of the following statements is most consistent with the view of shared leadership? 
 



A. 
Shared leadership operates out of one formally assigned position shared by two employees.
 

B. 
Leaders should share their power and responsibility to avoid self-serving bias among employees.
 

C. 
Leadership of an organization is broadly distributed rather than assigned to one person.
 

D. 
For organizations to move from autocratic to democratic institutions, shared leadership must be implemented.
 

E. 
A team should have more than one leader to perform effectively.
 
 

51.
The competency (trait) perspective of leadership: 
 



A. 
is one of the most recently studied perspectives of leadership.
 

B. 
is no longer accepted as an approach to understanding leadership in organizations.
 

C. 
takes a contingency approach by identifying the best leadership competencies under different conditions.
 

D. 
holds the view that leaders' competency is dependent on the situation.
 

E. 
presents the view that certain personal characteristics distinguish great leaders from the rest of us.
 
 

52.
According to the _____ perspective of leadership, leadership is associated with the personal characteristics of the person. 
 



A. 
transactional
 

B. 
competency
 

C. 
behavioral
 

D. 
contingency
 

E. 
implicit
 
 

53.
According to the competency (trait) perspective of leadership: 
 



A. 
effective leadership involves being both task-oriented and people-oriented.
 

B. 
the best leadership style depends on the situation.
 

C. 
introducing specific environmental conditions can replace the need for leaders.
 

D. 
leadership is a personal characteristic of the person.
 

E. 
people tend to inflate the importance of leadership in explaining organizational events.
 
 

54.
The competency perspective of leadership identifies drive, integrity, and emotional intelligence as the: 
 



A. 
substitutes for leadership.
 

B. 
main elements of situational leadership theory.
 

C. 
competencies of effective leaders.
 

D. 
contingencies in path-goal theory.
 

E. 
essential traits of engaging in transactional leadership.
 
 

55.
Successful leaders have a positive self-evaluation, including high self-esteem, self-efficacy, and internal locus of control. This refers to the leaders' _____. 
 



A. 
drives
 

B. 
self-concept
 

C. 
cognitive intelligence
 

D. 
emotional intelligence
 

E. 
leadership motivation
 
 

56.
Which of the following characteristics addresses leaders' high need for achievement? 
 



A. 
Integrity
 

B. 
Emotional intelligence
 

C. 
Drive
 

D. 
Self confidence
 

E. 
Leadership motivation
 
 

57.
Effective leaders have a strong need for socialized power, meaning that they want power as a means to accomplish organizational objectives and similar good deeds. This behavior of leaders refers to: 
 



A. 
emotional intelligence.
 

B. 
cognitive intelligence.
 

C. 
integrity.
 

D. 
drive.
 

E. 
leadership motivation.
 
 

58.
Which of the following statements about emotional intelligence and leadership is true? 
 



A. 
Emotional intelligence is one of the most frequently identified contingencies of employees when choosing the best leadership style.
 

B. 
Emotional intelligence is one of the desired competencies of effective leaders.
 

C. 
Emotional intelligence is the psychological condition that makes people want to believe that leaders make a difference.
 

D. 
Emotional intelligence refers to the leader's above-average cognitive ability to process information.
 

E. 
Emotional intelligence makes leaders function with a transactional rather than a transformational orientation.
 
 

59.
_____ leadership refers to how well leaders are aware of, feel comfortable with, and act consistently with their self-concept. 
 



A. 
Authentic
 

B. 
Transformational
 

C. 
Transactional
 

D. 
Behavioral
 

E. 
Implicit
 
 

60.
_____ is knowing yourself and being yourself. 
 



A. 
Authenticity
 

B. 
Integrity
 

C. 
Cognition
 

D. 
Humility
 

E. 
Drive
 
 

61.
Which of the following is a limitation of the competency perspective of leadership? 
 



A. 
It ignores the potential traits of a leader and hence cannot be used to identify leaders.
 

B. 
It suggests that leadership varies according to situations but does not provide remedies to solve any problems related to it.
 

C. 
It supports the view that every individual possesses leadership qualities.
 

D. 
It does not consider the importance of integrity and emotional intelligence in leadership.
 

E. 
It views leadership as something within a person.
 
 

62.
The competency perspective of leadership indicates leadership: 
 



A. 
performance.
 

B. 
potential.
 

C. 
behavior.
 

D. 
contingency.
 

E. 
transformation.
 
 

63.
According to the behavioral perspective of leadership: 
 



A. 
all great leaders are highly task-oriented and are rated low in people-orientation.
 

B. 
leadership behaviors are dependent on the leaders' skills, aptitudes, and situation.
 

C. 
leadership behaviors are clustered into people-oriented and task-oriented leadership.
 

D. 
the best leadership style depends on the employee's behavior at the time of interaction.
 

E. 
leadership style is related to the individual's personality and, consequently, organizations should engineer the situation to fit the leader's dominant style.
 
 

64.
Which of the following clusters of leadership behaviors are identified by the behavioral perspective of leadership? 
 



A. 
Task-oriented and people-oriented
 

B. 
Transformational and transactional
 

C. 
Supportive and achievement-oriented
 

D. 
Transformational and implicit
 

E. 
Extrovert and competency-based
 
 

65.
According to the behavioral perspective of leadership, task-oriented leaders: 
 



A. 
establish challenging goals.
 

B. 
develop mutual trust and respect for subordinates.
 

C. 
listen to employees' suggestions.
 

D. 
do personal favors for employees.
 

E. 
establish a personal relationship with employees.
 
 

66.
According to the behavioral perspective of leadership, _____ includes showing mutual trust and respect for subordinates and having a desire to look out for their welfare. 
 



A. 
task-orientation
 

B. 
people-orientation
 

C. 
achievement-orientation
 

D. 
transaction-orientation
 

E. 
participation-orientation
 
 

67.
According to the behavioral perspective of leadership, _____ includes defining and structuring work roles, clarifying employees' work duties and procedures, and pushing employees to reach their performance capacity. 
 



A. 
achievement-orientation
 

B. 
participation-orientation
 

C. 
task-orientation
 

D. 
transformational-orientation
 

E. 
people-orientation
 
 

68.
Servant leadership emphasizes the notion that: 
 



A. 
employees are paid to serve their leaders.
 

B. 
leaders should be able to serve the organization by maximizing employee performance.
 

C. 
employees are servants in the organization, so they should place organizational objectives above their personal needs.
 

D. 
leaders should serve the organization rather than the society.
 

E. 
leaders serve followers, rather than vice versa.
 
 

69.
Which of the following leadership theories or perspectives explicitly includes the participative and the directive style? 
 



A. 
Competency (trait) perspective
 

B. 
Transformational leadership theory
 

C. 
Implicit leadership perspective
 

D. 
Path-goal theory
 

E. 
Transactional perspective
 
 

70.
Which of the following is a leadership style identified in path-goal theory? 
 



A. 
Achievement-oriented leadership
 

B. 
Selling leadership
 

C. 
Transformational leadership
 

D. 
Emotional intelligence
 

E. 
Transactional leadership
 
 

71.
Which of the following leadership styles in path-goal theory is the same as task-oriented leadership in the behavioral perspective of leadership? 
 



A. 
Directive
 

B. 
Supportive
 

C. 
Participative
 

D. 
Achievement-oriented
 

E. 
Collaborative
 
 

72.
Which of the following leadership styles in path-goal theory is the same as people-oriented leadership in the behavioral perspective of leadership? 
 



A. 
Directive
 

B. 
Supportive
 

C. 
Participative
 

D. 
Achievement-oriented
 

E. 
Facultative
 
 

73.
Which of the following leadership styles in path-goal theory is most closely associated with goal-setting and positive self-fulfilling prophecy? 
 



A. 
Directive
 

B. 
Supportive
 

C. 
Participative
 

D. 
Achievement-oriented
 

E. 
Encouraging
 
 

74.
Path-goal theory argues that: 
 



A. 
leadership is relatively unimportant in high-performance organizations.
 

B. 
participative leadership is the most effective style of leadership.
 

C. 
supportive leadership is best suited to maximize organizational performance.
 

D. 
great leaders have certain common personal characteristics and goals.
 

E. 
effective leaders select the most appropriate behavior based on the situation.
 
 

75.
A combination of _____ leadership is best for employees who are (or perceive themselves to be) inexperienced and unskilled. 
 



A. 
achievement-oriented and directive
 

B. 
participative and directive
 

C. 
directive and supportive
 

D. 
supportive and achievement-oriented
 

E. 
supportive and participative
 
 

76.
People with an external locus of control tend to be more satisfied with _____ leadership styles. 
 



A. 
achievement-oriented and directive
 

B. 
participative and directive
 

C. 
directive and supportive
 

D. 
supportive and achievement-oriented
 

E. 
supportive and participative
 
 

77.
A problem associated with path-goal theory is that: 
 



A. 
it has received less research support than other contingency leadership models.
 

B. 
some elements of the theory have not yet been investigated.
 

C. 
it ignores the possibility that the best leadership style depends on the situation.
 

D. 
it overlooks the two dimensions of leadership identified in the behavioral perspective of leadership.
 

E. 
it ignores team dynamics as a possible contingency of leadership.
 
 

78.
Which of the following leadership styles should be used by leaders when team cohesiveness is low? 
 



A. 
Directive
 

B. 
Supportive
 

C. 
Participative
 

D. 
Achievement-oriented
 

E. 
Authoritative
 
 

79.
According to the situational leadership theory (SLT) developed by Hersey and Blanchard, effective leaders vary their style with the: 
 



A. 
ability and motivation of followers.
 

B. 
availability of leadership substitutes.
 

C. 
leader's capacity to engage in participative management.
 

D. 
leader's integrity, influence, and other traits or competencies.
 

E. 
leaders' personality and perceptions.
 
 

80.
Telling, selling, participating, and delegating represent the four leadership styles identified in: 
 



A. 
path-goal theory.
 

B. 
transformational leadership theory.
 

C. 
leadership competencies theory.
 

D. 
situational leadership theory.
 

E. 
implicit leadership theory.
 
 

81.
According to Fiedler's contingency model of leadership: 
 



A. 
everyone has the same capacity to become an effective leader.
 

B. 
effective leaders are able to change their style to fit the situation.
 

C. 
the best leadership style depends on the availability of leadership substitutes.
 

D. 
leader effectiveness depends on whether the person's natural leadership style is appropriately matched to the situation.
 

E. 
effective leaders vary their style with the ability and motivation (or commitment) of followers.
 
 

82.
Which of the following explicitly argues that people have a preferred leadership style based on their personality, so organizations should move leaders into situations that fit their preferred style? 
 



A. 
Path-goal theory
 

B. 
Transformational leadership
 

C. 
Implicit leadership perspective
 

D. 
Leadership competencies perspective
 

E. 
Fiedler's contingency model of leadership
 
 

83.
Fiedler's contingency model of leadership states that the best leadership style depends on: 
 



A. 
the leader's emotional intelligence.
 

B. 
the level of situational control.
 

C. 
the leader's level of servant leadership.
 

D. 
the leader's knowledge of the employee's job.
 

E. 
ability and motivation of followers.
 
 

84.
Fiedler's contingency model of leadership has made an important and lasting contribution to the study of leadership because it: 
 



A. 
is the only leadership theory to adopt a contingency approach.
 

B. 
was the first theory to recognize the existence of leadership substitutes.
 

C. 
suggests that organizations need to engineer the situation to fit the leader's preferred style.
 

D. 
discovered that effective leaders do not have a common set of competencies.
 

E. 
is the only theory to adopt the implicit leadership perspective.
 
 

85.
_____ theory identifies conditions that either limit the leader's ability to influence subordinates or make a particular leadership style unnecessary. 
 



A. 
Transformational leadership
 

B. 
Transactional leadership
 

C. 
Leadership substitutes
 

D. 
Path-goal
 

E. 
Implicit leadership
 
 

86.
Sanco Systems uses performance-based reward systems across various departments to keep employees directed toward organizational goals. The management at Sanco Systems believes that these rewards might replace or reduce the need for task-oriented leadership. Which of the following leadership theories supports this action? 
 



A. 
Situational leadership
 

B. 
Path-goal
 

C. 
Behavioral perspective
 

D. 
Leadership substitutes
 

E. 
Competency perspective
 
 

87.
Which leadership theory or perspective adopts the view that leaders are agents of change? 
 



A. 
Transformational leadership perspective
 

B. 
Path-goal theory
 

C. 
Implicit leadership perspective
 

D. 
Behavioral perspective
 

E. 
Leadership substitutes
 
 

88.
Transactional leaders: 
 



A. 
engage in participative leadership.
 

B. 
build a strategic vision to change the organization.
 

C. 
influence subordinates by using rewards.
 

D. 
possess all of the competencies of great leaders.
 

E. 
act as change agents in the organization.
 
 

89.
Transformational leaders: 
 



A. 
improve the operational efficiency of an organization.
 

B. 
support the current strategy and ensure that the employees perform tasks more effectively.
 

C. 
energize and direct employees to a new vision and corresponding behaviors.
 

D. 
help employees become more proficient and satisfied in the current situation.
 

E. 
influence employees by negotiating services from them.
 
 

90.
Charisma refers to: 
 



A. 
the personal traits that provide referent power over others.
 

B. 
the traits that lead to transactional leadership.
 

C. 
the situational traits that lead to transformational leadership.
 

D. 
the people-oriented behaviors displayed by individuals.
 

E. 
any situation where followers attribute positive things to leaders who do not really deserve this credit.
 
 

91.
Organizational behavior research indicates that transformational leaders produce _____ followers, whereas charismatic leaders produce dependent followers. 
 



A. 
unskilled
 

B. 
directive
 

C. 
empowered
 

D. 
real
 

E. 
servant
 
 

92.
_____ represents the substance of transformational leadership. 
 



A. 
Effectiveness
 

B. 
Charisma
 

C. 
Operational efficiency
 

D. 
Strategic vision
 

E. 
Emotional intelligence
 
 

93.
If vision is the substance of transformational leadership, then _____ is the process. 
 



A. 
framing consistent values
 

B. 
establishing a mission
 

C. 
showing integrity
 

D. 
embedding the vision in strategy
 

E. 
communicating the vision
 
 

94.
Which of the following refers to "walking the talk"? 
 



A. 
The leader uses metaphors to symbolize the vision to the employees.
 

B. 
The leader continuously works as a part of a team to know them better.
 

C. 
The leader provides specific instructions to help employees understand the task requirements.
 

D. 
The leader steps out and behaves in ways that symbolize the vision.
 

E. 
The leader continuously analyzes the path that the organization is taking.
 
 

95.
Which of the following is a limitation of the transformational perspective of leadership? 
 



A. 
It focuses too much on how leaders improve organizational efficiency.
 

B. 
It is typically presented as a universal rather than contingency perspective.
 

C. 
Transformational leaders are not defined in terms of their success.
 

D. 
It totally ignores the need for having an organizational change agent.
 

E. 
Transformational leaders are often judged based on specific behaviors.
 
 

96.
Implicit leadership theory states that: 
 



A. 
everyone is capable of being an effective leader.
 

B. 
the best leadership style depends on both the characteristics of employees and the environment in which they work.
 

C. 
leadership is a perception, not the actual behaviors and competencies of people.
 

D. 
everyone has preconceived beliefs about leaders.
 

E. 
leaders should act as change agents in organizations.
 
 

97.
The concept of leadership prototypes is an important component of: 
 



A. 
competency theory.
 

B. 
implicit leadership theory.
 

C. 
Fiedler's contingency perspective.
 

D. 
transformational perspective.
 

E. 
path-Goal theory of leadership.
 
 

98.
Leadership prototypes refer to: 
 



A. 
preconceived beliefs about the features and behaviors of effective leaders.
 

B. 
factors that substitute leadership in organizations.
 

C. 
a theoretical construct that encompasses all the qualities of leadership.
 

D. 
the models of ideal leadership in various situations based on previous experience.
 

E. 
an amalgam of the least effective leadership characteristics leaders should avoid.
 
 

99.
When people have leadership prototypes, they: 
 



A. 
attribute the actions of leaders to external causes rather than to internal attributes.
 

B. 
give leaders more credit or blame than due because of their need to believe that life's events are caused mainly by human agents.
 

C. 
believe that effective leaders should concentrate on increasing organizational effectiveness rather than other activities.
 

D. 
believe that leaders are effective only if they behave consistently with their own preconceptions of how an effective leader should act.
 

E. 
tend to observe the leader's performance rather than physical features and other traits.
 
 

100.
Which of the following leadership approaches directly support the idea that the "romance of leadership" is important in leadership? 
 



A. 
Transformational leadership perspective
 

B. 
Transactional leadership perspective
 

C. 
Implicit leadership perspective
 

D. 
Contingency perspective of leadership
 

E. 
Behavioral perspective of leadership
 
 

101.
Which of the following statements about culture and leadership is true? 
 



A. 
Participative leadership is perceived as characteristic of effective leadership in low power distance cultures.
 

B. 
There are no similarities and only differences in the concept and preferred practice of leadership across cultures.
 

C. 
Transformational leadership theory explains differences in leadership practices across cultures.
 

D. 
Employees in high power distance cultures prefer a participative leadership style.
 

E. 
People's expectations from their leaders are universal—they do not differ across countries.
 
 

102.
Which of the following statements about leadership and gender is true? 
 



A. 
Male leaders tend to use the participative style more often than do female leaders.
 

B. 
Men tend to have better interpersonal skills compared to women.
 

C. 
Male and female leaders generally do not differ in their use of participative leadership.
 

D. 
Female leaders do not comply with follower expectations.
 

E. 
Male and female leaders generally do not differ in their use of task-oriented and people-oriented leadership.
 
 

103.
How do women differ from men in their use of leadership styles? 
 



A. 
Women tend to use more of the people-oriented leadership style than do men.
 

B. 
Women and men use all leadership styles to about the same extent.
 

C. 
Women tend to use more of the task-oriented leadership style than do men.
 

D. 
Women tend to use more of the participative leadership style than do men.
 

E. 
Women tend to use directive styles of leadership in organizations.
 
 

104.
People tend to evaluate female leaders slightly less favorably than male leaders because: 
 



A. 
women tend to adopt a directive style of leadership.
 

B. 
people have more trust in authoritarian leadership than participative leadership.
 

C. 
they tend to rely on gender stereotypes and prototypes of leaders.
 

D. 
women tend to use one leadership style whereas effective leaders use many styles.
 

E. 
women are more people-oriented than task-oriented.
 
 

 
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