HST 276 Week 4 Week Four Worksheet

HST 276 Week 4 Week Four Worksheet

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 HST 276 Week 4 Week Four Worksheet
 

Complete the University of Phoenix Material: Week Four Worksheet.

Submit your worksheet to the Assignment Files tab.

Week 4 Worksheet

 

As you read this week’s required materials, complete this worksheet. This is a multipage assignment; double-check that you completed each page before submitting.

 

 
 

 

Part I: Fill in the Blanks
 

 

Fill in the blanks to complete the following sentences.

 

 

1.    Ming-Dynasty China
 

 

 

 

 

The population of China approximately doubled between the start of the Ming dynasty in            and its collapse and replacement by the Manchus in                 . This population increase, along with a reduction in government regulation, led to China’s          Commercial Revolution, which lasted from 1500 and 1800. Economic advances during this time, which extended into the Qing era, included the                system for textile manufacture, trade with the             empire through the port of Manila, expansion of private            from Shaanxi into other provinces, flourishing intermediate             towns, and trade in staples like grain and cotton.
 

 

The late imperial system of political control relied on a large, well-funded, and powerful              staffed by dedicated officials who competed for positions by               passing               ; the central authority of the              ; and the support of the new wealthy, literate             
 

 

Early Ming-dynasty foreign policy was aggressively expansionist, as emperors extended their control into historical Chinese territories and northern , which became a Chinese province. Despite the early Ming success in wresting China from the Yuan dynasty, the                remained China’s most serious threat, capturing Beijing in 1550.
 

 

A Muslim eunuch named  led China’s most ambitious expeditions of maritime exploration, sailing through much of Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean. Due to lack of interest, however, the Chinese halted these voyages.
 

 

 

 

2.    Qing-Dynasty China
 

 

 

 

 

The Qing dynasty was proclaimed by rulers of the former Chinese vassal, , with its first capital at                          . When the Ming dynasty fell to rebel forces in 1644, the Qing earned the support of much of the bureaucracy and military by presenting themselves as protectors of the                The Qing capital was moved to               that same year, and the new dynasty had reconquered all of southern China by             .
 

 

The emperor Kangxi led the conquest of the island of , home to Chinese and Japanese pirates, in 1681. Struggles with a new rival to the north and northwest,              , led to constant conflict and extensive territorial gains for China.
 

 

The Chinese population and commerce continued to expand under the Qing dynasty, fueled by new crops from the , new silver and copper mines, and silver acquired through trade with               
 

 

Contact with the West increased in the 17th century, but in the early 18th century, the Qing rulers restricted trade to land outside the walls of . The 1793 British        mission to expand trade did not succeed, and the emperor Qianlong explained in a letter to George III that China                            British manufactured goods.
 

 

 

 

3.    Japanese Civilization in the Warring States Era
 

 

 

 

 

The Ahikaga bakufu collapsed in 1467 over a dispute about who would be the next . With this change, regional             lords could no longer count on the bakufu system for defense against their vassals. As a result, most of these regional lords were defeated in the coming years, and hundreds of small                        , each with a group of warriors to support it, took their place.
 

 

As the widespread civil warfare continued, several regional powers emerged once again, with castles often located on plains and surrounded by new  that supplied their needs. Toyotomi Hideyoshi succeeded in reuniting all of             island, and his successor,            , completed the reunification of Japan in 1600, ending the Warring States era.
 

 

 

 

4.    Civilization of Tokugawa-Era Japan
 

 

 

 

 

Tokugawa Ieyasu took for himself the title  in 1603 and established a new bakufu based in          , present-day Tokyo. Ieyasu confiscated the territory of his enemies and transferred many               to different domains to reward his             , weaken his                   , and provide a                  system with his most loyal followers nearest his stronghold.
 

 

Strict  codes regulated the upper levels of Tokugawa-era society. A             system also helped maintain control, requiring the family of daimyo to remain as courtiers in         . The shōgun’s control of society was further strengthened in 1630 with an official policy           of               , prohibiting foreigners from entering Japan and Japanese from leaving the country. The only permitted foreigners were a few select traders in                .
 

 

Late Tokugawa-era Japan followed a cycle of extravagant spending, followed by   The law, the value of loyalty, and the                 at the bakufu and domain levels created long-lasting stability.
 

 

 

 

5.    Choson-Era Korean Civilization
 

 

 

 

 

Traditional Korea’s political and economic development was limited by repeated interventions from its two powerful neighbors, China and . The Choson dynasty maintained its hold on power by maintaining an alliance and paying                to the Ming and Qing dynasties in China.
 

 

The Choson dynasty was founded by , a general who, when ordered to fight        -dynasty China, overthrew his Koryo-dynasty employer and took the crown for himself.
 

 

Between 1418 and 1450, Korea was ruled by King , a wise monarch who reformed Korea’s financial system, combated piracy, expanded the northern borders across the              River, and encouraged scholarship.
 

 

Korea was devastated by invasions from  in 1592 and 1597, and the troops from Korea’s Ming-dynasty Chinese allies                                  the land they were there to protect. In 1627 and 1637, Korea was again seriously damaged by            
 

 

During the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, Korea , suffering from famine, natural disasters, banditry, and peasant rebellions. The Choson dynasty maintained control through the military power centralized in the capital,             , and through the intervention of           their                            
 

 

 

 

6.    Late Traditional Vietnamese Civilization
 

 

 

 

 

The Le dynasty was founded by , who led a successful rebellion against China using war             . The Le dynasty centralized power and used Chinese institutions like selecting officials through                     , levying land taxes, and claiming the Mandate of Heaven.
 

 

The 15th-century ruler who instituted widespread reforms and encouraged Neo-Confucian learning was . During his reign, Vietnam conquered its southern neighbor,           , and initiated a long-term migration pattern of ethnic Vietnamese expanding southward. He established a tolerant legal code that appealed to                values shared by Vietnamese and Chams.
 

 

As the Le dynasty declined, smaller independent states were formed in Vietnam: the                family ruled in the north; the              family ruled central Vietnam from their capital in            , and expanded their control to Saigon and the            River delta, areas with large minorities of ethnic            . In 1802, the northern armies were defeated and the                dynasty united Vietnam once more. The new rulers adopted the legal code of the                     
 

 

 

 

7.    Early Modern European Civilization
 

 

 

 

 

During the 16th and 17th centuries, Europe’s countries began industrializing, initiated new and more complex financial systems, and consolidated power through two different approaches to government: the English system of           with a cooperative relationship between parliament and the monarch to protect traditional liberties, and the French system of                     , founded on the idea of the divine right of kings. This consolidation of power resulted in the emergence in the 18th century of four great powers that would dominate Europe until at least World War I: France,        ,         , and        .
 

 

A civil war broke out in England in 1642 between supporters of King  and           , which sought to protect Puritanism and Protestantism. The                      forces were victorious. Following the civil war, the government was known as a              , but Oliver Cromwell was a military dictator. In 1685, England’s new Roman Catholic king,            , extended religious freedom to all Roman Catholics and Protestants. He was replaced by his elder daughter, Mary II, and her husband William of Orange in what is known as the             Revolution, a bloodless invasion to protect the traditional liberties of the            Church and                
 

 

In France, the ancien regime or  was the pattern of social, political,                      and            relationships that existed in Continental Europe before           . At the top of this hierarchy was the king, and the long-reigning king who best personified this divine right of kings was                  , who said “I am the state.” In response to his efforts to establish direct royal administration, nobles rose up between 1649 and 1652 in rebellions known                    as the               . During his reign, France entered four major wars of               . The War of the Spanish Succession, the last of these four wars, resulted in the              dynasty’s rule of Spain and the cession of possessions in Flanders and Italy. These wars significantly                                          the French treasury.
 

 

Following the Time of Troubles in Russia, the  dynasty was founded with the election of a new tsar, Michael. Michael’s grandson,            the Great, became tsar in 1682. During his reign, he reduced the power of the traditional nobility, called           , and the Moscow guards, or           . He conscripted hundreds of thousands of soldiers and built improved warships in the Baltic and              Seas, motivated by a desire to see Russia become a great power of Europe through                 During his reign, he founded the new capital of                  on the Gulf of Finland, fought corruption, and limited the power of the Orthodox Church by eliminating the position of               .
 

 

By the mid-17th century, the  family controlled the title of Holy Roman Emperor and the kingdoms of Bohemia, which included Moravia and Silesia, and               , which included Croatia and Transylvania. In the 18th century, Emperor Charles VI devoted much of his time to achieving the                  , a document providing the legal basis for his daughter,                 , to inherit his dominions.
 

 

The Prussian state was rooted in the holdings of the  family, rulers of Brandenburg who gradually expanded their holdings within the Holy Roman Empire over several centuries. Prussian society and the military were dominated by the German noble class,           . The Prussian military was strong, and                       , king from 1713 to 1740, reorganized the                to closely parallel the military and more than doubled the size of the army.
 

 

In 1740, the death of Emperor Charles VI triggered the War of the  Succession, when the new king of Prussia,                              , invaded Silesia with the support of France. This war expanded when Great Britain came to the defense of the Hapsburgs, and when France decided to support                in its struggles against Great Britain in the New World. The forces fought to a stalemate, and Prussia retained Silesia in the Treaty of            that ended the war.
 

 

Just a few years later, in 1756, European powers fought in a truly global war known as the _____ . In this war, Prussia and                allied against Austria,          , Russia, Sweden, and the smaller German states. At the end of the war, borders in            remained largely unchanged, but France lost its possessions in Quebec and was defeated in               by British forces led by Robert Clive.
 

 

 

 

8.    The Ottoman Empire
 

 

 

 

 

The Ottoman dynasty ruled Turks from Central Asia who first established a stable state in Anatolia, part of what is now the country of . The Ottomans expanded at the expense of the                      Empire, and Sultan                          finally defeated this enemy in 1453, seizing Constantinople and renaming it                 .
 

 

The Ottoman Empire continued expanding through the 15th and 16th centuries primarily due to its large and loyal . Ottoman forces were comprised of aristocratic cavalry officers and slave soldiers who owed loyalty only to the             . The practice of conscripting slave soldiers from the provinces, known as              , transformed young Christian boys into Muslims who served in the bureaucracy and military. Under the leadership of Selim I and                     the Lawgiver or the Magnificent, Ottoman rule expanded to Syria-Palestine, Egypt, North Africa, portions of Arabia, Kurdistan, Georgia, and Mesopotamia.
 

 

The Ottomans laid siege to the capital of their Hapsburg rivals, , between 1526 and 1529, and again in 1683, but they failed to capture the city. The Ottoman Empire began to decline in the early 17th century with the loss of territory to the               dynasty of Iran. After the second failed siege of the Hapsburg capital, the Ottomans lost all of              and the city of Belgrade. Later, in 1774, the decline continued with the loss of the Crimea to          .
 

 

 

 

9.    Mughal India
 

 

 

 

 

The Mughals, Chaghatay Turks from beyond the  River in Central Asia, invaded            in the early 16th century, ending its political fragmentation. The founder of the Mughal Dynasty,          , replaced the sultan of               and, by 1530, ruled much of the subcontinent.
 

 

 the Great expanded the empire and integrated non-Muslims more fully into society. His successors presided over the golden age of Mughal civilization:               allowed English merchants to establish an outpost at Surat;                  completed the conquest of the Deccan but lost                   to the Safavids, and he also sponsored the elegant                , a tomb for his consort, Mumtaz.
 

 

 persecuted non-Muslims, destroyed Hindu temples, and killed guru Teg Bahadur, leader of the             . The rebellions among Sikhs and nationalist Hindu           , who controlled the western coast of India, helped weaken the Mughal state. Continuing invasions and uprisings weakened the Mughals, and by 1819, the new dominant power in the subcontinent was the                      
 

 

 

Part II: Cultural Contributions

 

Complete the following matrix with at least one element for each category.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Civilization
Intellectual Contributions
Artistic Forms or Contributions
Architecture
Religious Beliefs
Traditions
Ming-Dynasty China
 
 
 
 
 
Qing-Dynasty China
 
 
 
 
 
Japan During the Warring States Era
 
 
 
 
 
Tokugawa-era Japan
 
 
 
 
 
Choson-era Korea
 
 
 
 
 
Late Traditional Vietnam
 
 
 
 
 
Early Modern European
 
 
 
 
 
Ottoman
 
 
 
 
 
Mughal India
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
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