HCS 214 Week 5 Week Five Knowledge Check

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HCS 214 Week 5 Week Five Knowledge Check
Complete the University of Phoenix Material: Week Five Knowledge Checks
1.

Which of the following parts of the urinary system is best described as an expandable sac that holds urine?

· A.

The urinary bladder

· B.

The kidney

· C.

The urethra

· D.

The ureter
2.

Identify a true statement about the urinary system.

· A.

The urinary system helps control the body's fluid and ion balance.

· B.

The urinary system does not play a role in controlling blood pressure.

· C.

In the process of urine formation, the part of the filtrate that is secreted into the urine will eventually be reabsorbed into the body.

· D.

In the process of urine formation, the entire filtrate that is formed as a result of filtration is eliminated from the body.
3.

Jamie teaches human physiology at Cetrialwood University. To explain the organs involved in urine formation, he makes use of a structural model of the human urinary system. The model includes two bean-shaped organs, one positioned on the upper left-hand side and the other positioned on the upper right-hand side of an expandable, hollow sac. Here, each organ is connected to the sac by a tube of smooth muscle. The bottom of the sac opens out into a thin, muscular tube. After explaining all the parts of the model and their functions, Jamie asks his students to match the organs to their respective functions. Given below are some of the answers his students give him. Choose the most accurate one from the following.

· A.

The ureter is the expandable sac that stores urine.

· B.

The urethra is the thin muscular tube that transports urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. 

· C.

The kidneys are the bean-shaped organs that filter blood to make urine.

· D.

The urinary bladder is the tubular structure that transports urine out of the body.
4.

Select an accurate statement about the anatomy of the kidney.

· A.

The innermost region of the kidney is called the renal cortex.

· B.

The renal medulla is the region of the kidney where the blood is actually filtered.

· C.

The blood vessels that bring blood into the kidneys for filtration are the renal veins.

· D.

The fibrous covering of connective tissue that surrounds the kidney is called the renal capsule.
5.

Mariah uses a model of a nephron to explain a certain step in urine formation in human beings. She points to the model and explains how blood flowing through the glomerulus is pushed into the Bowman's capsule. She goes on to explain how the walls of the glomerulus and the podocytes of the Bowman's capsule act as a sieve, allowing all the components of the blood to pass through, except for the blood cells and a few large molecules. Which step of urine formation is Mariah explaining in this scenario?

· A.

Glomerular filtration

· B.

Tubular secretion

· C.

Tubular reabsorption

· D.

Glomerular adsorption
6.

In the context of the blood vessels that supply blood to the kidneys, what are the arteries that originate from the arcuate arteries and supply blood to the renal cortex called?

· A.

Interlobar arteries

· B.

Cortical radiate arteries

· C.

Segmental arteries

· D.

Lobar arteries
7.

In the context of urine formation, identify a hormone produced by the hypothalamus that increases the permeability of the distal tubule and the collecting duct, which in turn increases the absorption of water when the blood pressure is low.

· A.

Testosterone

· B.

Atrial natriuretic peptide

· C.

Antidiuretic hormone

· D.

Epinephrine
8.

Which of the following statements is true of the processes involved in urine production?

· A.

Filtration is primarily responsible for controlling the concentration of chemicals in the urine.

· B.

Secretion is primarily responsible for moving fluid and chemicals from the blood to the nephron.

· C.

Secretion is the first step in the formation of urine.

· D.

Reabsorption helps in controlling the volume of urine.
9.

Abby is rushed to the nearest hospital after her car accidently swerves off the road and crashes into a tree. On examination, Dr. Richards observes that she has suffered major head injuries and has lost a lot of blood. He confirms internal bleeding and recommends immediate surgery. Along with other vital signs, Dr. Richards directs the medical staff to monitor Abby's urine output. What effect is the trauma of the accident most likely to have on Abby's urinary system?

· A.

The rate of glomerular filtration will decrease significantly.

· B.

The sympathetic output to the afferent arterioles will decrease.

· C.

The concentration of urea in Abby's blood will decrease.

· D.

The blood flow to the glomerulus will increase significantly.
10.

Joshua used to be a healthy teenager. However, of late, he seems to be less focused and mentally disoriented. He eats less, hiccups frequently, and often complains of experiencing itching and cramping. He is always fatigued and had a very recent episode of seizures. Startled by these changes in Joshua's health, his mother takes him to the hospital. After a thorough examination, Dr. Salim concludes that these symptoms are a result of the accumulation of nitrogenous wastes in Joshua's bloodstream. Dr. Salim speculates whether Joshua is suffering from renal failure. He advises Joshua to follow a low-protein dietary plan and even remarks that kidney replacement therapy may be required if Joshua does not show any signs of recovery. Based on the information provided in this scenario, identify the current blood condition from which Joshua is suffering.

· A.

Anemia

· B.

Hematuria

· C.

Uremia

· D.

Septicemia 
11.

What is true of polycystic kidney disease (PKD)?

· A.

It is a non-hereditary condition.

· B.

It does not affect infants.

· C.

It can be easily cured by taking medications.

· D.

It generally progresses to renal failure with age.
21.

Identify a condition that is marked by abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood, which is caused by the body's inability to produce insulin.

· A.

Polycystic kidney disease

· B.

Diabetes mellitus

· C.

Ischemia

· D.

Uremia
12.

What is the inability to control urination called?

· A.

Incontinence

· B.

Cystitis

· C.

Nephritis

· D.

Uremia
13.

Ella has a history of urinary tract infections. She urinates frequently and cannot seem to control her urge to urinate at night. Lately, she has been experiencing severe pelvic and abdominal pains and has also noticed the presence of blood in her urine. Her doctor has advised her to drink lots of water and has prescribed certain antibiotics for her to take. Based on the information provided in this scenario, determine the condition from which Ella is suffering.

· A.

Diabetes insipidus ADH deficiency

· B.

Interstitial cystitis

· C.

Overactive bladder

· D.

Hyperglycemia
14.

Identify a true statement about urinary tract infections.

· A.

Urinary tract infections are always diagnosed through blood tests.

· B.

Urinary tract infections pose no threat to the kidneys.

· C.

Postmenopausal women are more prone to urinary tract infections.

· D.

The only treatment for urinary tract infections is kidney transplantation.
15.

Which of the following is a waste product produced through muscle metabolism that is primarily eliminated by the kidney?

· A.

Bilirubin

· B.

Protein

· C.

Glucose

· D.

Creatinine
16.

Layla is a senior aeronautical engineer who works with the National Space Research Agency of Batanglasia. For their latest space mission, Layla is required to undergo a thorough medical examination before joining the team. As part of the medical routine, Layla's urine sample is sent for a urinalysis. On examining the urine sample, Eduardo, a laboratory worker, suspects that Layla may be suffering from a renal disorder. Which of the following signs might have triggered speculation?

· A.

The presence of crystals in Layla's urine

· B.

The absence of color in Layla's urine

· C.

The presence of urea in Layla's urine

· D.

The absence of turbidity in Layla's urine
17.

Identify an accurate statement about blood urea nitrogen (BUN) tests.

· A.

High BUN levels are an indication of increased urea secretion by the kidneys.

· B.

The BUN test is used to measure the amount of urea, the waste product of protein metabolism, in the blood.

· C.

The BUN test is most useful for assessing the functioning of the heart.

· D.

The BUN test is typically used to measure the concentration of creatinine, a product of muscle metabolism, in the blood.
18.

Which of the following is a possible causative condition for increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test results?

· A.

A low-protein diet

· B.

Overhydration

· C.

Gl hemorrhage

· D.

Intravenous therapy
19.

Select an accurate statement about the possible causative conditions for abnormality in urine color.

· A.

Red colored urine could be an indication of decreased fluid intake.

· B.

Orange colored urine could be an indication of untreated diabetes mellitus.

· C.

Nearly clear urine could be an indication of Addison's disease.

· D.

Black colored urine could be an indication of Lysol poisoning.
20.

Sheila is a 28-year-old professional dancer. She follows a strict low carb, low salt diet to maintain her figure. Of late, she has been experiencing severe abdominal pains and has lost her appetite. She also gets tired very easily and urinates more often than usual. Sheila finally decides to seek medical help after collapsing during one of her practice sessions. After noting her symptoms, her doctor sends Sheila's urine sample for a concentration analysis as he suspects a case of renal failure. Surprisingly, the test results turn out to be normal. Unconvinced, the doctor orders other urinary tests to be performed, which eventually confirm his suspicion. In this context, what is most likely the reason that the results of the concentration test came out to be normal, though Sheila had a serious renal disorder?

· A.

Because of the low salt diet

· B.

Because of a healthy liver

· C.

Because of Lysol poisoning

· D.

Because of excess sodium consumption
 
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