HSA 535 final exam part 1 and 2

HSA 535 final exam part 1 and 2


Reproductive health studies ____.

Physical, biological, social, cultural, and behaviors that
influence health are known as ____.

Social epidemiology studies ____.

Determining the cause of a disease is referred to as ____.

A test given to people who have no symptoms to check for the
presence of a particular disease is known as a ____.

Identifying diseases prior to the clinical stage means that
prevention efforts can begin immediately. Because the disease is already
present, this is an example of ____ prevention.

Consider a food borne illness that is being investigated
from a restaurant during a one week period. Anyone who ate at that
restaurant, and had vomiting and diarrhea during that week, could be considered
a(n) ____ even if they had not gone to see their doctor.

The number of existing cases of disease divided by the
population is known as ____.

While many people are used to hearing proportions
represented as a percentage, many population samples in epidemiology are often
presented per ____.

If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is
called a ____.

____ is the transmission of a disease from mother to child
during pregnancy or delivery.

____ is the transmission of a disease from person to person,
and may be directly from one person to another, or indirectly from one person
through an intermediate item to another person.

Once the population at risk has been identified, it’s
finally time to develop a(n) ____ about the suspected cause of the outbreak and
then test it.

In an outbreak, a ____ is the quickest study to complete
because the investigator usually has access to a group of cases from the
outbreak itself.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention receives
at least ____ reported outbreaks per year in the U.S., although this is usually
only the “tip of the iceberg.”

There are currently two vaccines in use that not only
prevent the infection against which they are targeted but also have a role in
cancer prevention. Which are they?

The MMR vaccine is a live, attenuated vaccine that combines
antigens for what infectious diseases?

Antibodies and immunoglobulins are protein molecules
produced by what type of white blood cells?

The brain consists of two major hemispheres, the right and
the left, which are joined by tissue called the corpus callosum. The right
hemisphere controls movements of which part of the body?

As the incidence and mortality of infectious diseases
declined from the early 1900s onwards, the incidence of cardiovascular disease
____.

It is now well documented that atherosclerosis, or
“hardening of the arteries,” has its beginning in ____ and therefore the public
health emphasis on prevention and public policies need to focus on earlier
intensive interventions.

Current evidence suggests that ____ of cancers may be caused
by infectious agents.

In what year did the National Cancer Institute and the
National Human Genome Research Institute establish The Cancer Genome Atlas?

Cancer in the ____ is the second most common cancer when
considering men and women combined.

Insulin is a hormone produced by specialized cells, the ____
cells, in the islets of ____ of the ____.

What is the main prevention measure currently available for
Type 1 diabetes?

Metabolic syndrome is also known as ____.

Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by ____
transmitted through contaminated water or food.

What parasitic disease is endemic in many developing
countries and causes severe symptoms including rash, itch, fever, chills,
coughing, and muscle aches?

The proportion of women in developing countries who report
using contraceptives increased from 50% in 1990 to ____ in 2005.







PART II

In the Yearly Mortality Bill for 1632, consumption referred
to:



John Snow, author of Snow on Cholera:





Which of the following activities characterizes an
epidemiologic approach (as opposed to a clinical approach)?

Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by
pasteurization of milk

Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by
nutritional counseling for pregnant women

The difference between primary and secondary prevention of
disease is:

Determining workload and planning the scope of facilities
and manpower needs, particularly for chronic disease. Is this a use for
incidence or prevalence data?

Blood pressure measurements on adult males 30-39 years of
age were obtained in a survey of a representative sample of Twin Cities
households. To compare the frequency of hypertension in the white and non-white
population surveyed, the most appropriate measure is the:

An epidemiologic survey of roller-skating injuries in
Metroville, a city with a population of 100,000 (during the midpoint of the
year), produced the following data for a particular year:



Number of skaters in Metroville during any given month

12,000

Roller-skating injuries in Metroville

600

Total number of residents injured from roller-skating

1,800

Total number of deaths from roller-skating

90

Total number of deaths from all causes

900





The cause-specific mortality rate from roller-skating was:





Descriptive epidemiology has the following characteristics
(Choose the incorrect

option):

Age-specific and age-adjusted mortality rates by sex in the
United States generally show the following sex differences:

Which of the following statements most accurately expresses
the downward-drift hypothesis for schizophrenia?

An abrupt drop in mortality due to a specific disease from
one year to the next is most likely due to:

Which of the following is not one of the four criteria for
the utility of epidemiologic data?

A large medical center’s oncology program reported an
increased number of cases of pancreatic cancer during a certain month. The
hospital’s epidemiologist decided to research the problem. Tumor registry
records were searched to identify all cases of pancreatic cancer during a
five-year period; cancer patients were matched with patients treated for other
diseases during the same five-year period. All subjects in the study were
questioned about lifestyle factors including alcohol, tea, and coffee
consumption. The resulting data are as follows:

DATA



Cancer Patients

Other Patients



Men

Women

Men

Women

LIFESTYLE VARIABLE



Alcohol

185

120

270

260

Tea Drinking

140

110

230

225

Coffee Drinking

190

140

270

240





Note: Total number of male cancer patients = 200.

Total
number of female cancer patients = 150.

Total
number of male patients (other diseases) = 300.

Total
number of female patients (other diseases) = 300.



Which factor has the strongest association with cancer for both men and women?

A large medical center’s oncology program reported an
increased number of cases of pancreatic cancer during a certain month. The hospital’s
epidemiologist decided to research the problem. Tumor registry records were
searched to identify all cases of pancreatic cancer during a five-year period;
cancer patients were matched with patients treated for other diseases during
the same five-year period. All subjects in the study were questioned about
lifestyle factors including alcohol, tea, and coffee consumption. The resulting
data are as follows:

DATA



Cancer Patients

Other Patients



Men

Women

Men

Women

LIFESTYLE VARIABLE



Alcohol

185

120

270

260

Tea Drinking

140

110

230

225

Coffee Drinking

190

140

270

240





Note: Total number of male cancer patients = 200.

Total
number of female cancer patients = 150.

Total
number of male patients (other diseases) = 300.

Total
number of female patients (other diseases) = 300.



Does this study have an exposure status variable?

A large medical center’s oncology program reported an
increased number of cases of pancreatic cancer during a certain month. The
hospital’s epidemiologist decided to research the problem. Tumor registry
records were searched to identify all cases of pancreatic cancer during a
five-year period; cancer patients were matched with patients treated for other
diseases during the same five-year period. All subjects in the study were
questioned about lifestyle factors including alcohol, tea, and coffee
consumption. The resulting data are as follows:

DATA



Cancer Patients

Other Patients



Men

Women

Men

Women

LIFESTYLE VARIABLE



Alcohol

185

120

270

260

Tea Drinking

140

110

230

225

Coffee Drinking

190

140

270

240





Note: Total number of male cancer patients = 200.

Total
number of female cancer patients = 150.

Total
number of male patients (other diseases) = 300.

Total
number of female patients (other diseases) = 300.



What type of study is this?

Practical considerations in the design of cohort studies do
not usually include:

As an epidemiologist you are going to investigate the effect
of a drug suspected of causing malformations in newborn infants when the drug
in question is taken by pregnant women during the course of their pregnancies.
As your sample you will use the next 200 single births occurring in a given
hospital. For each birth a medication history will be taken from the new mother
and from her doctor; in addition, you will review medical records to verify use
of the drug. [N.B.: These mothers are considered to have been followed
prospectively during the entire course of their pregnancies, because a complete
and accurate record of drug use was maintained during pregnancy.]

The resultant data are:

Forty mothers have taken the suspected drug during their pregnancies. Of these
mothers, 35 have delivered malformed infants. In addition, 10 other infants are
born with malfunctions.



The relative risk between exposure to the drug and malformations is:

As an epidemiologist you are going to investigate the effect
of a drug suspected of causing malformations in newborn infants when the drug
in question is taken by pregnant women during the course of their pregnancies.
As your sample you will use the next 200 single births occurring in a given
hospital. For each birth a medication history will be taken from the new mother
and from her doctor; in addition, you will review medical records to verify use
of the drug. [N.B.: These mothers are considered to have been followed
prospectively during the entire course of their pregnancies, because a complete
and accurate record of drug use was maintained during pregnancy.]

The resultant data are:

Forty mothers have taken the suspected drug during their pregnancies. Of these
mothers, 35 have delivered malformed infants. In addition, 10 other infants are
born with malfunctions.



The number of individuals who both did not take the drug and did not give birth
to infants who were malformed was:

Drs. Poke and Jab (2014) conducted an employee health
program that used 5 screening tests at the same time to detect diseases among
workers. Which type of program is this?

A new screening test for Lyme disease is developed for use
in the general population. The sensitivity and specificity of the new test are
60% and 70%, respectively. Three hundred people are screened at a clinic during
the first year the new test is implemented. Assume the true prevalence of Lyme
disease among clinic attendees is 10%.

Calculate the following values:



The number of false positives is:

A screening examination was performed on 250 persons for
Factor X, which is found in disease Y. A definitive diagnosis for disease Y
among the 250 persons had been obtained previously. The results are charted
below:

RESULTS OF DIAGNOSIS

TEST RESULTS

Disease Present

Disease Absent

Positive for Factor X

40

60

Negative for Factor X

10

140





The specificity of this test is expressed as:









The table below shows the mumps experience of children in
390 families exposed to mumps by a primary case within the family:



Population

Cases

Age in years

Total

No. susceptible before primary cases occurred

Primary

Secondary

2 − 4

300

250

100

50

5 − 9

450

420

204

87

10 − 19

152

84

25

15





The
secondary attack rate among children aged two to four years is:

The public health officer from Long Beach complains to you
about the dreaded Pacific Pox. The health officer says, “If people catch the
Pox, they suddenly get the urge to dance in the sand and fall dead on the
beach within the hour.” There are no survivors to interview so you deduce:

An outbreak of salmonellosis occurred after an epidemiology
department luncheon, which was attended by 485 faculty and staff. Assume
everyone ate the same food items. Sixty-five people had fever and diarrhea,
five of these people were severely affected. Subsequent laboratory tests on
everyone who attended the luncheon revealed an additional 72 cases. The
attack rate of salmonellosis was:

It has been suggested that occupational exposure to benzene
in the petroleum industry increases the risk of developing leukemia. The levels
of benzene to which workers in this industry have been exposed were high from
1940 to 1970, but since 1970 have been significantly reduced. What kind of
study design, using petroleum workers, would provide the most useful
information on whether benzene affects incidence rates of leukemia in this
industry? You may assume that records of individual worker assignments to jobs
involving benzene exposure have been maintained by the industry.

The lowest dose at which a particular response may occur:

Which of the following statements describes the
person-environment fit model?

Selye’s concept of the general adaptation syndrome did not
include:
Powered by