BUSI 340 quiz 2 Liberty University complete answers

BUSI 340 quiz 2 Liberty University complete answers

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Question 1

Philosopher John Dewey recognized that people are inherently motivated to perceive themselves (and be perceived by others) as competent, attractive, lucky, ethical, and important. This is known as:

Question 2

Which of the following refers to the process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us?

Question 3

Which of the following is a perceptual error where we tend to believe that other people hold the same beliefs and attitudes as we do?

Question 4

________ is the process of filtering information received by our senses.

Question 5

If you form a general negative impression of a person based on one prominent characteristic, and it affects your perception of other characteristics of that person, it is called:

Question 6

The tendency to attribute the behavior of other people to internal factors more than external factors is called the:

Question 7

Systemic discrimination:

Question 8

If John takes credit for work done on time, but blames his co‑workers for his delays, his attitude is reflective of the:

Question 9

In organizational settings, empathy:

Question 10

In the Johari Window, disclosure of information to colleagues results in:

Question 11

The self‑fulfilling prophecy effect is stronger:

Question 12

_____ refers to understanding and being sensitive to the feelings, thoughts, and situations of others.

Question 13

Which of the following proposes that job satisfaction has a positive effect on customer service, which flows on to shareholder financial returns?

Question 14

Emotions are defined as:

Question 15

The adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person's well‑being is called:

Question 16

Shawna is dissatisfied with her boss for not supporting her work or recognizing her job performance. In spite of these problems, Shawna does not complain and does not intend to move elsewhere. Instead, she maintains her level of work effort and hopes the company will eventually correct these problems. According to the EVLN model, Shawna's response is:

Question 17

Which of the following statements is true of emotions in the workplace?

Question 18

Research suggests that people with high levels of emotional intelligence are better at all of the following EXCEPT:

Question 19

Emotional labor refers to:

Question 20

Which of the following is an effect of emotions?

Question 21

Emotional dissonance occurs when:

Question 22

Which of the following terms best represents the positive or negative evaluations of the attitude object?

Question 23

Emotional labor is higher in jobs requiring:

Question 24

According to the Circumplex Model of Emotions, high activation negative emotions include:

Question 25

Which of the following reduces stress by allowing withdrawal from the stressor?

 

The self­fulfilling prophecy effect is stronger:

The            process involves deciding whether an observed behavior or event is caused mainly by the person or by the environment

Which of the following improves self­awareness and mutual understanding that is founded on the contact hypothesis?

In the Johari Window, the            area includes information about you that is known both to you and others.

Consistency, consensus and distinctiveness are the

Social identity theory says that

According to the social identity theory, people tend to

Which of the following occurs most likely due to confirmation bias?

The process of assigning traits to people based on their membership in an identifiable social category is called:

The contact hypothesis states that:

Which of the following describes the fundamental attribution error?

The philosophy of positive organizational behavior states that:

The uncomfortable tension felt when our behavior and attitudes are inconsistent with each other is called:

After working weeks on a difficult proposal for a client, Jack learns that the client has accepted the proposal and will award the contract to Jack's firm. When Jack hears this from his boss, he yelps 'Yahoo!' and automatically thrusts his fisted hand in the air. This action is an example of:

Which of the following represent the three dimensions of workaholism

Which of these countries is more likely to accept or tolerate, than any other country, people who display their true emotions at work

Many companies try to create positive experiences at work. Which of the following is the major reason for this?

Self­awareness is the lowest level of            .

Employees with an emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in a particular organization are said to have:

The exit­voice­loyalty­neglect (EVLN) model:

As soon as we receive sensory information, we nonconsciously tag some of that information with emotional markers. These markers are:

Which of the following statements about job satisfaction and job performance is true?

Employees' identification with a particular organization tends to increase:

Emotional labor is higher in jobs requiring:

Which of the following is a competency representing the highest level of emotional intelligence?

 

Question 1 Which perceptual error occurs when a supervisor incorrectly rates an employee at a similar level across all performance dimensions based on an overall impression of that employee?

Question 2 Philosopher John Dewey recognized that people are inherently motivated to perceive themselves (and be perceived by others) as competent, attractive, lucky, ethical, and important. This is known as:

Question 3 Which of the following illustrates one of the steps in the self-fulfilling prophecy process?

Question 4 ________ is the process of filtering information received by our senses.

Question 5 The self-fulfilling prophecy effect is stronger:

Question 6 Joe, a production worker in a doll manufacturing plant, recently changed positions on the manufacturing line from painting the eyes, to attaching arms to each doll. In the past, his work was always impeccable with a very low rate of mistakes, but since the switch, the quality team has found numerous dolls with arms that were haphazardly attached. A majority of the flawed-arm dolls are from Joe's assembly line. It could probably be said that because of his history with excellent quality, in this situation Joe would be considered to have:

Question 7 In the Johari Window, the _____ area includes information about you that is known both to you and others.

Question 8 The tendency to attribute the behavior of other people to internal factors more than external factors is called the:

Question 9 In organizational settings, empathy:

Question 10 According to social identity theory, people tend to:

Question 11 The extent to which people like, respect, and are satisfied with themselves is known as:

Question 12 Social identity theory says that:

Question 13 Which of the following statements about job satisfaction is true?

Question 14 According to the Circumplex Model of Emotions, high activation negative emotions include:

Question 15 Which of the following statements about job satisfaction and job performance is true?

Question 16 Emotional intelligence is best described as:

Question 17 Which of these countries is more likely to accept or tolerate people who display their true emotions at work?

Question 18 Managing others' emotions is:

Question 19 Research suggests that people with high levels of emotional intelligence are better at all of the following EXCEPT:

Question 20 ________ involves modifying behavior to be consistent with required emotions but continuing to hold different internal feelings.

Question 21 Anger, fear, joy, and sadness represent:

Question 22 Social awareness, self-management, and relationship management are three elements of:

Question 23 Emotional dissonance occurs when:

Question 24 Identify the term that represents your motivation to engage in a particular behavior regarding the attitude object.

Question 25 Self-reinforcement can potentially minimize stress by:

 

Which of the following is a perceptual error where we tend to believe that other people hold the same beliefs and attitudes as we do

In the Johari Window, the blind area gets smaller when we

Someone who is new to the job and has a low expectancy is

Which of the following improves self-awareness and mutual understanding that is founded on the contact hypothesis

How can a self-serving bias be observed in a corporate annual report

_____ refers to understanding and being sensitive to the feelings, thoughts, and situations of others

Mental models are _____ that guide perceptions and behavior

George believes that women have difficulty coping with the stress of executive decisions. Sally is promoted into a senior management position and George soon complains that Sally won't be able to cope with this job. George is exhibiting which of the following perceptual errors

________ is the process of filtering information received by our senses

Some investors in the stock market become overconfident and ignore evidence that their strategies will lose money. This can be attributed to _____.

The contact hypothesis states that

The self-fulfilling prophecy effect is stronger

Identify the term that represents your motivation to engage in a particular behavior regarding the attitude object

Donald was unhappy that his company did not provide good transport facilities. He found it very strenuous to drive to work on his own, and this eventually led to job dissatisfaction. Hence, he recommended ways to solve this problem. According to the EVLN model, this information suggests that Donald's main reaction to job dissatisfaction was

The highest level of emotional intelligence is

Which of the following statements about job satisfaction and job performance is true

Which of the following is a conclusion by organizational behavior scholars regarding job satisfaction

Emotions are defined as

Relationship management is

Which of these statements represents the feelings dimension of attitudes

Emotions will have a greater influence on our perceptions, attitudes, decisions, and behavior than cognition because

Which of the following occurs when organizations give financial incentives to prevent dissatisfied employees from quitting

Which of the following is a competency representing the highest level of emotional intelligence

Which of the following determine whether intentions translate into behavior

Self-reinforcement can potentially minimize stress by

 

1. Emotions are the primary source of individual motivation. 


2. Emotions represent the cluster of beliefs, assessed feelings, and behavioral intentions toward a person, object, or event. 


3. Emotions are brief events or "episodes". 


4. Moods represent our reaction to specific people or events, whereas emotions are not directed toward anything in particular. 


5. People are consciously aware of most emotions they experience. 


6. Strong emotions trigger our conscious awareness of a threat or opportunity in the external environment. 


7. Moods are less intense emotional states that are directed toward something or somebody in particular. 


8. Emotions put us in a state of readiness. 


9. Emotions generate a core affect that something is good or bad, helpful or harmful, to be approached or avoided. 


10. Attitudes are judgments, whereas emotions are experiences. 


11. Beliefs are established perceptions about an attitude object. 


12. Attitudes consist of the following three components: emotions, beliefs, and behaviors. 


13. Behavioral intentions represent your conscious positive or negative evaluations of an attitude object. 


14. People with the same beliefs will always form the same feelings toward an attitude object. 


15. The emotional markers that nonconsciously tag sensory information are calculated feelings toward an information source. 


16. The influence of both cognitive reasoning and emotions on attitudes is most apparent when they agree with each other. 


17. Studies indicate that while executives tend to make quick decisions based on logical reasoning, the best decisions are based on their emotional responses. 


18. Corporate leaders need to keep in mind that emotions shape employee attitudes and attitudes influence various forms of work-related behavior. 


19. Cognitive dissonance occurs only when others observe an inconsistency between our beliefs, feelings, and behavior. 


20. A person's emotions are influenced by his or her personality, not just from workplace experiences. 


21. Emotional labor refers to any physical work that makes employees feel angry that they must perform this kind of work. 


22. Display rules are norms requiring us within our role to display specific emotions and to hide other emotions. 


23. Emotional labor decreases when employees must precisely rather than casually abide by the display rules. 


24. Emotional dissonance occurs when two or more people with notable differences in emotional intelligence interact with each other. 


25. Emotional labor demands are higher in jobs where interaction with clients is frequent and longer. 


26. Norms about displaying or hiding your true emotions vary considerably across cultures. 


27. Jobs in which employees must frequently display emotions that oppose their genuine emotion require more emotional labor. 


28. Surface acting may result in stress and job burnout. 


29. Employees experience less stress from emotional labor when they practice surface acting rather than deep acting. 


30. Deep acting involves visualizing reality differently, which then produces emotions more consistent with the required emotions. 


31. Emotional intelligence refers to a set of abilities to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in oneself and others. 


32. Emotional intelligence refers to how an individual behaves, not the abilities of that individual. 


33. The dimensions of emotional intelligence are cognitive dissonance, continuance commitment, and emotional labor. 


34. Managing others' emotions represents the highest level of emotional intelligence. 


35. The four dimensions of emotional intelligence form a hierarchy. 


36. People with high emotional intelligence are superior leaders. 


37. Emotional intelligence improves all forms of performance. 


38. The emotional intelligence of an individual tends to increase with age. 


39. Job satisfaction represents a person's evaluation of his or her job and work context. 


40. Employees are more likely to quit their jobs and be absent from work if they are dissatisfied with their jobs. 


41. The exit-voice-loyalty-neglect model states that some employees respond to their job dissatisfaction by patiently waiting for a problem to work itself out or get resolved by others. 


42. According to the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect model, some unsatisfied employees engage in "voice" by constructively recommending solutions to the source of their dissatisfaction. 


43. People with a high-conscientiousness personality are more likely to engage in neglect and less likely to engage in voice. 


44. Employees are likely to engage in voice when they have high loyalty to a company. 


45. The relationship between job satisfaction and job performance would likely be stronger if more organizations provided valued rewards for good performance. 


46. Employees with higher job satisfaction tend to convey more friendliness and positive feelings to customers. 


47. Job satisfaction is an ethical issue that influences an organization's reputation in a community. 


48. Organizational commitment refers to an employee's contractual obligation to provide a minimum amount of time and effort to an organization in return for a fair day's pay from the organization. 


49. Continuance commitment is a psychological bond whereby one chooses to be dedicated to and responsible for an organization. 


50. Continuance commitment is a calculative decision to remain with an organization. 


51. Financial incentives given to employees to stay with an organization usually reduces continuance commitment. 


52. Employees with high levels of affective commitment tend to engage in more organizational citizenship behaviors. 


53. Employees with very high loyalty tend to have high conformity, which results in lower creativity. 


54. Continuance commitment motivates employees to increase their work effort beyond expectations. 


55. Opportunities for employee involvement and increased social identity with an organization would increase the continuance commitment of employees. 


56. Trust, employee involvement, and organizational comprehension tend to increase affective commitment. 


57. Trust is a reciprocal activity; to receive trust from employees, corporate leaders must demonstrate their trust in those employees. 


58. Stress is an adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to a person's well-being. 


59. Eustress is a necessary part of life because it activates and motivates people to achieve goals, change their environments, and succeed in life's challenges. 


60. Unlike distress, eustress is described as a negative experience, which has become a chronic problem in many societies. 


61. The general adaptation syndrome describes the various consequences of distress. 


62. According to general adaption syndrome, the alarm reaction stage activates various biochemical, psychological, and behavioral mechanisms that give an individual more energy and engage coping mechanisms to overcome or remove the source of stress. 


63. Job burnout is a particular stress consequence process, which typically consists of three stages. 


64. Any environmental condition that places a physical or emotional demand on a person is called a stressor. 


65. Work overload and job burnout are also referred to as quid pro quo harassment at a workplace. 


66. High task control increases employee exposure to the risk of burnout. 


67. Individuals with high neuroticism usually experience lower stress levels because they are less prone to anxiety. 


68. Workaholics typically have a high level of enjoyment of work. 


69. Job sharing and telecommuting are usually considered ways to reduce stress through increasing work-life balance. 


70. Work practices such as flexible and restricted work hours increase work-related stress. 


71. Telecommuting is a way of helping employees withdraw from stressors. 


72. Vacations and holidays allow employees to withdraw from various organizational stressors and re-energize for future challenges. 


73. Stress can be managed by helping employees improve their self-concept so job challenges are not perceived as threatening. 


74. Social support cannot improve a person's self-confidence, but it can help a person withdraw from a stressor. 


 

75. Emotions are defined as: 
A. feelings that are not directed toward anything in particular.
B. our judgments about what is right or wrong.
C. our intentions to act toward an attitude object.
D. the cluster of beliefs, assessed feelings, and behavioral intentions toward a person, object, or event which is called an attitude object.
E. physiological, behavioral, and psychological episodes experienced toward an object, person, or event that create a state of readiness.

76. Emotions will have a greater influence on our perceptions, attitudes, decisions, and behavior than cognition because: 
A. emotional processes often occur before cognitive processes.
B. cognitive processes are less significant for individual behaviors.
C. emotional processes are simpler than cognitive processes.
D. emotional processes are more likely to result in negative behaviors.
E. cognitive processes are more likely to result in negative behaviors.

77. Which of the following statements is true about emotions in the workplace? 
A. Emotions are physiological actions rather than behavioral actions.
B. Emotions last for a longer time period.
C. Emotions are directed toward someone or something.
D. Emotions are also referred to as moods of individuals.
E. Emotions are high-intensity events in most cases.

78. Which of the following is an effect of emotions? 
A. They represent the cluster of beliefs and behavioral intentions toward a person.
B. They put us into a state of readiness.
C. They help us involve in conscious logical reasoning.
D. They enable us to have established perceptions about an attitude object.
E. They represent one's motivation to engage in a particular behavior.

79. Anger, fear, joy, and sadness represent: 
A. the beliefs that influence our attitudes toward something or someone.
B. the first four stages of emotional labor.
C. different types of emotions.
D. the four dimensions of job satisfaction.
E. the four areas of the Johari Window.

80. According to the Circumplex Model of Emotions, high-activation negative emotions include being: 
A. bored.
B. gloomy.
C. jittery.
D. still.
E. all of these.

81. Which of the following reflects the difference between emotions and attitudes? 
A. Eating something versus drinking something
B. Experiencing something versus judging something
C. Perceiving something versus behaving toward something
D. Knowing about something versus doing something
E. Espoused values versus enacted values

82. Beliefs, feelings, and behavioral intentions are components of: 
A. attitudes.
B. the EVLN model.
C. organizational commitment.
D. emotions.
E. the psychological contract.

83. Which of the following terms refers to established perceptions about an attitude object? 
A. Intentions
B. Feelings
C. Senses
D. Beliefs
E. Behaviors

84. Which of the following represents one's conscious evaluations of an attitude object? 
A. Intentions
B. Behaviors
C. Feelings
D. Senses
E. Beliefs

85. Which of these statements represents the feelings dimension of attitudes? 
A. I don't like how my boss treats his employees.
B. I want to transfer out of this department to get away from this manager.
C. My supervisor berates his employees in public.
D. I intend to tell the human resource manager that my supervisor should be demoted.
E. I believe the current actions of the company will increase its competitiveness.

86. Identify the term that represents your motivation to engage in a particular behavior regarding an attitude object. 
A. Feelings
B. Senses
C. Beliefs
D. Behaviors
E. Intentions

87. Which of the following determines whether intentions translate into behavior? 
A. External dimensions of your value system
B. Past experience, personality, and social norms
C. Internal or external locus of control
D. Self-efficacy and self-esteem
E. Tendency for self-enhancement

88. As soon as we receive sensory information, our brain tags the incoming sensory information with emotional markers. These markers are: 
A. calculated feelings about an individual or incident.
B. calculated feelings of a particular attitude or emotion.
C. behavioral intentions formed based on an individual's beliefs.
D. automatic and nonconscious emotional responses.
E. the internal beliefs that drive individuals of an organization.

89. Which of the following is a major reason for the various initiatives undertaken by companies to create positive experiences at work? 
A. It is mandatory for a multinational company to have such work conditions.
B. Work conditions can have an emotional influence on employee attitudes and behaviors.
C. In order to promote an image of increased corporate social responsibility
D. As part of the green marketing campaign which is popular around the world
E. This would help the employers form a cognitive dissonance with the employees.

90. The uncomfortable tension felt when our behavior and attitudes are inconsistent with each other is called: 
A. cognitive distance.
B. emotional intelligence.
C. cognitive justification.
D. cognitive dissonance.
E. emotional uncertainty.

91. People reduce cognitive dissonance by: 
A. reversing the decision that caused the dissonance.
B. seeking out the negative aspects of a decision and highlighting them.
C. pretending there were no alternatives to the decision.
D. developing more favorable attitudes toward specific features of a decision.
E. maintaining an incongruence between their beliefs, feelings, and behavior.

92. People with more positive emotions typically have higher _____ and are extroverted. 
A. neuroticism
B. emotional stability
C. turnover
D. consistency
E. complexity

93. People with more negative emotions tend to have higher _____ and are introverted. 
A. neuroticism
B. emotional stability
C. attendance
D. consistency
E. complexity

94. Emotional labor refers to: 
A. the effort, planning, and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions.
B. the tendency to change our attitudes so they become more consistent with our behaviors.
C. a person's evaluation of a job and work context.
D. a person's emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in a particular organization.
E. maintaining similar emotional display rules and standards around the world.

95. Customer service representatives (CSRs) often conceal their frustration when serving an irritating customer. This behavior from the CSRs is an example of: 
A. emotional labor.
B. cognitive response.
C. cognitive dissonance.
D. judgmental evaluation.
E. emotional attribution.

96. Emotional labor is higher in jobs that require: 
A. limited hours of routine work.
B. working in irregular shifts.
C. working in isolation.
D. frequent interaction with clients.
E. skilled knowledge such as accounting.

97. Which of the statements about emotional labor is true? 
A. Jobs involving customer service do not require emotional labor.
B. Research indicates that emotional display rules and standards are very similar around the world.
C. Emotional labor demands are higher in jobs requiring a variety of emotions.
D. Emotional labor demands are lower in jobs where interaction with clients is frequent.
E. Emotional labor demands are lower in jobs requiring more intense emotions.

98. Which of these countries is more likely to accept or tolerate people who display their true emotions at work? 
A. U.S.A.
B. Japan
C. Ethiopia
D. Spain
E. Austria

99. Emotional dissonance is: 
A. the emotion people experience when they are dissatisfied with their paycheck.
B. a significant cause of stress and job burnout.
C. present whenever emotional labor is not required in jobs.
D. the main source of unethical conduct in organizational settings.
E. the existence of a set of similar emotional display rules around the world.

100. Emotional dissonance occurs when: 
A. there are no known emotional display rules for a particular situation.
B. we experience conflict between the required emotions and our true emotions.
C. we work with someone who has high emotional intelligence.
D. job satisfaction is at the same level as organizational commitment.
E. there is a set of similar emotional display rules around the world.

101. While handling emotional dissonance, employees pretend that they feel the expected emotion even though they actually experience a different emotion. These employees are engaging in _____. 
A. surface acting
B. customization
C. personalization
D. deep acting
E. emotional resistance

102. Deep acting involves: 
A. using real emotions to handle difficult customers.
B. basing one's behavior on customer interactions.
C. ignoring customer needs and acting for a company's benefit.
D. ignoring customer needs and requirements and acting for one's own benefit.
E. visualizing reality differently and producing emotions to match the requirements.

103. The ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in oneself and others is called: 
A. emotional intelligence.
B. emotional labor.
C. cognitive dissonance.
D. positive affectivity.
E. job satisfaction.

104. Emotional intelligence is best described as: 
A. a personality trait.
B. a set of abilities.
C. a form of organizational commitment.
D. an action-tendency indicating that a person is highly motivated.
E. a form of empathy.

105. Awareness of own emotions, management of own emotions, awareness of others' emotions, and management of others' emotions are the four dimensions of: 
A. affective commitment.
B. emotional labor.
C. emotional intelligence.
D. continuance commitment.
E. the circumplex model of emotions.

106. The highest level of emotional intelligence is: 
A. being aware of other people's emotions.
B. self-management.
C. organizational comprehension.
D. self-awareness.
E. managing other people's emotions.

107. Managing others' emotions is: 
A. a negative, highly-activated emotion.
B. one of the three types of organizational commitment.
C. an outcome of emotional dissonance.
D. a possibility only in the event of self-awareness.
E. the opposite of employability.

108. Awareness of one's own emotions is the lowest level of _____. 
A. emotional intelligence
B. emotional labor
C. emotional dissonance
D. continuance commitment
E. affective commitment

109. The competency most strongly associated with awareness of other people's emotions is: 
A. conflict management.
B. empathy.
C. organizational comprehension.
D. self-esteem.
E. job performance.

110. Which of the following is a competency representing the highest level of emotional intelligence? 
A. Perceiving emotions of other people
B. Understanding the meaning of one's own emotions
C. Managing dysfunctional emotions among staff
D. Being more sensitive to subtle emotional responses
E. Experiencing another person's emotions

111. Which of the following is a competency representing the lowest level of emotional intelligence? 
A. Managing dysfunctional emotions among staff
B. Being more sensitive to subtle emotional responses
C. Knowing others' needs even though unstated
D. Understanding the meaning of one's own emotions
E. Perceiving emotions of other people

112. Research suggests that people with high levels of emotional intelligence are better at all of the following EXCEPT: 
A. interpersonal relations.
B. job interviews.
C. working without social interaction.
D. jobs requiring emotional labor.
E. leadership.

113. One way companies can increase the emotional intelligence (EI) of their employees is by: 
A. EI profiling.
B. aptitude coaching.
C. EI scores.
D. EI training.
E. technical demonstrations.

114. Which of the following statements about job satisfaction is true? 
A. The best way to measure job satisfaction is by asking a single direct question.
B. Job satisfaction does not vary much between different countries.
C. Job satisfaction has an insignificant effect on employee behavior.
D. Job satisfaction is an ethical issue that influences an organization's reputation.
E. Very few employees would leave their current employer if the right job came along.

115. The exit-voice-loyalty-neglect (EVLN) model: 
A. outlines the four consequences of emotional intelligence.
B. identifies the four ways to manage employee emotions.
C. explains why the psychological contract differs between employees and their employers.
D. is a template for organizing and understanding the consequences of job dissatisfaction.
E. explains the main differences between affective commitment and continuance commitment.

116. Alan was unhappy as his company did not provide good parking facilities. He found it very stressful to find reasonably priced parking close to his workplace, and what he found caused him to walk several blocks in all weather conditions. This eventually led to job dissatisfaction. Hence, he recommended ways to solve this problem. According to the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect (EVLN) model, this information suggests that Alan's main reaction to job dissatisfaction was: 
A. exit.
B. voice.
C. commitment.
D. loyalty.
E. neglect.

117. Paula is dissatisfied with her boss for not supporting her work or recognizing her job performance. In spite of these problems, Paula does not complain and does not intend to move elsewhere. Instead, she maintains her level of work effort and hopes the company will eventually correct these problems. According to the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect (EVLN) model, Paula's response is: 
A. exit.
B. voice.
C. employability.
D. loyalty.
E. neglect.

118. Which of the following statements about job satisfaction and job performance is true? 
A. Employees who are dissatisfied with their jobs do not have high job performance.
B. Job satisfaction has almost no effect on job performance.
C. Employees who are satisfied with their jobs have higher job performance.
D. Happy workers are less productive workers.
E. Employees have higher job satisfaction only after they have received a financial reward.

119. Which of the following is a conclusion by organizational behavior scholars regarding job satisfaction? 
A. Job performance increases with decreasing job satisfaction.
B. Job performance is the sole predictor of job satisfaction.
C. Job satisfaction is not related to job performance.
D. Job satisfaction is positively related to job performance.
E. Job satisfaction does not affect customer performance.

120. Which of the following proposes that job satisfaction has a positive effect on customer service, which flows on to shareholder financial returns? 
A. Exit-voice-loyalty-neglect model
B. Service profit chain model
C. Emotional intelligence model
D. MARS model
E. Emotional intelligence-based theory of performance

121. According to the service profit chain model, workplace practices affect job satisfaction, which influences employee retention, motivation, and behavior and these outcomes affect: 
A. service quality.
B. customer satisfaction.
C. perceptions of value.
D. profitability.
E. all of these.

122. The concept of affective organizational commitment includes: 
A. a calculative attachment to an organization.
B. an employee's motivation to stay because leaving would be costly.
C. an emotional attachment with an organization.
D. selfish behavior within an organization.
E. perceiving loss of social costs.

123. Employees' identification with a particular organization tends to increase: 
A. affective commitment.
B. cognitive dissonance.
C. continuance commitment.
D. calculative commitment.
E. job dissatisfaction.

124. Employees who stay with an organization mainly because they believe it will cost them financially to leave will have: 
A. high continuance commitment.
B. high emotional intelligence.
C. low continuance commitment.
D. high organizational commitment.
E. high affective commitment.

125. Which of the following occurs when organizations give financial incentives to prevent dissatisfied employees from quitting? 
A. Employees increase their level of affective commitment.
B. Employees increase their level of continuance commitment.
C. Employees decrease their level of job satisfaction.
D. Employees decrease their level of emotional intelligence.
E. Employees decrease their level of continuance commitment.

126. Which of the following tends to result in increased continuance commitment? 
A. Corporate leaders demonstrate increasing trust in employees.
B. A company helps employees learn more about the organization through departmental visits and special seminars on company products.
C. Employees receive high pay, benefits, and other forms of economic exchange in the employment relationship.
D. A company introduces a participative management program to motivate employees.
E. A company gives strong opportunities for learning new skills to employees.

127. Employees with an emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in a particular organization are likely to have: 
A. a high level of work motivation.
B. extreme emotional dissonance.
C. a low level of emotional activation.
D. a high level of continuance commitment.
E. intense calculative commitment.

128. _____ refers to the positive expectations one person has toward another person in situations involving risk. 
A. Surface acting
B. Trust
C. Cognitive dissonance
D. Deep acting
E. General adaptation syndrome

129. _____ is a physiological and psychological condition that prepares us to adapt to hostile or noxious environmental conditions. 
A. Self-leadership
B. Trust
C. Commitment
D. Workaholism
E. Stress

130. Stress is best described as: 
A. the physiological disorders we experience from adverse environmental conditions.
B. an adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to a person's well-being.
C. a series of events that cause emotional exhaustion and cynicism toward customers.
D. environmental conditions that place a physical or emotional demand on a person.
E. a behavior pattern of people with low risk of heart disease.

131. Which of the following terms refers to the necessary stress that activates and motivates people to achieve goals and change their environments? 
A. Distress
B. Cognitive dissonance
C. General Adaptation syndrome
D. Eustress
E. Emotional dissonance

132. The degree of physiological, psychological, and behavioral deviation from healthy functioning is known as: 
A. eustress.
B. stress.
C. distress.
D. depression.
E. Psychosis.

133. Which of the following statements about stress is true? 
A. Employees are most productive when they experience no stress.
B. Stress is caused by stressors.
C. Stress is a psychological condition and not physiological condition.
D. The hypoventilation syndrome describes the stress experience.
E. Distress is a necessary part of life.

134. Which of the following is NOT part of a stage in general adaptation syndrome? 
A. A challenge activates the physiological stress response.
B. The individual engages in coping mechanisms.
C. The body reduces resources to the immune system.
D. The individual reaches exhaustion.
E. The individual returns to normal state.

135. The stress consequence called job burnout occurs when people experience all of the following EXCEPT: 
A. lethargy.
B. emotional exhaustion.
C. cynicism.
D. depersonalization.
E. reduced personal accomplishment.

136. An example of quid pro quo harassment would be: 
A. posting of pornographic material.
B. bullying.
C. persistent incivility.
D. employment offers dependent on unwanted sexual activity.
E. an offensive working environment.

137. Which of the following characterizes a workaholic? 
A. Efficacy, cynicism, and emotional exhaustion
B. High work involvement, compulsion to work, and low enjoyment of work
C. Alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion
D. Time, strain, and role
E. High continuance commitment, cynicism, drive to succeed, and resistance

138. What effect does providing childcare support and offering employees flexible work hours have on work-related stress? 
A. It helps employees to learn how to cope with the consequences of stress.
B. It helps employees to control the consequences of stress.
C. It removes stressors from the workplace.
D. It enhances stressors in the workplace.
E. It changes the employees' perceptions of stress.

139. Which of the following reduces stress by allowing withdrawal from the stressor? 
A. Flexible work schedules
B. Sabbaticals
C. Work addiction
D. Telecommuting
E. Workaholism

140. To ward off stress, a film director likes to have a good laugh. When under pressure, the director will crack jokes and ensure everyone has a good laugh during the hard work. These actions mainly reduce stress by: 
A. removing the stressor.
B. providing social support.
C. changing stress perceptions.
D. controlling the consequences of stress.
E. being workaholic.

141. Self-reinforcement can potentially minimize stress by: 
A. removing people from stressors.
B. helping employees to temporarily withdraw from the stressor.
C. helping employees to control the consequences of stress.
D. helping employees to develop more favorable perceptions of the stressors.
E. giving employees the flexibility in scheduling their work hours.

142. Which of the following is called a "tend and befriend" response to stress? 
A. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle
B. Seeking social support
C. Setting personal goals
D. Withdrawing from stressors
E. Evaluating oneself positively

143. After working for weeks on a difficult proposal for a client, Kevin learns that the client has accepted the proposal and will award the contract to Kevin's firm. When Kevin hears this from his boss, he yelps "Yahoo!" and automatically thrusts his fisted hand in the air.
This action is an example of: 
A. perceptions directly influencing beliefs.
B. behavioral intentions directly influencing behavior.
C. emotions directly influencing feelings.
D. beliefs directly influencing feelings.
E. emotions directly influencing behavior.

144. After working for weeks on a difficult proposal for a client, Kevin learns that the client has accepted the proposal and will award the contract to Kevin's firm. When Kevin hears this from his boss, he yelps "Yahoo!" and automatically thrusts his fisted hand in the air.
The acceptance of Kevin's proposal would be considered his: 
A. attitude object.
B. promotion.
C. hard work.
D. behavioral intention.
E. cluster of assessed feelings.

145. Patricia is a flight attendant for a large airline. She exclusively works a long flight from Japan to New York, and is expected to constantly maintain a positive attitude no matter what situation arises. Over the years, Patricia has noticed that when dealing with Americans, emotions tend to run higher and she often feels frustrated as opposed to Japanese who tend to be more reserved in stressful or unhappy situations.
Patricia's job requires a high amount of: 
A. financial rewards.
B. intense emotions.
C. forward thinking.
D. emotional labor.
E. casual display norms.

146. Patricia is a flight attendant for a large airline. She exclusively works a long flight from Japan to New York, and is expected to constantly maintain a positive attitude no matter what situation arises. Over the years, Patricia has noticed that when dealing with Americans, emotions tend to run higher and she often feels frustrated as opposed to Japanese who tend to be more reserved in stressful or unhappy situations.
The difference Patricia experiences between her American clients and her Japanese clients is mainly due to: 
A. feelings.
B. stereotypes.
C. display norms.
D. display rules.
E. apathetic culture.

147. Patricia is a flight attendant for a large airline. She exclusively works a long flight from Japan to New York, and is expected to constantly maintain a positive attitude no matter what situation arises. Over the years, Patricia has noticed that when dealing with Americans, emotions tend to run higher and she often feels frustrated as opposed to Japanese who tend to be more reserved in stressful or unhappy situations.
If Patricia wants to reduce the amount of psychological damage caused by the emotional dissonance her job creates, she should: 
A. engage in surface acting.
B. engage in deep acting.
C. take acting lessons.
D. see a psychologist.
E. get more training.

148. Alex and George are both employees at a shoe manufacturing plant. They discuss their feelings of dissatisfaction because of a new supervisor who has been a cause of stress at the workplace. Alex says that he had applied for a transfer to another shift in order to deal with this issue. George says that he is going to talk to the department head about the issue and get it resolved.
According to the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect (EVLN) model, in which of the following ways is Alex responding to his dissatisfaction? 
A. Exit
B. Voice
C. Loyalty
D. Neglect
E. None of these

149. Alex and George are both employees at a shoe manufacturing plant. They discuss their feelings of dissatisfaction because of a new supervisor who has been a cause of stress at the workplace. Alex says that he had applied for a transfer to another shift in order to deal with this issue. George says that he is going to talk to the department head about the issue and get it resolved.
According to the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect (EVLN) model, in which of the following ways is George responding to his dissatisfaction? 
A. Exit
B. Voice
C. Loyalty
D. Neglect
E. All of these

 

 

1.
The social identity theory states that we define ourselves by the groups to which we belong or have an emotional attachment. 
 
True    False
 

2.
The perceptual process begins by attributing behavior to internal or external causes. 
 
True    False
 

3.
Selective attention occurs after perceptual organization and interpretation. 
 
True    False
 

4.
Our emotions influence what we recognize or screen out. 
 
True    False
 

5.
Confirmation bias causes us to screen out information that is contrary to our values and assumptions. 
 
True    False
 

6.
Categorical thinking is the mostly conscious process of organizing people and objects into categories that are stored in our short-term memory. 
 
True    False
 

7.
Most categorical thinking occurs without our awareness. 
 
True    False
 

8.
Seeing a trend in a gambling activity or in the winning streak of a sports star includes categorical thinking. 
 
True    False
 

9.
People rely on mental models to make sense of their environment through perceptual grouping. 
 
True    False
 

10.
Employees can break out of their existing mental models by working with colleagues from diverse backgrounds that bring different mental models to the workplace. 
 
True    False
 

11.
Social identity is a comparative process, and the comparison begins with categorical thinking. 
 
True    False
 

12.
Homogenization and differentiation are two activities in the process of forming and maintaining our social identity. 
 
True    False
 

13.
Stereotyping is an extension of social identity theory and a product of our natural process of organizing information through categorical thinking. 
 
True    False
 

14.
Training employees is most useful in minimizing stereotyping to a large extent. 
 
True    False
 

15.
People who believe that their successful completion of a project is due to their skill and hard work are making an internal attribution. 
 
True    False
 

16.
People tend to make an internal attribution about someone's behavior if that person has typically not acted in a similar way either in the past or in other situations. 
 
True    False
 

17.
You are more likely to make an internal attribution about someone's poor performance if you have also observed the person performing that task poorly in the past and have observed other employees performing the task well. 
 
True    False
 

18.
When making an internal or external attribution about a person's behavior, we tend to look at whether the person has acted this way in the past and in other situations and whether other people have acted similarly in the same situation. 
 
True    False
 

19.
The fundamental attribution error refers to the tendency to attribute the behavior of other people to internal factors more than external factors. 
 
True    False
 

20.
The fundamental attribution error would cause a supervisor to believe that an employee's lateness is due to factors beyond the employee's control rather than to a lack of motivation to attend work. 
 
True    False
 

21.
The self-serving bias is the tendency to take credit for our successes and blame others or the situation for our mistakes. 
 
True    False
 

22.
The self-fulfilling prophecy helps supervisors accurately predict the future performance of recently hired employees. 
 
True    False
 

23.
The first step in a self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when the observer acts differently toward people with whom he or she has high expectations than towards those with whom he or she has low expectations. 
 
True    False
 

24.
The self-fulfilling prophecy tends to be stronger when employees are new to the job than when employees have worked in that job for a few years. 
 
True    False
 

25.
You are a high achievement-oriented person. You will likely have a stronger self-fulfilling-prophecy effect than the low achievers. 
 
True    False
 

26.
A manager believes in the philosophy of positive organizational behavior. His self-fulfilling prophecies would improve organizational performance. 
 
True    False
 

27.
The primacy effect refers to the phenomenon of forming an opinion of other people based on the first information. 
 
True    False
 

28.
The primacy effect causes interviewers to ignore information presented at the beginning of the interview and pay more attention to the dominant information presented later in the interview. 
 
True    False
 

29.
The halo effect occurs when one characteristic of a person shapes our general impression of that person which, in turn, biases our perceptions about the other characteristics of that person. 
 
True    False
 

30.
According to the halo effect, a supervisor's initial expectations of you influence your behavior so that you are more likely to act consistently with those expectations in the consequent encounters. 
 
True    False
 

31.
A person's annual performance evaluation is heavily influenced by performance results of the last month. This is an example of recency effect. 
 
True    False
 

32.
Employees who are thinking of quitting their jobs believe that a large percentage of their coworkers are also thinking about quitting. This perceptual error is called the halo effect. 
 
True    False
 

33.
Self-fulfilling-prophecy training encourages managers to eliminate self-fulfilling prophecies. 
 
True    False
 

34.
Employees with a high level of self-awareness will have increased perceptual biases of others. 
 
True    False
 

35.
Diversity awareness programs mainly educate employees about the value of diversity and the problems with stereotyping. 
 
True    False
 

36.
The Johari Window is a training program that teaches employees how to change their personality. 
 
True    False
 

37.
According to the Johari Window, the hidden area is reduced through disclosure. 
 
True    False
 

38.
The contact hypothesis states that the more individuals interact with one another, the less they rely on stereotypes to perceive each other. 
 
True    False
 

39.
When interacting with people from other backgrounds, perceptual biases are more likely to be minimized when these people have equal status during the interaction. 
 
True    False
 

40.
Empathy is both cognitive and emotional. 
 
True    False
 

41.
People who learn to empathize with others are less likely to engage in fundamental attribution errors. 
 
True    False
 

42.
A global mindset excludes the capacity to empathize and act effectively across cultures. 
 
True    False
 

43.
A global mindset can be developed through better knowledge of people and cultures solely by formal training. 
 
True    False
 

44.
In a global mindset, the empathy of an individual from a different culture translates into the effective use of words and behaviors that are compatible with the local culture. 
 
True    False
 

 


Multiple Choice Questions
 

45.
Social identity theory says that: 
 



A. 
we define ourselves in terms of our membership in certain groups and our differences with people who belong to other groups.
 

B. 
we tend to believe our own actions are caused by motivation or ability rather than the situation.
 

C. 
our expectations about another person cause that person to act in a way that is consistent with those expectations.
 

D. 
we quickly form an opinion of people based on the first information we receive about them.
 

E. 
our emotions screen out large blocks of information that threaten our beliefs and values.
 
 

46.
According to the social identity theory, people tend to: 
 



A. 
receive information and make sense of the world around them.
 

B. 
perceive that their own actions are due to the situation, whereas the behaviors of other people are mainly due to their motivation and ability.
 

C. 
believe that people in their own groups share common traits.
 

D. 
think that they are distinct from people in the social groups to which they have a connection.
 

E. 
refer to something about themselves as separate individuals.
 
 

47.
Which of the following refers to the process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us? 
 



A. 
Personalization
 

B. 
Motivation
 

C. 
Reinforcement theory
 

D. 
Perception
 

E. 
Social identification
 
 

48.
Generally, the brands placed on the upper shelves of supermarkets receive greater attention than those on the lower shelves. This is an example of _____. 
 



A. 
selective attention
 

B. 
stereotyping
 

C. 
halo effect
 

D. 
behavior modification
 

E. 
recency effect
 
 

49.
________ is the process of filtering information received by our senses. 
 



A. 
Personal identification
 

B. 
Social learning
 

C. 
Projection
 

D. 
Stereotyping
 

E. 
Selective attention
 
 

50.
Which of the following is an example of selective attention? 
 



A. 
You notice that two employees are arguing in the company's quiet library.
 

B. 
You conclude that the person near the cash register is a sales clerk.
 

C. 
You assume that an employee is lazy because she works in a department with lazy people.
 

D. 
You watch only a few television channels based on your interests.
 

E. 
You select a few job applicants through structured interviews.
 
 

51.
Some investors in the stock market become overconfident and ignore evidence that their strategies will lose money. This can be attributed to _____. 
 



A. 
the primacy effect
 

B. 
confirmation bias
 

C. 
the recency effect
 

D. 
the prophecy effect
 

E. 
stereotyping
 
 

52.
Which of the following occurs most likely due to confirmation bias? 
 



A. 
A company conducts monthly performance reviews to evaluate its employees.
 

B. 
A customer demands a proof statement from the salesperson.
 

C. 
A manager believes his actions are correct, though they are highly unpopular.
 

D. 
A manager considers female workers to be less productive than the male workers.
 

E. 
A teacher assigns moderate grades to all her students, though there is a vast difference in performance.
 
 

53.
_____ is the unconscious process of organizing people and objects into preconceived categories that are stored in our long-term memory. 
 



A. 
Mental model
 

B. 
Social identification
 

C. 
Categorical thinking
 

D. 
Personal identification
 

E. 
Reinforcement theory
 
 

54.
Mental models are _____ that guide perceptions and behavior. 
 



A. 
stereotypes
 

B. 
forms of punishment
 

C. 
self-fulfilling prophecies
 

D. 
broad world views
 

E. 
action learning practices
 
 

55.
Mental models cause us to: 
 



A. 
perceive events as though people are acting on a theatrical stage.
 

B. 
select and organize stimuli in ways that are consistent with our broad world views.
 

C. 
believe the behavior of others is caused more by their ability or motivation than the situation.
 

D. 
perceive ourselves as members of several groups that are different from people in other groups.
 

E. 
change our personality whenever we develop new mental models.
 
 

56.
The process of assigning traits to people based on their membership in an identifiable social category is called: 
 



A. 
the recency effect.
 

B. 
the halo effect.
 

C. 
projection bias.
 

D. 
empathy.
 

E. 
stereotyping.
 
 

57.
André is a doctor who is quick to mention that he is a doctor when he first meets other people. He also tends to perceive himself and other physicians in a more favorable way than nurses and non-medical staff. Which concept best explains André's perceptual process? 
 



A. 
Attribution theory
 

B. 
Social identity theory
 

C. 
Self-fulfilling prophecy
 

D. 
Perceptual defense
 

E. 
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
 
 

58.
Social perception is influenced by three activities in the process of forming and maintaining our social identity. They are: 
 



A. 
attribution, acceptance, and modification.
 

B. 
categorization, homogenization, and differentiation.
 

C. 
perception, personality, and attitude.
 

D. 
fundamental attribution, self-serving attribution, and social identity.
 

E. 
agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience.
 
 

59.
George believes that women have difficulty coping with the stress of executive decisions. Sally is promoted into a senior management position and George soon complains that Sally won't be able to cope with this job. George is exhibiting which of the following perceptual errors? 
 



A. 
Attribution error
 

B. 
Stereotyping
 

C. 
Projection bias
 

D. 
Halo error
 

E. 
Recency error
 
 

60.
Systemic discrimination: 
 



A. 
is not due to a perceptual error.
 

B. 
will not result in stereotyping.
 

C. 
is completely based on prejudice.
 

D. 
creates unintentional stereotypes.
 

E. 
is associated with negative attitudes toward others.
 
 

61.
Which of the following concepts is most closely linked to discriminatory attitudes and behaviors? 
 



A. 
Halo effect
 

B. 
Primacy effect
 

C. 
Attribution theory
 

D. 
Recency effect
 

E. 
Stereotyping
 
 

62.
The _____ process involves deciding whether an observed behavior or event is caused mainly by the person or by the environment. 
 



A. 
attribution
 

B. 
stereotyping
 

C. 
social identification
 

D. 
selective attention
 

E. 
self identification
 
 

63.
Which of the following is an internal factor that affects job performance? 
 



A. 
Economic conditions
 

B. 
Changes in salary
 

C. 
Peer-Support
 

D. 
Internal competition
 

E. 
Motivation to work
 
 

64.
Consistency, consensus and distinctiveness are the: 
 



A. 
three elements of behavior modification.
 

B. 
three elements of the selective attention process.
 

C. 
three rules that determine whether to make an internal or external attribution.
 

D. 
three of the four quadrants in the Johari Window.
 

E. 
the main causes of a self-fulfilling prophecy.
 
 

65.
Which of the following describes the fundamental attribution error? 
 



A. 
People seldom make attributions about their own behavior.
 

B. 
The likelihood of making an error attributing the behavior of another person increases with your familiarity of that other person.
 

C. 
We tend to believe that other people have the same beliefs and behaviors that we have.
 

D. 
We tend to believe the behavior of other people is caused more by their motivation and ability than by factors beyond their control.
 

E. 
We tend to believe that colleagues perform their jobs better than we perform our job.
 
 

66.
The tendency to attribute the behavior of other people to internal factors more than external factors is called the: 
 



A. 
recency bias.
 

B. 
projection bias.
 

C. 
fundamental attribution error.
 

D. 
primacy effect.
 

E. 
self-serving bias.
 
 

67.
If John takes credit for work done on time, but blames his co-workers for his delays, his attitude is reflective of the: 
 



A. 
fundamental attribution error.
 

B. 
primacy effect.
 

C. 
self-fulfilling prophecy.
 

D. 
self-serving bias.
 

E. 
projection bias.
 
 

68.
How can a self-serving bias be observed in a corporate annual report? 
 



A. 
The report would say more about the company's problems and less about its successes.
 

B. 
The report would emphasize the role of competition, inflationary pressures and other external causes of problems in the organization's performance.
 

C. 
The report would exclude any bad news about the organization's performance.
 

D. 
The report would acknowledge that competition, the economy and other external factors should be credited for some of the company's recent success.
 

E. 
The report would acknowledge some of management's mistakes, but suggest that management in other companies have been making the same mistakes.
 
 

69.
Which of the following perceptual processes cause self-serving bias? 
 



A. 
Attribution
 

B. 
Halo effect
 

C. 
Social identification
 

D. 
Stereotyping
 

E. 
Self-fulfilling prophecy
 
 

70.
Which of the following illustrates the first step in the self-fulfilling prophecy? 
 



A. 
An employee behaves in a way consistent with the supervisor's expectations.
 

B. 
A supervisor treats the employee in a manner consistent with the supervisor's expectations.
 

C. 
A supervisor forms certain expectations of the employee.
 

D. 
A supervisor attributes employee's good performance to external causes.
 

E. 
An employee demonstrates his or her true abilities to the supervisor.
 
 

71.
Which of the following illustrates one of the steps in the self-fulfilling prophecy process? 
 



A. 
A supervisor forms an incorrect impression of the employee.
 

B. 
A supervisor assigns challenging goals to the employee.
 

C. 
A supervisor gives lenient feedback to the employee.
 

D. 
A supervisor avoids reinforcement of work done by the employee.
 

E. 
A supervisor communicates expectations to the employee.
 
 

72.
Someone who is new to the job and has a low expectancy is: 
 



A. 
less likely to engage in stereotyping.
 

B. 
more likely to engage in the fundamental attribution error.
 

C. 
more likely to have a strong learning orientation.
 

D. 
more vulnerable to the supervisor's self-fulfilling prophecies of that employee.
 

E. 
more likely to engage in behavior modification.
 
 

73.
The self-fulfilling prophecy effect is stronger: 
 



A. 
at the beginning of a relationship.
 

B. 
for experienced employees.
 

C. 
when a relationship is saturated.
 

D. 
when a relationship is extremely complex.
 

E. 
when a relationship is very strong.
 
 

74.
The philosophy of positive organizational behavior states that: 
 



A. 
employees are more effective when they experience extinction more than other contingencies of reinforcement.
 

B. 
employees are, by nature, good rather than bad in terms of their ethics and care for others in the world.
 

C. 
focusing on the positive rather than negative aspects of life will improve organizational success and individual well-being.
 

D. 
training programs that make leaders aware of the power of positive expectations have the maximum effect.
 

E. 
employees process positive information more quickly than negative information.
 
 

75.
If you form a general negative impression of a person based on one prominent characteristic, and it affects your perception of other characteristics of that person, it is called: 
 



A. 
a projection bias.
 

B. 
the halo effect.
 

C. 
selective attention.
 

D. 
a self-serving bias.
 

E. 
stereotyping.
 
 

76.
Which perceptual error occurs when a supervisor incorrectly rates an employee at a similar level across all performance dimensions based on an overall impression of that employee? 
 



A. 
Attribution error
 

B. 
Stereotyping
 

C. 
Projection bias
 

D. 
Halo effect
 

E. 
Recency effect
 
 

77.
Which of the following is a perceptual error where we tend to believe that other people hold the same beliefs and attitudes as we do? 
 



A. 
Self-serving bias
 

B. 
Recency effect
 

C. 
False-consensus effect
 

D. 
Self-fulfilling prophecy
 

E. 
Personal identity
 
 

78.
The statement "First impressions are lasting impressions" best represents the: 
 



A. 
primacy effect.
 

B. 
self-fulfilling prophecy.
 

C. 
projection bias.
 

D. 
recency effect.
 

E. 
extroversion effect.
 
 

79.
The recency effect is most common when: 
 



A. 
making an evaluation involving complex information.
 

B. 
the decision maker has considerable experience in that situation.
 

C. 
the decision maker believes most employees are above average.
 

D. 
evaluating someone who is easily identified with a visible demographic group.
 

E. 
the decision maker has a strong learning orientation.
 
 

80.
Implicit Association Test are used to: 
 



A. 
study the tacit knowledge available to employees.
 

B. 
find out the relationship between skills and performance.
 

C. 
detect subtle race, age, and gender bias with specific demographic groups.
 

D. 
assess the hidden skills and abilities of individuals.
 

E. 
study the perceptual organization process of individuals.
 
 

81.
The _____ area in the Johari Window refers to information that is known to others but not to you. 
 



A. 
blind
 

B. 
feedback
 

C. 
unknown
 

D. 
hidden
 

E. 
open
 
 

82.
The objective of the Johari Window is to: 
 



A. 
improve our perceptual process.
 

B. 
prevent others from understanding the reasons behind our actions.
 

C. 
discourage disclosure and feedback.
 

D. 
increase the hidden and unknown area.
 

E. 
prevent an individual's perceptual limitations being disclosed to his colleagues.
 
 

83.
In the Johari Window, the _____ area includes information about you that is known both to you and others. 
 



A. 
mid-level
 

B. 
hidden
 

C. 
unknown
 

D. 
blind
 

E. 
open
 
 

84.
In the Johari Window, the blind area gets smaller when we: 
 



A. 
provide disclosure.
 

B. 
avoid feedback from others.
 

C. 
increase the hidden area.
 

D. 
are far away from knowing our perceptual limitations.
 

E. 
hide our beliefs and experiences.
 
 

85.
In the Johari Window, feedback from others helps us to: 
 



A. 
increase our open area by reducing our blind area.
 

B. 
increase our unknown area by reducing our hidden area.
 

C. 
decrease our open area by increasing our amount of disclosure.
 

D. 
increase our open area by reducing our unknown area.
 

E. 
increase our open area by increasing our hidden area.
 
 

86.
In the Johari Window, disclosure of information to colleagues results in: 
 



A. 
reducing our open area by reducing our blind area.
 

B. 
increasing our unknown area by reducing our hidden area.
 

C. 
decreasing our open area by increasing our amount of feedback.
 

D. 
increasing our open area by reducing our perceptual limitations.
 

E. 
increasing our open area by reducing our hidden area.
 
 

87.
The contact hypothesis states that: 
 



A. 
our tendency to stereotype people increases with our frequency of contact with them.
 

B. 
we are more likely to make an internal attribution of someone's behavior when we have more contact with that person.
 

C. 
the social identity theory only applies to people who have personal contact with the groups with whom they identify.
 

D. 
people who interact with each other will be less perceptually biased toward each other.
 

E. 
the self-fulfilling prophecy occurs only when the target individual interacts virtually with the person making the prophecy.
 
 

88.
Which of these statements about the contact hypothesis is true? 
 



A. 
It states that in increasing contact with someone, the most recent information dominates our perception of that person.
 

B. 
Increased contact with someone tends to reduce our tendency to use stereotypes to perceive that person.
 

C. 
By reducing our contact with people, we develop more accurate perceptions of them.
 

D. 
It states that the more we interact with someone, the more prejudiced we will be against that person.
 

E. 
Increased contact with someone tends to change our stereotype of the group to which that person belongs and tends to reduce our tendency to use stereotypes to perceive that person.
 
 

89.
Which of the following improves self-awareness and mutual understanding that is founded on the contact hypothesis? 
 



A. 
Johari Window
 

B. 
Meaningful interaction
 

C. 
Implicit Association Test
 

D. 
Self-fulfilling-prophecy
 

E. 
Self-serving bias
 
 

90.
Which of the following is true about meaningful interaction? 
 



A. 
Meaningful interaction relies on dialogue.
 

B. 
Meaningful interaction increases dependence on stereotypes to understand others.
 

C. 
Meaningful interaction is based on the Johari Window.
 

D. 
Meaningful interaction potentially improves empathy toward others.
 

E. 
Meaningful interaction is a way of increasing self-awareness by encouraging disclosure and feedback to increase our own open area.
 
 

91.
_____ refers to understanding and being sensitive to the feelings, thoughts, and situations of others. 
 



A. 
Apathy
 

B. 
Contact hypothesis
 

C. 
Empathy
 

D. 
Recency effect
 

E. 
Primacy effect
 
 

92.
In organizational settings, empathy: 
 



A. 
has both cognitive and emotional components.
 

B. 
decreases sensitivity to the external causes of an individual's own behavior and results.
 

C. 
increases the likelihood of the fundamental attribution error.
 

D. 
indicates any implicit biases you might have toward others.
 

E. 
is similar to apathy.
 
 

93.
Which of the following is true about a global mindset? 
 



A. 
A global mindset occurs as people initially develop more of a local than a global frame of reference about their business.
 

B. 
A global mindset excludes the capacity to empathize and act effectively across cultures.
 

C. 
A global mindset includes the ability to process complex information about familiar environments.
 

D. 
A global mindset does not include the ability to comprehend and reconcile intracultural matters.
 

E. 
A global mindset includes an awareness of, openness to, and respect for other views and practices in the world.
 
 

94.
Elaine got a job transfer from Italy to New York. Soon, she started to understand the mental models held by colleagues from other cultures, as well as their emotional experiences in a given situation. Further, she started to effectively use words and behaviors that were compatible with the local culture of New York. Which of the following features of a global mindset occurred in Elaine's life? 
 



A. 
The ability to process complex information about novel environments.
 

B. 
The capacity to empathize and act effectively across cultures.
 

C. 
The capacity to comprehend and reconcile intracultural matters.
 

D. 
The ability to develop more of a local than a global frame of reference about their business.
 

E. 
The ability to comprehend and reconcile intercultural matters with multiple levels of thinking.
 
 

95.
Which of the following is true about developing a global mindset? 
 



A. 
Global mindset can be developed through better knowledge of people and cultures only by formal training.
 

B. 
Deeper absorption of knowledge of people and cultures results from immersion in those cultures.
 

C. 
The last step in developing a global mindset is self-awareness—understanding one's own beliefs, values, and attitudes.
 

D. 
Companies restrict employees from comparing their own mental models with those of coworkers from other regions of the world.
 

E. 
Developing a global mindset excludes practices of awareness, self-awareness and meaningful interaction.
 
 

1.
Cognitive processes typically occur before emotional processes are initiated. 
 
True    False
 

2.
Emotions represent the cluster of beliefs, assessed feelings, and behavioral intentions towards something or someone guided by conscious logical reasoning. 
 
True    False
 

3.
Emotions are brief events or "episodes". 
 
True    False
 

4.
Moods represent our reaction to specific people or events, whereas emotions are not directed toward anything in particular. 
 
True    False
 

5.
People are consciously aware of most emotions they experience. 
 
True    False
 

6.
Emotions generate a core affect that something is good or bad, helpful or harmful, to be approached or avoided. 
 
True    False
 

7.
Strong emotions trigger our conscious awareness of a threat or opportunity in the external environment. 
 
True    False
 

8.
Moods are less intense emotional states that are directed toward something or somebody in particular. 
 
True    False
 

9.
Emotions are communications to ourselves, which serve to put us in a state of readiness. 
 
True    False
 

10.
Attitudes represent a cluster of beliefs, motivation and feelings about an attitude object. 
 
True    False
 

11.
Beliefs are established perceptions about the attitude object. 
 
True    False
 

12.
Attitudes consist of the following three components: emotions, beliefs, and behaviors. 
 
True    False
 

13.
The emotional markers that nonconsciously tag sensory information are calculated feelings towards the information source. 
 
True    False
 

14.
A dual cognitive-emotional attitude formed by emotions and logic is responsible for how employees form positive or negative attitudes toward their job, coworkers, and other aspects of work. 
 
True    False
 

15.
The influence of both cognitive reasoning and emotions on attitudes is most apparent when they agree with each other. 
 
True    False
 

16.
Studies indicate that while executives tend to make quick decisions based on logical reasoning, the best decisions are based on their emotional responses. 
 
True    False
 

17.
Cognitive dissonance is more likely to occur when the dissonant behavior is known to everyone, was done voluntarily and cannot be undone. 
 
True    False
 

18.
A person's emotions are influenced by his or her personality, not just from workplace experiences. 
 
True    False
 

19.
Emotional labor refers to any physical work that makes employees feel angry that they must perform this kind of work. 
 
True    False
 

20.
Display rules are norms that require employees to show certain emotions and to withhold others. 
 
True    False
 

21.
Emotional dissonance occurs when two or more people with notable differences in emotional intelligence interact with each other. 
 
True    False
 

22.
Emotional dissonance refers to the conflict experienced between the emotions we are required to display and our true emotions in that situation. 
 
True    False
 

23.
Emotional dissonance is most common where emotional display rules are highly regulated and employees must display emotions quite different from their true emotions. 
 
True    False
 

24.
Jobs require more emotional labor when employees must display a variety of emotions, rather than just one or two. 
 
True    False
 

25.
Emotional labor may result in stress and job burnout when the prescribed emotions for a job conflict with the employee's true emotions. 
 
True    False
 

26.
Employees experience less stress from emotional labor when they practice surface acting rather than deep acting. 
 
True    False
 

27.
Employees can minimize the stress from emotional labor by actually changing their emotions to match the job requirements (deep acting), rather than displaying emotions contrary to their true emotions (surface acting). 
 
True    False
 

28.
Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in oneself and others. 
 
True    False
 

29.
Emotional intelligence refers to a group of behaviors rather than a set of abilities of an individual. 
 
True    False
 

30.
The dimensions of emotional intelligence are cognitive dissonance, continuance commitment, and emotional labor. 
 
True    False
 

31.
Relationship management represents the highest level of emotional intelligence. 
 
True    False
 

32.
The four dimensions of emotional intelligence form a hierarchy. 
 
True    False
 

33.
The emotional intelligence of an individual tends to increase with age. 
 
True    False
 

34.
Job satisfaction represents a person's evaluation of his or her job and work context. 
 
True    False
 

35.
Employees are more likely to quit their jobs and be absent from work if they are dissatisfied with their jobs. 
 
True    False
 

36.
The exit-voice-loyalty-neglect model states that some employees respond to their job dissatisfaction by patiently waiting for the problem to work itself out or get resolved by others. 
 
True    False
 

37.
According to the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect model, some unsatisfied employees engage in "voice" by constructively recommending solutions to the source of their dissatisfaction. 
 
True    False
 

38.
People with a high conscientiousness personality are more likely to engage in neglect and less likely to engage in voice. 
 
True    False
 

39.
Job satisfaction leads to improved job performance when performance is not linked to valued rewards. 
 
True    False
 

40.
The relationship between job satisfaction and job performance would likely be stronger if more organizations provided valued rewards for good performance. 
 
True    False
 

41.
Employees with higher job satisfaction tend to convey more friendliness and positive feelings to customers. 
 
True    False
 

42.
Job satisfaction is an ethical issue that influences the organization's reputation in the community. 
 
True    False
 

43.
Organizational commitment refers to an employee's contractual obligation to provide a minimum amount of time and effort to the organization in return for a fair day's pay from the organization. 
 
True    False
 

44.
Affective commitment refers to a calculative attachment to remain in the organization. 
 
True    False
 

45.
Continuance commitment is a calculative decision to remain with the organization rather than an emotional attachment to the firm. 
 
True    False
 

46.
Employees with high levels of affective commitment tend to engage in more organizational citizenship behaviors. 
 
True    False
 

47.
Employees with very high loyalty tend to have high conformity, which results in lower creativity. 
 
True    False
 

48.
Financial incentives given to employees to stay with the organization usually reduces continuance commitment. 
 
True    False
 

49.
Continuance commitment motivates employees to increase their work effort beyond expectations. 
 
True    False
 

50.
Opportunities for employee involvement and increased social identity with the organization would increase the continuance commitment of employees. 
 
True    False
 

51.
Trust, employee involvement, and organizational comprehension tend to increase organizational commitment. 
 
True    False
 

52.
Trust is a reciprocal activity; to receive trust from employees, corporate leaders must demonstrate their trust in those employees. 
 
True    False
 

53.
Stress is an adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person's well-being. 
 
True    False
 

54.
Some level of stress is a necessary part of life for every individual. 
 
True    False
 

55.
Eustress refers to the short-term causes of stress, whereas distress refers to long-term causes. 
 
True    False
 

56.
The general adaptation syndrome describes the various consequences of stress. 
 
True    False
 

57.
Job burnout is a particular stress consequence process, which typically consists of three stages. 
 
True    False
 

58.
Any environmental condition that places a physical or emotional demand on a person is called a stressor. 
 
True    False
 

59.
Work overload and job burnouts are also referred to as quid pro quo harassment at the workplace. 
 
True    False
 

60.
High task control increases employee exposure to the risk of burnout. 
 
True    False
 

61.
Job sharing and telecommuting are usually considered ways to reduce stress through work/life balance. 
 
True    False
 

62.
Work practices such as flexible and restricted work hours increase work-related stress. 
 
True    False
 

63.
Vacations and holidays allow employees to be withdrawn from various organizational stressors and reenergize for future challenges. 
 
True    False
 

64.
Many companies have fitness centers or subsidize the cost of membership at off-site centers. This practice is intended to remove the stressor. 
 
True    False
 

65.
Social support cannot improve a person's resilience, but it can help a person withdraw from the stressor. 
 
True    False
 

 


Multiple Choice Questions
 

66.
Emotions are defined as: 
 



A. 
feelings that are not directed toward anything in particular.
 

B. 
our judgments about what is right or wrong.
 

C. 
our intentions to act towards the attitude object.
 

D. 
the cluster of beliefs, assessed feelings and behavioral intentions towards an attitude object.
 

E. 
physiological, behavioral, and psychological episodes experienced toward an object, person, or event that create a state of readiness.
 
 

67.
Emotions will have a greater influence on our perceptions, attitudes, decisions, and behavior than cognition because: 
 



A. 
emotional processes often occur before cognitive processes.
 

B. 
cognitive processes are less significant for individual behaviors.
 

C. 
emotional processes are simpler when compared to cognitive processes.
 

D. 
emotional processes are more likely to result in negative behaviors.
 

E. 
cognitive processes are more likely to result in negative behaviors.
 
 

68.
Which of the following statements is true of emotions in the workplace? 
 



A. 
They are physiological actions rather than behavioral actions.
 

B. 
Emotions last for a longer time period.
 

C. 
Emotions are directed toward someone or something.
 

D. 
They are also referred to as moods of individuals.
 

E. 
Emotions and moods are directed toward specific attitudes of others.
 
 

69.
Which of the following is an effect of emotions? 
 



A. 
They represent the cluster of beliefs and behavioral intentions toward a person.
 

B. 
They put us into a state of readiness.
 

C. 
They help us involve in conscious logical reasoning.
 

D. 
They enable us to have established perceptions about the attitude object.
 

E. 
They represent one's motivation to engage in a particular behavior.
 
 

70.
Anger, fear, joy, and sadness represent the: 
 



A. 
beliefs that influence our attitudes towards something or someone.
 

B. 
first four stages of emotional labor.
 

C. 
different types of emotions.
 

D. 
four dimensions of job satisfaction.
 

E. 
four areas of the Johari Window.
 
 

71.
Which of the following differences is similar to the difference between emotions and attitudes? 
 



A. 
Eating something versus drinking something.
 

B. 
Experiencing something versus judging something.
 

C. 
Perceiving something versus behaving toward something.
 

D. 
Knowing about something versus doing something.
 

E. 
Espoused values versus enacted values.
 
 

72.
Beliefs, feelings, and behavioral intentions are components of: 
 



A. 
attitudes.
 

B. 
the EVLN model.
 

C. 
organizational commitment.
 

D. 
emotions.
 

E. 
the psychological contract.
 
 

73.
Which of the following terms refer to established perceptions about the attitude object? 
 



A. 
Intentions
 

B. 
Feelings
 

C. 
Senses
 

D. 
Beliefs
 

E. 
Behaviors
 
 

74.
Which of the following terms best represents the positive or negative evaluations of the attitude object? 
 



A. 
Intentions
 

B. 
Behaviors
 

C. 
Feelings
 

D. 
Senses
 

E. 
Beliefs
 
 

75.
Identify the term that represents your motivation to engage in a particular behavior regarding the attitude object. 
 



A. 
Feelings
 

B. 
Senses
 

C. 
Beliefs
 

D. 
Behaviors
 

E. 
Intentions
 
 

76.
Which of these statements represents the feelings dimension of attitudes? 
 



A. 
I don't like how my boss treats his employees.
 

B. 
I want to transfer out of this department to get away from this manager.
 

C. 
My supervisor barks at his employees in public.
 

D. 
I intend to tell the human resource manager that my supervisor should be demoted.
 

E. 
I believe the current actions of the company will increase its competitiveness.
 
 

77.
Which of the following determine whether intentions translate into behavior? 
 



A. 
External dimensions of your value system.
 

B. 
All four elements of the MARS model.
 

C. 
Internal or external locus of control.
 

D. 
Self-efficacy and self-esteem.
 

E. 
Tendency for self-enhancement.
 
 

78.
As soon as we receive sensory information, we nonconsciously tag some of that information with emotional markers. These markers are: 
 



A. 
calculated feelings about an individual or incidents.
 

B. 
calculated feelings of a particular attitude or emotion.
 

C. 
behavioral intensions formed based on the beliefs of individuals.
 

D. 
innate emotional responses to thin slices of sensory information.
 

E. 
the internal beliefs that drives individuals of an organization.
 
 

79.
After working weeks on a difficult proposal for a client, Jack learns that the client has accepted the proposal and will award the contract to Jack's firm. When Jack hears this from his boss, he yelps 'Yahoo!' and automatically thrusts his fisted hand in the air. This action is an example of: 
 



A. 
perceptions directly influencing beliefs.
 

B. 
behavioral intentions directly influencing behavior.
 

C. 
emotions directly influencing feelings.
 

D. 
beliefs directly influencing feelings.
 

E. 
emotions directly influencing behavior.
 
 

80.
Many companies try to create positive experiences at work. Which of the following is the major reason for this? 
 



A. 
It is mandatory for a multi-national company to have such work-conditions.
 

B. 
Work conditions can have an emotional influence on employee attitudes.
 

C. 
In order to promote an image of increased corporate social responsibility.
 

D. 
As part of the green marketing campaign which is popular around the world.
 

E. 
This would help the employers form a cognitive dissonance with the employees.
 
 

81.
Which of the following statements is true of an individual's conscious logical evaluation of a situation? 
 



A. 
Emotional responses influence the conscious logical evaluation.
 

B. 
It is less dependable compared to the emotional evaluation.
 

C. 
Logical evaluation would not lead to any form of conflict.
 

D. 
Logical evaluation can be effective only when the individual has strong emotions.
 

E. 
Conscious logical evaluations of individuals always have a neutral perspective.
 
 

82.
The uncomfortable tension felt when our behavior and attitudes are inconsistent with each other is called: 
 



A. 
cognitive distance.
 

B. 
emotional intelligence.
 

C. 
cognitive justification.
 

D. 
cognitive dissonance.
 

E. 
neglect.
 
 

83.
Emotional labor refers to: 
 



A. 
the effort, planning, and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions.
 

B. 
the tendency to change our attitudes so they become more consistent with our behaviors.
 

C. 
a person's evaluation of the job and work context.
 

D. 
a person's emotional attachment to identification with, and involvement in a particular organization.
 

E. 
maintaining similar emotional display rules and standards around the world.
 
 

84.
Customer service representatives (CSRs) often conceal their frustration when serving an irritating customer. This behavior from the CSRs is an example of: 
 



A. 
emotional labor.
 

B. 
cognitive response.
 

C. 
cognitive dissonance.
 

D. 
judgmental evaluation.
 

E. 
emotional attribution.
 
 

85.
Emotional labor is higher in jobs requiring: 
 



A. 
limited hours of routine work.
 

B. 
working in irregular shifts.
 

C. 
working in isolation.
 

D. 
frequent interaction with clients.
 

E. 
skilled knowledge such as accounting.
 
 

86.
Which of these statements about emotional labor is true? 
 



A. 
Jobs involving customer service do not require emotional labor.
 

B. 
Research indicates that emotional display rules and standards are very similar around the world.
 

C. 
Emotional labor increases with the extent to which employees must abide by emotional display rules.
 

D. 
Emotional labor occurs when we perceive an inconsistency between our beliefs, feelings, and behavior.
 

E. 
Emotional labor demands are higher in jobs requiring more intense emotions.
 
 

87.
Which of these countries is more likely to accept or tolerate, than any other country, people who display their true emotions at work? 
 



A. 
U.S.A.
 

B. 
Japan
 

C. 
France
 

D. 
Spain
 

E. 
Austria
 
 

88.
Emotional dissonance is: 
 



A. 
the emotion people experience when they are dissatisfied with their paycheck.
 

B. 
a significant cause of stress and job burnout.
 

C. 
present whenever emotional labor is not required in the job.
 

D. 
the main source of ethical conduct in organizational settings.
 

E. 
a set of similar emotional display rules around the world.
 
 

89.
Emotional dissonance occurs when: 
 



A. 
there are no known emotional display rules for a particular situation.
 

B. 
we experience conflict between the required emotions and our true emotions.
 

C. 
we work with someone who has high emotional intelligence.
 

D. 
job satisfaction is at the same level as organizational commitment.
 

E. 
there is a set of similar emotional display rules around the world.
 
 

90.
________ involves modifying behavior to be consistent with required emotions but continuing to hold different internal feelings. 
 



A. 
Surface acting
 

B. 
Customization
 

C. 
Personalization
 

D. 
Deep acting
 

E. 
Emotional dissonance
 
 

91.
Deep acting involves: 
 



A. 
using real emotions to handle difficult customers.
 

B. 
basing one's beliefs to make decisions on customer interactions.
 

C. 
ignoring customer needs and acting for the company's benefit.
 

D. 
ignoring customer needs and acting for one's own benefit.
 

E. 
changing true emotions to match the required emotions.
 
 

92.
The ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in oneself and others is called: 
 



A. 
emotional intelligence.
 

B. 
emotional labor.
 

C. 
cognitive dissonance.
 

D. 
positive affectivity.
 

E. 
job satisfaction.
 
 

93.
Emotional intelligence is best described as: 
 



A. 
a personality trait.
 

B. 
a set of abilities.
 

C. 
a form of organizational commitment.
 

D. 
an action-tendency indicating that the person is highly motivated.
 

E. 
a form of empathy.
 
 

94.
Social awareness, self-management, and relationship management are three elements of: 
 



A. 
affective commitment.
 

B. 
emotional labor.
 

C. 
emotional intelligence.
 

D. 
continuance commitment.
 

E. 
the affect circumplex model of emotions.
 
 

95.
The highest level of emotional intelligence is: 
 



A. 
being aware of other peoples' emotions.
 

B. 
self-management.
 

C. 
organizational comprehension.
 

D. 
self-awareness.
 

E. 
managing other people's emotions.
 
 

96.
Relationship management is: 
 



A. 
a negative, highly activated emotion.
 

B. 
one of three types of organizational commitment.
 

C. 
an outcome of emotional dissonance.
 

D. 
the highest level of emotional intelligence.
 

E. 
the opposite of employability.
 
 

97.
Self-awareness is the lowest level of _____. 
 



A. 
emotional intelligence
 

B. 
emotional labor
 

C. 
emotional dissonance
 

D. 
continuance commitment
 

E. 
affective commitment
 
 

98.
The competency most strongly associated with social awareness is: 
 



A. 
conflict management.
 

B. 
empathy.
 

C. 
organizational comprehension.
 

D. 
self-esteem.
 

E. 
job performance.
 
 

99.
Which of the following is a competency representing the highest level of emotional intelligence? 
 



A. 
Perceiving emotions of other people.
 

B. 
Understanding the meaning of one's own emotions.
 

C. 
Managing dysfunctional emotions among staff.
 

D. 
Being more sensitive to subtle emotional responses.
 

E. 
Experiencing another person's emotions.
 
 

100.
Your boss has the highest level of emotional intelligence. Which of the following abilities does your boss possess? 
 



A. 
He is able to perceive his own emotions.
 

B. 
He is able to empathize with others.
 

C. 
He is able to understand the meaning of his own emotions.
 

D. 
He is able to calm employees when they are upset.
 

E. 
He is able to manage his own emotions.
 
 

101.
Which of the following questions does not correctly estimate the level of job satisfaction among employees? 
 



A. 
"How flexible is your work timing?"
 

B. 
"How healthy is your relationship with your superiors?"
 

C. 
"How satisfied are you with your job?"
 

D. 
"How are the training methods at your work place?"
 

E. 
"How are the transport facilities at your work place?"
 
 

102.
The exit-voice-loyalty-neglect (EVLN) model: 
 



A. 
outlines the four consequences of emotional intelligence.
 

B. 
identifies the four ways to manage employee emotions.
 

C. 
explains why the psychological contract differs between employees and their employers.
 

D. 
is a template for organizing and understanding the consequences of job dissatisfaction.
 

E. 
explains the main differences between affective commitment and continuance commitment.
 
 

103.
Donald was unhappy that his company did not provide good transport facilities. He found it very strenuous to drive to work on his own, and this eventually led to job dissatisfaction. Hence, he recommended ways to solve this problem. According to the EVLN model, this information suggests that Donald's main reaction to job dissatisfaction was: 
 



A. 
exit.
 

B. 
voice.
 

C. 
commitment.
 

D. 
loyalty.
 

E. 
neglect.
 
 

104.
Shawna is dissatisfied with her boss for not supporting her work or recognizing her job performance. In spite of these problems, Shawna does not complain and does not intend to move elsewhere. Instead, she maintains her level of work effort and hopes the company will eventually correct these problems. According to the EVLN model, Shawna's response is: 
 



A. 
exit.
 

B. 
voice.
 

C. 
employability.
 

D. 
loyalty.
 

E. 
neglect.
 
 

105.
Which of the following statements about job satisfaction and job performance is true? 
 



A. 
Employees who are dissatisfied with their jobs do not have high job performance.
 

B. 
Job satisfaction has almost no effect on job performance.
 

C. 
Employees who are satisfied with their jobs have higher job performance.
 

D. 
Happy workers are less productive workers.
 

E. 
Employees have higher job satisfaction only after they have received a financial reward.
 
 

106.
Which of the following is a conclusion by organizational behavior scholars regarding job satisfaction? 
 



A. 
As job performance increases, job satisfaction decreases.
 

B. 
Job performance is the sole predictor of job satisfaction.
 

C. 
Job satisfaction is not related to job performance.
 

D. 
People with higher job satisfaction have higher job performance.
 

E. 
Job satisfaction does not affect customer performance.
 
 

107.
Which of the following proposes that job satisfaction has a positive effect on customer service, which flows on to shareholder financial returns? 
 



A. 
EVLN model
 

B. 
Service profit chain model
 

C. 
Emotional intelligence model
 

D. 
MARS model
 

E. 
EI-Based Theory of Performance
 
 

108.
Employees who stay with an organization mainly because they believe it will cost them financially to leave will have: 
 



A. 
high continuance commitment.
 

B. 
high emotional intelligence.
 

C. 
low continuance commitment.
 

D. 
high organizational commitment.
 

E. 
high affective commitment.
 
 

109.
The concept of affective organizational commitment includes: 
 



A. 
a calculative attachment to the organization.
 

B. 
an employee who is motivated to stay because leaving would be costly.
 

C. 
an emotional attachment with the organization.
 

D. 
selfish behavior within the organization.
 

E. 
perceiving loss of social costs.
 
 

110.
Employees with an emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in a particular organization are said to have: 
 



A. 
a high level of work motivation.
 

B. 
extreme emotional dissonance.
 

C. 
a low level of emotional activation.
 

D. 
a high level of continuance commitment.
 

E. 
a high level of calculative commitment.
 
 

111.
Which of the following occurs when organizations give financial incentives to prevent dissatisfied employees from quitting? 
 



A. 
Employees increase their level of affective commitment.
 

B. 
Employees increase their level of continuance commitment.
 

C. 
Employees increase their level of job satisfaction.
 

D. 
Employees decrease their level of emotional intelligence.
 

E. 
Employees decrease their level of continuance commitment.
 
 

112.
Which of the following tends to result in increased continuance commitment? 
 



A. 
Corporate leaders demonstrate increasing trust in employees.
 

B. 
The company helps employees learn more about the organization through departmental visits and special seminars on company products.
 

C. 
Employees receive low interest loans and other incentives from their employer that make it costly for them to quit.
 

D. 
The company introduces a no-layoff policy to motivate the employees.
 

E. 
The company gives strong opportunities for learning new skills to employees.
 
 

113.
Employees' identification with a particular organization tends to increase: 
 



A. 
affective commitment.
 

B. 
cognitive dissonance.
 

C. 
continuance commitment.
 

D. 
calculative commitment.
 

E. 
job dissatisfaction.
 
 

114.
_____ is a psychological state that refers to the positive expectations of the intent or behavior of the other person in situations involving risk. 
 



A. 
Surface acting
 

B. 
Trust
 

C. 
Cognitive dissonance
 

D. 
Deep acting
 

E. 
General adaptation syndrome
 
 

115.
The adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person's well-being is called: 
 



A. 
self-leadership.
 

B. 
job burnout.
 

C. 
eustress.
 

D. 
workaholism.
 

E. 
stress.
 
 

116.
Stress is best described as: 
 



A. 
the physiological disorders we experience from adverse environmental conditions.
 

B. 
an adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person's wellbeing.
 

C. 
a series of events that cause emotional exhaustion and cynicism towards customers.
 

D. 
environmental conditions that place a physical or emotional demand on the person.
 

E. 
a behavior pattern of people with low risk of heart disease.
 
 

117.
Which of the following terms refers to the necessary stress that activates and motivates people to achieve goals and change their environments? 
 



A. 
Distress
 

B. 
Cognitive dissonance
 

C. 
General Adaptation syndrome
 

D. 
Eustress
 

E. 
Emotional dissonance
 
 

118.
Which of the following statements about stress is true? 
 



A. 
Employees are the most productive when they experience no stress.
 

B. 
Stress is caused by stressors.
 

C. 
Stress is a psychological condition and not physiological condition.
 

D. 
The hypoventilation syndrome describes the stress experience.
 

E. 
When a person is under stress, the body moves less blood to the brain.
 
 

119.
Which of the following represent the three dimensions of workaholism? 
 



A. 
Efficacy, cynicism, and emotional exhaustion.
 

B. 
Work involvement, compulsion to work, and low enjoyment of work.
 

C. 
Alarm reaction, resistance, exhaustion.
 

D. 
Time, strain, and role.
 

E. 
Cynicism, drive to succeed, and resistance.
 
 

120.
What effect does providing childcare support and offering employees flexible work hours have on work-related stress? 
 



A. 
It helps employees to learn how to cope with the consequences of stress.
 

B. 
It helps employees to control the consequences of stress.
 

C. 
It removes stressors from the workplace.
 

D. 
It enhances stressors in the workplace.
 

E. 
It changes employees' perceptions of stress.
 
 

121.
Which of the following reduces stress by withdrawing from the stressor? 
 



A. 
Flexible work schedules
 

B. 
Sabbaticals
 

C. 
Work addiction
 

D. 
Telecommuting
 

E. 
Workaholism
 
 

122.
Which of these stress management activities helps employees improve their perceived ability to cope with the stressor and possibly remove the stressor? 
 



A. 
Transfer
 

B. 
Social support
 

C. 
Meditation
 

D. 
Vacations
 

E. 
Fitness programs
 
 

123.
To ward off stress, a film director likes to have a good laugh. When under pressure, the director will crack jokes and ensure everyone has a good laugh during the hard work. These actions mainly reduce stress: 
 



A. 
by removing the stressor.
 

B. 
by providing social support.
 

C. 
by changing stress perceptions.
 

D. 
by controlling the consequences of stress.
 

E. 
by being workaholic.
 
 

124.
Self-reinforcement can potentially minimize stress by: 
 



A. 
removing people from stressors.
 

B. 
helping employees to temporarily withdraw from the stressor.
 

C. 
helping employees to control the consequences of stress.
 

D. 
helping employees to develop more favorable perceptions of the stressors.
 

E. 
Self-leadership has no known effect on work-related stress.
 
 

 
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