# MAT 510 Final Exam LATEST 2015 (70 QUESTIONS)

A SIPOC map is

The fact that processes tend to be dynamic, rather

than static, is a key principle of statistical thinking. Which of the following

is a natural consequence of this fact?

Process complexity is important because complex

processes

Process measurements are:

Suppose the Process Improvement Framework were used

to attack a problem where the process in question was inherently unstable.

Which of the following would be a likely result of this effort?

The histogram below showing ages of credit card

holders displays what type of distribution?

A process is said to be capable if

A main purpose of a control chart is to

The histogram has which of the following limitations

In evaluating data on our process outputs, four

characteristics we might investigate are: central tendency, variation, shape of

distribution, and stability. Which of the following tools would be most helpful

to determine stability of the process?

George Box tells us “all models are wrong but some

are useful”. By this comment he means

Models based on subject matter fundamentals (theory)

are generally better than statistical models for

Which of the following is NOT a reason for adjusted

R-Square being low?

Results of regression analysis are often abused in

the following ways

Process models are used to:

What should one consider when analyzing the results

of an experiment?

Identify the assumption that is NOT made when

conducting an experiment

This technique is used to eliminate the effects of

nuisance factors (e.g., machines, day of week, and season of year) from an

experiment

The following table shows data on the effect of

Machine Pressure on product hardness. What statistical test should

be used to test the effect of pressure on average hardness?

100MPa

200MPa

6.2

11.1

7.3

10.3

8.2

13

8.3

14.3

7.5

11.2

6.5

14.7

9.6

10

9

9.4

Which of the following purposes are served by

replicating an experiment?

1.

Provide a means for estimating the experimental

error

2.

Increase the number of treatment effects included

in the experiment

3.

Improve the precision of estimates of treatments

effects

We ran a taste-test to see which soft drink

employees in our company prefer. We had 100 employees, selected as randomly as

possible, taste test two brands and determine which they preferred. Which of

the following would be a reasonable statistical analysis to determine if there

is a clear preference among our employees?

We conducted a t test to compare the average cycle

time to approve two different types of loans, auto and personal. The p-value

for the t test was -.03, where the hypotheses were

Which of the following would be plausible values for

the endpoints of a 95% confidence interval for (Auto

- Per.)?

Based on a regression model, I have developed a 95%

prediction interval for the time it will take me to run a mile under specific

conditions (weather, what I have eaten & drank, running shoes used, and so

on). This interval goes from 5.2 minutes to 6.1 minutes. Which of the following

could be an accurate description of this interval?

For which of the following scenarios am I most

likely to utilize a Chi-squared test?

We are conducting a poll for the mayoral election of

a medium sized city, and found with one week before the election that the

Democrat candidate is leading with 52% planning to vote for her, 46% planning

to vote for the Republican, with 2% not sure. The 95% confidence interval for

proportion planning to vote for the Democrat is +/- 3%. Based on this

information, and making reasonable assumptions, which of the following

statements is correct?

Improvement is needed for an organization to survive

because:

What is tool that can be used to detect the

structure variation?

Service and non-manufacturing processes

Processes are important because

Suppose a DMAIC Framework were used to attack a

problem where the process in question was inherently stable. Which of the

following would be a likely result of this effort?

What does it mean if capability index Cp is

less than 1?

If my histogram appears bimodal, what tool might

help me evaluate why?

A sample of 50 invoices are inspected each shift for

errors, and classified as either “good”, i.e., without error, or “bad”, having

some problem. If we plot our bad invoices each shift on a control chart, which

chart should we use?

A process is said to be capable if

A comparison between the Cp and Cpk for

a process would find which of the following to be true?

Which of the following is NOT a measure of model

adequacy?

Process models are used to

Models based on subject matter fundamentals (theory)

are generally better than statistical models for:

Tips for building useful models include:

George Box tells us “all models are wrong but some

are useful”. By this comment he means:

A 32 experiment means that we are

experimenting with

This technique is used to eliminate the effects of

nuisance factors (e.g., machines, day of week, and season of year) from an

experiment.

An aspect of good experimental strategy is to study

the effects of the variables

(Xs) over a wide range. This strategy increases the chances that effects will

be found because:

In every experiment there is experimental

error. Which of the following statements is true?

We conducted a t test to compare the average cycle

time to approve two different types of loans, auto and personal. The p-value

for the t test was -.03, where the hypotheses were:

H0: Auto

- Per. =

0

H0: Auto

- Per. 0

Which of the following would be plausible values for the endpoints of a 95%

confidence interval for (Auto

We are conducting a poll for the mayoral election of

a medium sized city, and found with one week before the election that the

Democrat candidate is leading with 52% planning to vote for her, 46% planning

to vote for the Republican, with 2% not sure. The 95% confidence interval for

proportion planning to vote for the Democrat is +/- 3%. Based on this

information, and making reasonable assumptions, which of the following

statements is correct?

What would happen (other things equal) to a

confidence interval if you calculated a 99 percent confidence interval rather

than a 95 percent confidence interval?

Which of the following could be considered a

prediction interval?

I have calculated an interval to document the

uncertainty in my estimate of the long-term standard deviation I will

experience in time to pay invoices in my business going forward. Baaed on this

information, this should be considered what type of interval?

Improvement is needed for an organization to survive

because:

Understanding variation is important because

variation:

Which of the following are principles of Statistical

Thinking?

The standard deviation is:

Process improvement activities typically include

In Figure 2.11, Coach Hau presented data showing

where goals were scored on crosses. This produced unexpected results, in terms

of where the goals came from, and helped his team determine an effective

strategy on free kicks. This is an example of what principle of statistical thinking?

Box, Hunter, and Hunter are quoted in this chapter

as stating: “Data have no meaning in themselves; they are meaningful only in

relation to a conceptual model of the phenomenon studied.” This critical point

is related to which of the following principles of statistical thinking?

The fact that processes tend to be dynamic, rather

than static, is a key principle of statistical thinking. Which of the following

is a natural consequence of this fact?

Figure 2.16 shows a chart of the Dow Jones

Industrial Average from 1990 through 2011. This plot reveals some obvious

change points, such as the 2008 financial collapse, and some unexplainable

short-term variation. Assuming that these are the only sources of variation in

this plot, what source of variation is NOT visible in the plot?

In the advertising case study, the unexpected “V”

shaped pattern in the plot of advertising dollars versus sales indicated what?

Figure 2.15 displays a model of the statistics

discipline, showing the relationship between statistical thinking, statistical

engineering, and statistical methods and tools. Which of the following is a

principle illustrated by this model?

What is tool that can be used to detect the

structure variation?

Service and non-manufacturing processes:

The primary goal of process mapping is to:

Improving the quality of process measurements is:

Refer to Figure 3.21 and choose the correct

statement for the measurements

We measure, monitor and improve process cycle time

because:

Processes are important because:

Process complexity is important because complex

processes:

Use of subject matter knowledge is a key aspect of

the Statistical Thinking Strategy discussed in Chapter 2. For which of the

following case studies in Chapter 4 was this principle NOT clearly applied?

The Problem Solving Framework begins with a

“Document the Problem” phase. The Process Improvement Framework does not begin

this way, but rather begins with an “Understand the Process phase.” Which of

the following are valid reasons for this difference?

We learned in Chapter 2 that most processes are

dynamic in nature, and therefore the time dimension is often a critical

consideration in process improvement. For which of the case studies in Chapter

4 was plotting data over time NOT critical to success?

Suppose the Problem Solving Framework were used to

attack a problem where the process in question was inherently stable. Which of

the following would be a likely result of this effort?

Suppose a DMAIC Framework were used to attack a

problem where the process in question was inherently stable. Which of the

following would be a likely result of this effort?

Which of the following are accurate statements about

the relationship between the Process Improvement Framework (PIF) and the

Problem Solving Framework (PSF)?

The fact that processes tend to be dynamic, rather

than static, is a key principle of statistical thinking. Which of the following

is a natural consequence of this fact?

Process complexity is important because complex

processes

Process measurements are:

Suppose the Process Improvement Framework were used

to attack a problem where the process in question was inherently unstable.

Which of the following would be a likely result of this effort?

The histogram below showing ages of credit card

holders displays what type of distribution?

A process is said to be capable if

A main purpose of a control chart is to

The histogram has which of the following limitations

In evaluating data on our process outputs, four

characteristics we might investigate are: central tendency, variation, shape of

distribution, and stability. Which of the following tools would be most helpful

to determine stability of the process?

George Box tells us “all models are wrong but some

are useful”. By this comment he means

Models based on subject matter fundamentals (theory)

are generally better than statistical models for

Which of the following is NOT a reason for adjusted

R-Square being low?

Results of regression analysis are often abused in

the following ways

Process models are used to:

What should one consider when analyzing the results

of an experiment?

Identify the assumption that is NOT made when

conducting an experiment

This technique is used to eliminate the effects of

nuisance factors (e.g., machines, day of week, and season of year) from an

experiment

The following table shows data on the effect of

Machine Pressure on product hardness. What statistical test should

be used to test the effect of pressure on average hardness?

100MPa

200MPa

6.2

11.1

7.3

10.3

8.2

13

8.3

14.3

7.5

11.2

6.5

14.7

9.6

10

9

9.4

Which of the following purposes are served by

replicating an experiment?

1.

Provide a means for estimating the experimental

error

2.

Increase the number of treatment effects included

in the experiment

3.

Improve the precision of estimates of treatments

effects

We ran a taste-test to see which soft drink

employees in our company prefer. We had 100 employees, selected as randomly as

possible, taste test two brands and determine which they preferred. Which of

the following would be a reasonable statistical analysis to determine if there

is a clear preference among our employees?

We conducted a t test to compare the average cycle

time to approve two different types of loans, auto and personal. The p-value

for the t test was -.03, where the hypotheses were

Which of the following would be plausible values for

the endpoints of a 95% confidence interval for (Auto

- Per.)?

Based on a regression model, I have developed a 95%

prediction interval for the time it will take me to run a mile under specific

conditions (weather, what I have eaten & drank, running shoes used, and so

on). This interval goes from 5.2 minutes to 6.1 minutes. Which of the following

could be an accurate description of this interval?

For which of the following scenarios am I most

likely to utilize a Chi-squared test?

We are conducting a poll for the mayoral election of

a medium sized city, and found with one week before the election that the

Democrat candidate is leading with 52% planning to vote for her, 46% planning

to vote for the Republican, with 2% not sure. The 95% confidence interval for

proportion planning to vote for the Democrat is +/- 3%. Based on this

information, and making reasonable assumptions, which of the following

statements is correct?

Improvement is needed for an organization to survive

because:

What is tool that can be used to detect the

structure variation?

Service and non-manufacturing processes

Processes are important because

Suppose a DMAIC Framework were used to attack a

problem where the process in question was inherently stable. Which of the

following would be a likely result of this effort?

What does it mean if capability index Cp is

less than 1?

If my histogram appears bimodal, what tool might

help me evaluate why?

A sample of 50 invoices are inspected each shift for

errors, and classified as either “good”, i.e., without error, or “bad”, having

some problem. If we plot our bad invoices each shift on a control chart, which

chart should we use?

A process is said to be capable if

A comparison between the Cp and Cpk for

a process would find which of the following to be true?

Which of the following is NOT a measure of model

adequacy?

Process models are used to

Models based on subject matter fundamentals (theory)

are generally better than statistical models for:

Tips for building useful models include:

George Box tells us “all models are wrong but some

are useful”. By this comment he means:

A 32 experiment means that we are

experimenting with

This technique is used to eliminate the effects of

nuisance factors (e.g., machines, day of week, and season of year) from an

experiment.

An aspect of good experimental strategy is to study

the effects of the variables

(Xs) over a wide range. This strategy increases the chances that effects will

be found because:

In every experiment there is experimental

error. Which of the following statements is true?

We conducted a t test to compare the average cycle

time to approve two different types of loans, auto and personal. The p-value

for the t test was -.03, where the hypotheses were:

H0: Auto

- Per. =

0

H0: Auto

- Per. 0

Which of the following would be plausible values for the endpoints of a 95%

confidence interval for (Auto

We are conducting a poll for the mayoral election of

a medium sized city, and found with one week before the election that the

Democrat candidate is leading with 52% planning to vote for her, 46% planning

to vote for the Republican, with 2% not sure. The 95% confidence interval for

proportion planning to vote for the Democrat is +/- 3%. Based on this

information, and making reasonable assumptions, which of the following

statements is correct?

What would happen (other things equal) to a

confidence interval if you calculated a 99 percent confidence interval rather

than a 95 percent confidence interval?

Which of the following could be considered a

prediction interval?

I have calculated an interval to document the

uncertainty in my estimate of the long-term standard deviation I will

experience in time to pay invoices in my business going forward. Baaed on this

information, this should be considered what type of interval?

Improvement is needed for an organization to survive

because:

Understanding variation is important because

variation:

Which of the following are principles of Statistical

Thinking?

The standard deviation is:

Process improvement activities typically include

In Figure 2.11, Coach Hau presented data showing

where goals were scored on crosses. This produced unexpected results, in terms

of where the goals came from, and helped his team determine an effective

strategy on free kicks. This is an example of what principle of statistical thinking?

Box, Hunter, and Hunter are quoted in this chapter

as stating: “Data have no meaning in themselves; they are meaningful only in

relation to a conceptual model of the phenomenon studied.” This critical point

is related to which of the following principles of statistical thinking?

The fact that processes tend to be dynamic, rather

than static, is a key principle of statistical thinking. Which of the following

is a natural consequence of this fact?

Figure 2.16 shows a chart of the Dow Jones

Industrial Average from 1990 through 2011. This plot reveals some obvious

change points, such as the 2008 financial collapse, and some unexplainable

short-term variation. Assuming that these are the only sources of variation in

this plot, what source of variation is NOT visible in the plot?

In the advertising case study, the unexpected “V”

shaped pattern in the plot of advertising dollars versus sales indicated what?

Figure 2.15 displays a model of the statistics

discipline, showing the relationship between statistical thinking, statistical

engineering, and statistical methods and tools. Which of the following is a

principle illustrated by this model?

What is tool that can be used to detect the

structure variation?

Service and non-manufacturing processes:

The primary goal of process mapping is to:

Improving the quality of process measurements is:

Refer to Figure 3.21 and choose the correct

statement for the measurements

We measure, monitor and improve process cycle time

because:

Processes are important because:

Process complexity is important because complex

processes:

Use of subject matter knowledge is a key aspect of

the Statistical Thinking Strategy discussed in Chapter 2. For which of the

following case studies in Chapter 4 was this principle NOT clearly applied?

The Problem Solving Framework begins with a

“Document the Problem” phase. The Process Improvement Framework does not begin

this way, but rather begins with an “Understand the Process phase.” Which of

the following are valid reasons for this difference?

We learned in Chapter 2 that most processes are

dynamic in nature, and therefore the time dimension is often a critical

consideration in process improvement. For which of the case studies in Chapter

4 was plotting data over time NOT critical to success?

Suppose the Problem Solving Framework were used to

attack a problem where the process in question was inherently stable. Which of

the following would be a likely result of this effort?

Suppose a DMAIC Framework were used to attack a

problem where the process in question was inherently stable. Which of the

following would be a likely result of this effort?

Which of the following are accurate statements about

the relationship between the Process Improvement Framework (PIF) and the

Problem Solving Framework (PSF)?

- A

manufacturing process has been experiencing problems. The operators

charting the process data have identified the cause to be due to an

unanticipated change in incoming raw materials. This problem should

be considered: - It

is, unfortunately, common in business for managers to demand an

explanation for variation that is, based on statistics, typical and expected

variation, i.e., common cause variation. Alternatively, there may be

obvious special causes in the data that may be shrugged off as “typical

business fluctuations”. Which of the following statements about

interpretation of variation are true? - The

Statistical Thinking Strategy illustrated in Figure 2.14 provides a

graphic of the overall approach to driving improvement through statistical

thinking. Which of the following is a key principle illustrated in this

specific graph? - Lean

manufacturing, Six Sigma, Total Quality Management are some of the new

systems for managing and improving an organization. What is a common theme

running through these approaches? - The

principal drivers of the rapid change in the global economy are: - A

SIPOC map is: - Which

type of variation was critical to resolving the realized revenue case

study? - If

you are thinking creatively about how to take existing tools and link and

sequence them to develop a novel approach to solve important problems,

this would be an example of: - The

frameworks discussed in Chapter 4 could be considered more specific

examples of: - Sub-optimization

occurs when: - The

SIPOC model for a business helps everyone in the company see the business

from an overall perspective by:

I. Keeping a focus

on customer needs

II. Identifying inputs and

outputs for each step of the process

III. Displaying cross-function

activities in simple terms

IV. Helping maintain the big business

picture - Process

measurements are: - Viewing

a business as a system is important because: - The

Hidden Factory is:

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