PSY 315 Entire Course

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PSY/315

STATISTICAL
REASONING IN PSYCHOLOGY


 

The Latest Version A+ Study
Guide


 

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PSY 315 Entire Course Link

https://uopcourses.com/category/psy-315/

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PSY 315 Week 1 Week One Practice
Problems Worksheet

Resource: Statistics for
Psychology


Complete the
Week One Practice Problems Worksheet.

Click the
Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

Note. Computation
methods may include the use of Microsoft® Excel®, SPSS™,
Lotus®, SAS®, Minitab®, or by-hand
computation.

Week One
Practice Problems

 

Prepare a written response to the following
questions.

 

Chapter 1

 

12. Explain and give an example for each of
the following types of variables:

 

a.    
Equal interval:





b.    
Rank-order:





c.    
Nominal:





d.    
Ratio scale:





e.    
Continuous:





f.     
Discrete:

 

15. Following are the speeds of 40 cars clocked by radar on a
particular road in a 35-mph zone on a particular afternoon:





30, 36, 42, 36,
30, 52, 36, 34, 36, 33, 30, 32, 35, 32, 37, 34, 36, 31, 35, 20

24, 46, 23, 31,
32, 45, 34, 37, 28, 40, 34, 38, 40, 52, 31, 33, 15, 27, 36, 40





Make a frequency
table and a histogram, then describe the general shape of the distribution

 

21. Raskauskas and Stoltz (2007) asked a group of 84 adolescents
about their involvement in traditional and electronic bullying. The researchers
defined electronic bullying as “…a means of bullying in which peers use
electronics {such as text messages, emails, and defaming Web sites} to taunt,
threaten, harass, and/or intimidate a peer” (p.565). The table below is a
frequency table showing the adolescents’ reported incidence of being victims or
perpetrators or traditional and electronic bullying.

 

a.    
Using this table as an example,
explain the idea of a frequency table to a person who has never had a course in
statistics.





b.    
Explain the general meaning of
the pattern of results.

 




Incidence of Traditional and
Electronic Bullying and Victimization (N=84)




Forms of Bullying


N


%




Electronic victims


41


48.8




 


Text-message victim


27


32.1




 


Internet victim (websites, chatrooms)


13


15.5




 


Picture-phone victim


8


9.5




Traditional Victims


60


71.4




 


Physical victim


38


45.2




 


Teasing victim


50


59.5




 


Rumors victim


32


38.6




 


Exclusion victim


30


50




Electronic Bullies


18


21.4




 


Text-message bully


18


21.4




 


Internet bully


11


13.1




Traditional Bullies


5


64.3




 


Physical bully


29


34.5




 


Teasing bully


38


45.2




 


Rumor bully


22


26.2




 


Exclusion bully


35


41.7




 

22. Kärnä and colleagues (2013) tested the effects of a new
antibullying program, called KiVa, among students in grades 1–3 and grades 7–9
in 147 schools in Finland. The schools were randomly assigned to receive the
new antibullying program or no program. At the beginning, middle, and end of
the school year, all of the students completed a number of questionnaires,
which included the following two questions: “How often have you been bullied at
school in the last couple of months?” and “How often have you bullied others at
school in the last couple of months?” The table below is a frequency table that
shows students’ responses to these two questions at the end of the school year
(referred to as “Wave 3” in the title of the table). Note that the table shows
the results combined for all of the students in the study. In the table,
“victimization” refers to students’ reports of being bullied and “bullying” is
students’ reports of bullying other students.





a.    
Using this table as an example,
explain the idea of a frequency table to a person who has never had a course in
statistics.





b.    
Explain the general meaning of
the pattern of results. (You may be interested to know that the KiVa program
successfully reduced victimization and bullying among students in grades 1–3
but the results were mixed with regards to the effectiveness of the program
among those in grades 7–9.).

 




Frequencies of Responses in
the Five Categories of the Self-Reported Bullying and Victimization Variables
at Wave 3




 



Grades 1–3



Grades 7–9




 



Victimization



Bullying



Victimization



Bullying




Variable


Freq.


%


 


Freq.


%


 


Freq.


%


 


Freq.


%




Occurrence












 




 


Not at all


3,203


53.6



4,296


72



10,660


77.4



10,880


79.5




 


Only once or twice


1,745


29.2



1,333


22.3



2,031


14.7



1,987


14.5




 


2 or 3 times a month


446


7.5



197


3.3



402


2.9



344


2.5




 


About once a week


297


5



90


1.5



312


2.3



196


1.4




 


Several times a week


281


4.7



49


0.8



375


2.7



279


2




Participants












 




 


Respondents n


5,972


100



5,965


100



13,780


100



13,686


100




 


Missing n


955




962




2,723




2,817


 




 


Total N


6,927




6,927




16,503




16,503


 




 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 




 

 

 

PSY 315 Week 1 Learning Team Charter

Please complete
the Learning Team Charter provided by the instructor for this course.


LEARNING TEAM CHARTER – TEAM “X”




Course Title



 





Team Members/Contact Information





Name


 


Phone


 


Time zone and

Availability During the Week


 


Email




 


 


xxx-xxx-xxxx


 


(e.g., AZ “Mtn
Time”, Mon-Sat 9-11pm)


 


 




 


 


 


 


 


 


 




 


 


 


 


 


 


 




 


 


 


 


 


 


 




 


 


 


 


 


 


 




 


 


 


 


 


 


 




 


 


 


 


 


 


 




Team Ground Rules and Guidelines

What
are the general expectations for all members of the team?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

Expectations for Time Management and Involvement

(Participation,
communication with the team, accessibility, etc.)

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Team Leadership

Learning
Teams work most effectively when there is a team leader. This can be
accomplished by having one team leader throughout the entire course or by team
members taking turns each week as the team leader. Which method do you choose?
If you choose one team leader, state who the leader is. If there is a different
team leader each week, please state who will be the leader for each week.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

 

What are the
roles and responsibilities of the team leader?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Ensuring Fair and Even Contribution and Collaboration

What strategy
will you use to ensure that all team members are contributing and collaborating
appropriately? Describe the communication strategy you will use if a team
member is not contributing and collaborating effectively. How will the team
manage conflicts between team members?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

 

If team members are not
contributing to an assignment equally, how will we work to resolve this?

 

                                                                                                    

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

If a team member does not
complete his/her part of the assignment, the work still must be done. Who will
complete the work of the non-contributing team member?

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

 

 

PSY 315 Week 2 Week Two Practice
Problems Worksheet

Resource: Statistics for
Psychology


Complete the
Week Two Practice Problems Worksheet.

Click the
Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.



Note. Computation
methods may include the use of Microsoft® Excel®,
SPSS™, Lotus®, SAS®, Minitab®, or
by-hand computation.

Week Two Practice Problems

 

Prepare a written response to the following
questions.

 

Chapter 2

 

12. 
For the following scores, find the mean, median, sum of squared
deviations, variance, and standard deviation:





1,112; 1,245;
1,361; 1,372; 1,472

 

 

16. 
A psychologist interested in political behavior measured the square
footage of the desks in the official office for four U.S. governors and of four
chief executive officers (CEOs) of major U.S. corporations. The figures for the
governors were 44, 36, 52, and 40 square feet. The figures for the CEOs were
32, 60, 48, 36 square feet.







  1. Figure the means and standard deviations for the governors and
    CEOs.

  2. Explain, to a person who has never had a course in statistics,
    what you have done.

  3. Note the waus in which the means and standard deviations
    differ, and speculate on the possible meaning of these differences,
    presuming that they are representative of U.S. governors and large
    corporations’ CEOs in general.




 

21. 
Radel and colleagues (2011) conducted a study of how feeling overly
controlled makes you desire—even unconsciously—more freedom. In their study, 52
Canadian undergraduates played a video game in a laboratory and were randomly
assigned to either:





a.     
an automony deprivation
condition, in which they were told to follow instructions precisely, constantly
given instructions over a loudspeaker, and carefully observed on everything
they did.

b.    
a neutral condition, which was
much more laid back.





After this
activity, they were asked to do a “lexical decision task” (a standard approach
for measuring unconscious responses) in which they were shown a series of words
and nonwords in random order and had to press “C” if it was a real word or “N”
if not. Half of the real words were related to autonomy (e.g., freedom, choice)
and half were neutral (e.g., whisper, hammer). The key focus of the study was
on how long it took people to press the button *(“response latency”) for each
kind of real word, averaged over the many words of each type. The table below
shows the mean and standard deviation across the participants of these four
categories of results. Thus, for example, 782 milliseconds (thousandths of a
second) is the average time it took participants in the autonomy-deprived condition
to respond to the autonomy-related words, and 211 is the standard deviation
across the 26 participants’ average response time in that condition. Explain
the numbers in this table to a person who has never had a course in statistics.
(Be sure to explain some specific numbers, as well as the general principle of
the mean and standard deviation.) For your interest, the pattern of results
shown here supported the researchers’ hypothesis: “Relative to a neutral
instructional climate, a controlling climate thwarting the need for autonomy…enhanced
accessibility for autonomy-related words.” (p.924).

 




Mean Latencies (in Milliseconds) in the Lexical Task Assessing
Accessibility for Autonomy-Related Constructs (Experiment 1)





Condition





Autonomy Deprivation



Neutral




Construct


M


SD



M


SD




Autonomy-related words


782


211



857


243




Neutral words


835


258



841


301




 

 

Chapter 3

 

14. 
On a standard measure of hearing ability, the mean is 300 and the
standard deviation is 20. Give the raw scores for persons whose Z scores for persons who score 340, 310,
and 260. Give the raw scores for persons whose Z scores on this test are 2.4, 1.5, and -4.5.

 

16. 
The amount of time it takes to recover physiologically from a certain
kind of sudden noise is found to be normally distributed with a mean of 80
seconds and a standard deviation of 10 seconds. Using the 50%–34%–14% figures,
approximately what percentage of scores (on time to recover) will be:

 

Above 100?

Below 100?

Above 90?

Below 90?

Above 80?

Below 80?

Above 70?

Below 70?

Above 60?

Below 60?

 

18. 
Suppose that the scores of architects on a particular creativity test
are normally distributed. Using a normal curve table, what percentage of
architects have Z scores:





Above .10?

Below .10?

Above .20?

Below .20?

Above 1.10?

Below 1.10?

Above -.10?

Below -.10?

 

21. Suppose that you are designing an
instrument panel for a large industrial machine. The machine requires the
person using it to reach 2 feet from a particular position. The reach from this
position for adult women is known to have a mean of 2.8 feet with a standard
deviation of .5. The reach for adult men is known to have a mean of 3.1 feet
with a standard deviation of .6. Both women’s and men’s reach from this
position is normally distributed. If this design is implemented:





What percentage
of women will not be able to work on this instrument panel?

What percentage
of men will not be able to work on this instrument panel?

Explain your
answers to a person who has never had a course in statistics.

 

24. Suppose that you were going to conduct
a survey of visitors to your campus. You want the survey to be as
representative as possible.





How would you
select the people to survey?

Why would that
be your best method?

 

 

 

PSY 315 Week 2 Descriptive and
Inferential Statistics Presentation

Resource: Assigned journal article

Create a 7- to 10-slide
presentation with speaker notes examining the differences between descriptive
and inferential statistics used in the journal article you were assigned.

Address the following items as
they apply to the article:


  • Describe the
    functions of statistics.

  • Define
    descriptive and inferential statistics.

  • Provide at
    least one example of the relationship between descriptive and inferential
    statistics.



Format your presentation
consistent with APA guidelines.

Note: A minimum of 3 scholarly
sources
 are
required. Scholarly sources are journal articles or books. Websites will only
be considered supplemental sources and will not be included as a part of the
minimum of 3 scholarly sources required for papers.

Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

 

 

PSY 315 Week 3 Week Three Practice
Problems Worksheet

Resource: Statistics
f
or Psychology

Complete the
Week Three Practice Problems Worksheet.



Click the assignment files tab to submit your
assignment.

Note. Methods
of computation may include the usage of Microsoft® Excel®,
SPSS, Lotus®,
SAS®, Minitab®,
or by-hand computation.

Week Three
Practice Problems

 

Prepare a written response to the following
questions.

 

Chapter 4

 


  1. List the five steps of hypothesis testing, and explain the
    procedure and logic of each.



 

 


  1. Based on the information given for the following studies,
    decide whether to reject the null hypothesis. Assume that all populations
    are normally distributed. For each, give: 






a.    
The Z-score cutoff (or cutoffs) on the comparison distribution at which
the null hypothesis should be rejected.

b.    
The Z-score on the comparison distribution for the sample score.

c.    
Your conclusion.

 




Study


µ


σ


Sample

Score


p


Tails of Tests




A


5


1


7


0.05


1 (high predicted)




B


5


1


7


0.05


2




C


5


1


7


0.01


1 (High predicted)




D


5


1


7


0.01


2




 


  1. A researcher predicts that listening to music while solving
    math problems will make a particular brain area more active. To test this,
    a research participant has her brain scanned while listening to music and
    solving math problems, and the brain area of interest has a percentage
    signal change of 58. From many previous studies with this same math
    problem’s procedure (but not listening to music), it is known that the
    signal change in this brain is normally distributed with a mean of 35 and
    a standard deviation of 10.






a.    
Using the .01 level, what
should the researcher conclude? Solve this problem explicity using all five
steps of hypothesis testing, and illustrate your answer with a sketch showing
the comparison distribution, the cutoff (or cutoffs), and the score of the
sample on this distribution.





b.    
Explain your answer to someone
who has never had a course in statistics (but who is familiar with mean,
standard deviation, and Z scores).

 

 

PSY 315 Week 3 Research Article
Critique

Select an article from the university library.

Provide a 1050 to 1400 word paper in which you
include the following information about the article:


  • A brief summary
    of the background of the topic of the article

  • The
    researchers' hypothesis

  • Explain the
    5 steps of hypothesis testing and explain how the researchers used them in
    their study

  • Provide your
    team's critique of the research including the limitations of the study



Format your paper in APA style.

Click the Assignment Files tab
to submit your assignment.

 

 

PSY 315 Week 4 Week Four Practice
Problems Worksheet

Resource: Statistics
for Psychology


Complete the
Week Four Practice Problems Worksheet.

Click on the assignment files tab to submit
your assignment.

Note. Methods of computation may include the usage of
Microsoft® Excel®,
SPSS™, Lotus®, SAS®, Minitab®, or by-hand
computation.

Week Four
Practice Problems

 

Prepare a written response to the following
questions.

 

Chapter 7

 


  1. The table below shows ratings of various aspects of work and
    home life of 100 middle-class men in India who were fathers. Pick three
    rows of interest to you and explain the results to someone who is familiar
    with the mean, variance, and Z
    scores, but knows nothing else about statistics.



 




Comparison of Fathers' Mean
Psychological States in the Job and Home Spheres (N = 100)




 



Sphere


 




Scale


Range


Work


Home


Work vs. home




Important


0-9


5.98


5.06


6.86***




Attention


0-9


6.15


5.13


7.96***




Challenge


0-9


4.11


2.41


11.49***




Choice


0-9


4.28


4.74


-3.38***




Wish doing else


0-9


1.5


1.44


0.61




Hurried


0-3


1.8


1.39


3.21**




Social Anxiety


0-3


0.81


0.64


3.17**




Affect


1-7


4.84


4.98


-2.64**




Social Climate


1-7


5.64


5.95


4.17***




 





 




Note: Values for column 3 are t scores;
df = 90 for all t tests.




**p < .01





 




***p < .001


 


 


 


 




 

Chapter 8

 


  1. Barker and colleagues (2012) compared 61 parents fo children
    who had a serious mental illness (SMI) to 321 parents of children withour
    such an illness. The researchers examined the parents’ reported levels of
    stress, their levels of a hormone called cortisol (levels of this hormone
    provide an indication of chronic stress), and their use of several types
    of medication. The table below shows the results of the study. Focusing on
    the parents’ number of stressors (the first row of the table) and the
    parents’ use of medications for anxiety or depression (the last row in the
    table), explain these results to a person who knows about the t test for a single sample but is
    unfamiliar with the t test for
    independent means.



 




Descriptive Statistics and
Mean-Level Comparisons






SMI Parents



Comparison Parents




 






N
= 61



N
= 321




 






Mean


SD


 


Mean


SD


 


t


p




Stress









 





Number of stressors


0.65


0.56



0.42


0.37



-3.08


0.00





Stress severity sum


1.89


1.63



1.16


1.1



-3.3


0.00




Cortisol (nmol/L)









 





Wake


17.46


10.72



16.75


7.38



-0.14


0.90





Out of bed


22.83


11.48



24.19


10.59



1.13


0.26





Bed


5.72


8.56



4.22


5.57



-1.86


0.06





Cortisol awakening response


5.62


9.7



7.48


8.34



1.55


0.12





Decline from out of bed


17.13


11.35



20.11


10.71



1.97


0.05




Medication use (proportion)









 





Allergy


0.26


0.44



0.16


0.37



-1.71


0.09





Steroid


0.2


0.4



0.12


0.33



-1.32


0.19





Hormone


0.13


0.34



0.14


0.35



0.25


0.80





Anxiety or depression


0.26


0.44


 


0.12


0.33


 


-2.36


0.02




 

14. For each of
the following studies, say whether you would use a t test for dependent means or a t
test for independent means.





d.    
A researcher measures the
heights of 40 university students who are the firstborn in their families and
compares the 15 who come from large families to the 25 who come from smaller
families.

e.    
A researcher tests performance
on a math skills test of each of 250 individuals before and after they complete
a one-day seminar on managing test anxiety.

f.     
A researcher compares the
resting heart rate of 15 individuals who have been taking a particular drug to
the resting heart rate of 48 other individuals who have not been taking the
drug.

 

Chapter 9

 


  1. An experiment is conducted in which 60 participants each fill
    out a personality test, but not according to the way the participants see
    themselves. Instead, 15 are randomly assigned to fill it out according to
    the way they think theur mothers see them (that is, the way they think
    their mothers would fill it out to describe the participants); 15 as their
    fathers would fill it out for them; 15 as their best friends would fill it
    out for them; 15 as the professors they know best would fill it out for
    them. The main results appear in Table 9-17. Explain these results to a
    person who has never had a course in statistics.



 




Means for Main Personality
Scales for Each Experimental Condition




Scale


Mother


Father


Friend


Professor


F(3,
56)




Conformity


24


21


12


16


4.21**




Extroversion


14


13


15


13


2.05




Maturity


15


15


22


19


3.11*




Self-Confidence


38


42


27


32


3.58*




 






 




*p < .05, **p < .01


 


 


 


 


 




 

 

24.  
Rosalie Friend (2001), and
educational psychologist, compared three methods of teaching writing. Students
were randomly assigned to three different experimental conditions involving
different methods of writing a summary. At the end of the two days of
instructions, participants wrote a summary. One of the ways it was scored was
the percentage of specific details of information it included from the original
material. Here is a selection from her article describing one of the findings:

 

The effect of
summarization method on inclusion of important information was significant F(2, 144) = 4.1032, p < .019. The mean scores (with standard deviations in
parantheses) were as follows: Argument Repetition, 59.6% (17.9);
Generalization, 59.8% (15.2); and Self-Reflection, 50.2% (18.0). (p.14)

 

a.    
Explain these results to a
person who has never had a course in statistics.

b.    
Using the information in the
preceding description, figure the effect size for the study.

 

 

 

PSY 315 Week 4 Hypothesis Testing
Outline

Select a research issue, problem, or opportunity in
the field of psychology.

Prepare a document outlining the
information you plan to discuss in your Week 5 paper. Your outline should
include at minimum the following:


  • Describe
    your selected research issue, problem, or opportunity.




  • Formulate a
    hypothesis statement concerning your selected research issue, problem, or
    opportunity.




  • Determine
    your population and describe which sampling method you would use to
    generate your sample




  • Describe how
    you would collect your data, the level of measurement of your data and
    which statistical technique you would use to analyze the data. 
    Explain why you chose that statistical technique.

  • At least 3 scholarly
    sources you plan to use for your paper

  • Include a conclusion of your anticipated findings.



Note: A minimum of 3 scholarly
sources
 are
required. Scholarly sources are journal articles or books. Websites will only
be considered supplemental sources and will not be included as a part of the
minimum of 3 scholarly sources required for papers.

Click the Assignment Files tab
to submit your assignment.

 

 

PSY 315 Week 5 Hypothesis Testing Paper

Resource: Instructor approved research issue, problem, or opportunity
in the field of psychology

Prepare a 1,400- to 1,750-word
paper in which you formulate a hypothesis based on your selected research
issue, problem, or opportunity.

Address the following:


  • Describe
    your selected research issue, problem, or opportunity.




  • Formulate a
    hypothesis statement concerning your selected research issue, problem, or
    opportunity.




  • Determine
    your population and describe which sampling method you would use to
    generate your sample




  • Describe how
    you would collect your data, the level of measurement of your data and
    which statistical technique you would use to analyze the data. 
    Explain why you chose that statistical technique.



Include a conclusion of your
anticipated findings.

Format your paper consistent
with APA guidelines.



Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

 

 

PSY 315 Week 5 Correlation Study
Worksheet

Resource: Statistics
for Psychology


Complete the
Correlation Study Worksheet.

Click the
Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

Correlation
Study Worksheet

 

 

Your research team has been tasked with
finding the correlation of the following scenario:

 

Four research
participants take a test of manual dexterity (high scores mean better
dexterity) and an anxiety test (high scores mean more anxiety). The scores are
as follows:

 

Person                             Dexterity                         Anxiety

 

1                                      1                                      10

2                                      1                                        8

3                                      2                                        4

4                                      4                                      -2

 

Describe the
process that your research team would go through by completing the following:

 


  1. Make a scatter diagram of the scores.

  2. Describe in words the general pattern of correlation, if any.

  3. Figure the correlation coefficient.

  4. Figure whether the correlation is statistically significant
    (use the .05 significance level, two-tailed).

  5. Explain the logic of what you have done, writing as if you are
    speaking to someone who has never heard of correlation (but who does
    understand the mean, standard deviation, Z scores, and hypothesis testing).

  6. Give three logically possible directions of causality,
    indicating for each direction whether it is a reasonable explanation for
    the correlation in light of the variables involved (and why).

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