# PSY 315 Entire Course

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PSY/315

STATISTICAL
REASONING IN PSYCHOLOGY

Guide

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https://uopcourses.com/category/psy-315/

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PSY 315 Week 1 Week One Practice
Problems Worksheet

Resource: Statistics for
Psychology

Complete the
Week One Practice Problems Worksheet.

Click the
Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

Note. Computation
methods may include the use of Microsoft® Excel®, SPSS™,
Lotus®, SAS®, Minitab®, or by-hand
computation.

Week One
Practice Problems

Prepare a written response to the following
questions.

Chapter 1

12. Explain and give an example for each of
the following types of variables:

a.
Equal interval:

b.
Rank-order:

c.
Nominal:

d.
Ratio scale:

e.
Continuous:

f.
Discrete:

15. Following are the speeds of 40 cars clocked by radar on a
particular road in a 35-mph zone on a particular afternoon:

30, 36, 42, 36,
30, 52, 36, 34, 36, 33, 30, 32, 35, 32, 37, 34, 36, 31, 35, 20

24, 46, 23, 31,
32, 45, 34, 37, 28, 40, 34, 38, 40, 52, 31, 33, 15, 27, 36, 40

Make a frequency
table and a histogram, then describe the general shape of the distribution

defined electronic bullying as “…a means of bullying in which peers use
electronics {such as text messages, emails, and defaming Web sites} to taunt,
threaten, harass, and/or intimidate a peer” (p.565). The table below is a
frequency table showing the adolescents’ reported incidence of being victims or
perpetrators or traditional and electronic bullying.

a.
Using this table as an example,
explain the idea of a frequency table to a person who has never had a course in
statistics.

b.
Explain the general meaning of
the pattern of results.

Electronic Bullying and Victimization (N=84)

Forms of Bullying

N

%

Electronic victims

41

48.8

Text-message victim

27

32.1

Internet victim (websites, chatrooms)

13

15.5

Picture-phone victim

8

9.5

60

71.4

Physical victim

38

45.2

Teasing victim

50

59.5

Rumors victim

32

38.6

Exclusion victim

30

50

Electronic Bullies

18

21.4

Text-message bully

18

21.4

Internet bully

11

13.1

5

64.3

Physical bully

29

34.5

Teasing bully

38

45.2

Rumor bully

22

26.2

Exclusion bully

35

41.7

22. Kärnä and colleagues (2013) tested the effects of a new
antibullying program, called KiVa, among students in grades 1–3 and grades 7–9
in 147 schools in Finland. The schools were randomly assigned to receive the
new antibullying program or no program. At the beginning, middle, and end of
the school year, all of the students completed a number of questionnaires,
which included the following two questions: “How often have you been bullied at
school in the last couple of months?” and “How often have you bullied others at
school in the last couple of months?” The table below is a frequency table that
shows students’ responses to these two questions at the end of the school year
(referred to as “Wave 3” in the title of the table). Note that the table shows
the results combined for all of the students in the study. In the table,
“victimization” refers to students’ reports of being bullied and “bullying” is
students’ reports of bullying other students.

a.
Using this table as an example,
explain the idea of a frequency table to a person who has never had a course in
statistics.

b.
Explain the general meaning of
the pattern of results. (You may be interested to know that the KiVa program
successfully reduced victimization and bullying among students in grades 1–3
but the results were mixed with regards to the effectiveness of the program

Frequencies of Responses in
the Five Categories of the Self-Reported Bullying and Victimization Variables
at Wave 3

Victimization

Bullying

Victimization

Bullying

Variable

Freq.

%

Freq.

%

Freq.

%

Freq.

%

Occurrence

Not at all

3,203

53.6

4,296

72

10,660

77.4

10,880

79.5

Only once or twice

1,745

29.2

1,333

22.3

2,031

14.7

1,987

14.5

2 or 3 times a month

446

7.5

197

3.3

402

2.9

344

2.5

297

5

90

1.5

312

2.3

196

1.4

Several times a week

281

4.7

49

0.8

375

2.7

279

2

Participants

Respondents n

5,972

100

5,965

100

13,780

100

13,686

100

Missing n

955

962

2,723

2,817

Total N

6,927

6,927

16,503

16,503

PSY 315 Week 1 Learning Team Charter

the Learning Team Charter provided by the instructor for this course.

LEARNING TEAM CHARTER – TEAM “X”

Course Title

Team Members/Contact Information

Name

Phone

Time zone and

Availability During the Week

Email

xxx-xxx-xxxx

(e.g., AZ “Mtn
Time”, Mon-Sat 9-11pm)

Team Ground Rules and Guidelines

What
are the general expectations for all members of the team?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

Expectations for Time Management and Involvement

(Participation,
communication with the team, accessibility, etc.)

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Learning
Teams work most effectively when there is a team leader. This can be
accomplished by having one team leader throughout the entire course or by team
members taking turns each week as the team leader. Which method do you choose?
If you choose one team leader, state who the leader is. If there is a different

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

What are the
roles and responsibilities of the team leader?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Ensuring Fair and Even Contribution and Collaboration

What strategy
will you use to ensure that all team members are contributing and collaborating
appropriately? Describe the communication strategy you will use if a team
member is not contributing and collaborating effectively. How will the team
manage conflicts between team members?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

If team members are not
contributing to an assignment equally, how will we work to resolve this?

If a team member does not
complete his/her part of the assignment, the work still must be done. Who will
complete the work of the non-contributing team member?

PSY 315 Week 2 Week Two Practice
Problems Worksheet

Resource: Statistics for
Psychology

Complete the
Week Two Practice Problems Worksheet.

Click the
Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

Note. Computation
methods may include the use of Microsoft® Excel®,
SPSS™, Lotus®, SAS®, Minitab®, or
by-hand computation.

Week Two Practice Problems

Prepare a written response to the following
questions.

Chapter 2

12.
For the following scores, find the mean, median, sum of squared
deviations, variance, and standard deviation:

1,112; 1,245;
1,361; 1,372; 1,472

16.
A psychologist interested in political behavior measured the square
footage of the desks in the official office for four U.S. governors and of four
chief executive officers (CEOs) of major U.S. corporations. The figures for the
governors were 44, 36, 52, and 40 square feet. The figures for the CEOs were
32, 60, 48, 36 square feet.

1. Figure the means and standard deviations for the governors and
CEOs.

2. Explain, to a person who has never had a course in statistics,
what you have done.

3. Note the waus in which the means and standard deviations
differ, and speculate on the possible meaning of these differences,
presuming that they are representative of U.S. governors and large
corporations’ CEOs in general.

21.
Radel and colleagues (2011) conducted a study of how feeling overly
controlled makes you desire—even unconsciously—more freedom. In their study, 52
Canadian undergraduates played a video game in a laboratory and were randomly
assigned to either:

a.
an automony deprivation
condition, in which they were told to follow instructions precisely, constantly
given instructions over a loudspeaker, and carefully observed on everything
they did.

b.
a neutral condition, which was
much more laid back.

After this
activity, they were asked to do a “lexical decision task” (a standard approach
for measuring unconscious responses) in which they were shown a series of words
and nonwords in random order and had to press “C” if it was a real word or “N”
if not. Half of the real words were related to autonomy (e.g., freedom, choice)
and half were neutral (e.g., whisper, hammer). The key focus of the study was
on how long it took people to press the button *(“response latency”) for each
kind of real word, averaged over the many words of each type. The table below
shows the mean and standard deviation across the participants of these four
categories of results. Thus, for example, 782 milliseconds (thousandths of a
second) is the average time it took participants in the autonomy-deprived condition
to respond to the autonomy-related words, and 211 is the standard deviation
across the 26 participants’ average response time in that condition. Explain
the numbers in this table to a person who has never had a course in statistics.
(Be sure to explain some specific numbers, as well as the general principle of
the mean and standard deviation.) For your interest, the pattern of results
shown here supported the researchers’ hypothesis: “Relative to a neutral
instructional climate, a controlling climate thwarting the need for autonomy…enhanced
accessibility for autonomy-related words.” (p.924).

Mean Latencies (in Milliseconds) in the Lexical Task Assessing
Accessibility for Autonomy-Related Constructs (Experiment 1)

Condition

Autonomy Deprivation

Neutral

Construct

M

SD

M

SD

Autonomy-related words

782

211

857

243

Neutral words

835

258

841

301

Chapter 3

14.
On a standard measure of hearing ability, the mean is 300 and the
standard deviation is 20. Give the raw scores for persons whose Z scores for persons who score 340, 310,
and 260. Give the raw scores for persons whose Z scores on this test are 2.4, 1.5, and -4.5.

16.
The amount of time it takes to recover physiologically from a certain
kind of sudden noise is found to be normally distributed with a mean of 80
seconds and a standard deviation of 10 seconds. Using the 50%–34%–14% figures,
approximately what percentage of scores (on time to recover) will be:

Above 100?

Below 100?

Above 90?

Below 90?

Above 80?

Below 80?

Above 70?

Below 70?

Above 60?

Below 60?

18.
Suppose that the scores of architects on a particular creativity test
are normally distributed. Using a normal curve table, what percentage of
architects have Z scores:

Above .10?

Below .10?

Above .20?

Below .20?

Above 1.10?

Below 1.10?

Above -.10?

Below -.10?

21. Suppose that you are designing an
instrument panel for a large industrial machine. The machine requires the
person using it to reach 2 feet from a particular position. The reach from this
position for adult women is known to have a mean of 2.8 feet with a standard
deviation of .5. The reach for adult men is known to have a mean of 3.1 feet
with a standard deviation of .6. Both women’s and men’s reach from this
position is normally distributed. If this design is implemented:

What percentage
of women will not be able to work on this instrument panel?

What percentage
of men will not be able to work on this instrument panel?

Explain your
answers to a person who has never had a course in statistics.

24. Suppose that you were going to conduct
a survey of visitors to your campus. You want the survey to be as
representative as possible.

How would you
select the people to survey?

Why would that

PSY 315 Week 2 Descriptive and
Inferential Statistics Presentation

Resource: Assigned journal article

Create a 7- to 10-slide
presentation with speaker notes examining the differences between descriptive
and inferential statistics used in the journal article you were assigned.

they apply to the article:

• Describe the
functions of statistics.

• Define
descriptive and inferential statistics.

• Provide at
least one example of the relationship between descriptive and inferential
statistics.

consistent with APA guidelines.

Note: A minimum of 3 scholarly
sources
are
required. Scholarly sources are journal articles or books. Websites will only
be considered supplemental sources and will not be included as a part of the
minimum of 3 scholarly sources required for papers.

Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

PSY 315 Week 3 Week Three Practice
Problems Worksheet

Resource: Statistics
f
or Psychology

Complete the
Week Three Practice Problems Worksheet.

Click the assignment files tab to submit your
assignment.

Note. Methods
of computation may include the usage of Microsoft® Excel®,
SPSS, Lotus®,
SAS®, Minitab®,
or by-hand computation.

Week Three
Practice Problems

Prepare a written response to the following
questions.

Chapter 4

1. List the five steps of hypothesis testing, and explain the
procedure and logic of each.

1. Based on the information given for the following studies,
decide whether to reject the null hypothesis. Assume that all populations
are normally distributed. For each, give:

a.
The Z-score cutoff (or cutoffs) on the comparison distribution at which
the null hypothesis should be rejected.

b.
The Z-score on the comparison distribution for the sample score.

c.

Study

µ

σ

Sample

Score

p

Tails of Tests

A

5

1

7

0.05

1 (high predicted)

B

5

1

7

0.05

2

C

5

1

7

0.01

1 (High predicted)

D

5

1

7

0.01

2

1. A researcher predicts that listening to music while solving
math problems will make a particular brain area more active. To test this,
a research participant has her brain scanned while listening to music and
solving math problems, and the brain area of interest has a percentage
signal change of 58. From many previous studies with this same math
problem’s procedure (but not listening to music), it is known that the
signal change in this brain is normally distributed with a mean of 35 and
a standard deviation of 10.

a.
Using the .01 level, what
should the researcher conclude? Solve this problem explicity using all five
steps of hypothesis testing, and illustrate your answer with a sketch showing
the comparison distribution, the cutoff (or cutoffs), and the score of the
sample on this distribution.

b.
who has never had a course in statistics (but who is familiar with mean,
standard deviation, and Z scores).

PSY 315 Week 3 Research Article
Critique

Select an article from the university library.

Provide a 1050 to 1400 word paper in which you
include the following information about the article:

• A brief summary
of the background of the topic of the article

• The
researchers' hypothesis

• Explain the
5 steps of hypothesis testing and explain how the researchers used them in
their study

• Provide your
team's critique of the research including the limitations of the study

Format your paper in APA style.

Click the Assignment Files tab

PSY 315 Week 4 Week Four Practice
Problems Worksheet

Resource: Statistics
for Psychology

Complete the
Week Four Practice Problems Worksheet.

Click on the assignment files tab to submit

Note. Methods of computation may include the usage of
Microsoft® Excel®,
SPSS™, Lotus®, SAS®, Minitab®, or by-hand
computation.

Week Four
Practice Problems

Prepare a written response to the following
questions.

Chapter 7

1. The table below shows ratings of various aspects of work and
home life of 100 middle-class men in India who were fathers. Pick three
rows of interest to you and explain the results to someone who is familiar
with the mean, variance, and Z
scores, but knows nothing else about statistics.

Comparison of Fathers' Mean
Psychological States in the Job and Home Spheres (N = 100)

Sphere

Scale

Range

Work

Home

Work vs. home

Important

0-9

5.98

5.06

6.86***

Attention

0-9

6.15

5.13

7.96***

Challenge

0-9

4.11

2.41

11.49***

Choice

0-9

4.28

4.74

-3.38***

Wish doing else

0-9

1.5

1.44

0.61

Hurried

0-3

1.8

1.39

3.21**

Social Anxiety

0-3

0.81

0.64

3.17**

Affect

1-7

4.84

4.98

-2.64**

Social Climate

1-7

5.64

5.95

4.17***

Note: Values for column 3 are t scores;
df = 90 for all t tests.

**p < .01

***p < .001

Chapter 8

1. Barker and colleagues (2012) compared 61 parents fo children
who had a serious mental illness (SMI) to 321 parents of children withour
such an illness. The researchers examined the parents’ reported levels of
stress, their levels of a hormone called cortisol (levels of this hormone
provide an indication of chronic stress), and their use of several types
of medication. The table below shows the results of the study. Focusing on
the parents’ number of stressors (the first row of the table) and the
parents’ use of medications for anxiety or depression (the last row in the
table), explain these results to a person who knows about the t test for a single sample but is
unfamiliar with the t test for
independent means.

Descriptive Statistics and
Mean-Level Comparisons

SMI Parents

Comparison Parents

N
= 61

N
= 321

Mean

SD

Mean

SD

t

p

Stress

Number of stressors

0.65

0.56

0.42

0.37

-3.08

0.00

Stress severity sum

1.89

1.63

1.16

1.1

-3.3

0.00

Cortisol (nmol/L)

Wake

17.46

10.72

16.75

7.38

-0.14

0.90

Out of bed

22.83

11.48

24.19

10.59

1.13

0.26

Bed

5.72

8.56

4.22

5.57

-1.86

0.06

Cortisol awakening response

5.62

9.7

7.48

8.34

1.55

0.12

Decline from out of bed

17.13

11.35

20.11

10.71

1.97

0.05

Medication use (proportion)

Allergy

0.26

0.44

0.16

0.37

-1.71

0.09

Steroid

0.2

0.4

0.12

0.33

-1.32

0.19

Hormone

0.13

0.34

0.14

0.35

0.25

0.80

Anxiety or depression

0.26

0.44

0.12

0.33

-2.36

0.02

14. For each of
the following studies, say whether you would use a t test for dependent means or a t
test for independent means.

d.
A researcher measures the
heights of 40 university students who are the firstborn in their families and
compares the 15 who come from large families to the 25 who come from smaller
families.

e.
A researcher tests performance
on a math skills test of each of 250 individuals before and after they complete
a one-day seminar on managing test anxiety.

f.
A researcher compares the
resting heart rate of 15 individuals who have been taking a particular drug to
the resting heart rate of 48 other individuals who have not been taking the
drug.

Chapter 9

1. An experiment is conducted in which 60 participants each fill
out a personality test, but not according to the way the participants see
themselves. Instead, 15 are randomly assigned to fill it out according to
the way they think theur mothers see them (that is, the way they think
their mothers would fill it out to describe the participants); 15 as their
fathers would fill it out for them; 15 as their best friends would fill it
out for them; 15 as the professors they know best would fill it out for
them. The main results appear in Table 9-17. Explain these results to a
person who has never had a course in statistics.

Means for Main Personality
Scales for Each Experimental Condition

Scale

Mother

Father

Friend

Professor

F(3,
56)

Conformity

24

21

12

16

4.21**

Extroversion

14

13

15

13

2.05

Maturity

15

15

22

19

3.11*

Self-Confidence

38

42

27

32

3.58*

*p < .05, **p < .01

24.
Rosalie Friend (2001), and
educational psychologist, compared three methods of teaching writing. Students
were randomly assigned to three different experimental conditions involving
different methods of writing a summary. At the end of the two days of
instructions, participants wrote a summary. One of the ways it was scored was
the percentage of specific details of information it included from the original
material. Here is a selection from her article describing one of the findings:

The effect of
summarization method on inclusion of important information was significant F(2, 144) = 4.1032, p < .019. The mean scores (with standard deviations in
parantheses) were as follows: Argument Repetition, 59.6% (17.9);
Generalization, 59.8% (15.2); and Self-Reflection, 50.2% (18.0). (p.14)

a.
Explain these results to a
person who has never had a course in statistics.

b.
Using the information in the
preceding description, figure the effect size for the study.

PSY 315 Week 4 Hypothesis Testing
Outline

Select a research issue, problem, or opportunity in
the field of psychology.

Prepare a document outlining the
information you plan to discuss in your Week 5 paper. Your outline should
include at minimum the following:

• Describe
your selected research issue, problem, or opportunity.

• Formulate a
hypothesis statement concerning your selected research issue, problem, or
opportunity.

• Determine
your population and describe which sampling method you would use to

• Describe how
you would collect your data, the level of measurement of your data and
which statistical technique you would use to analyze the data.
Explain why you chose that statistical technique.

• At least 3 scholarly
sources you plan to use for your paper

• Include a conclusion of your anticipated findings.

Note: A minimum of 3 scholarly
sources
are
required. Scholarly sources are journal articles or books. Websites will only
be considered supplemental sources and will not be included as a part of the
minimum of 3 scholarly sources required for papers.

Click the Assignment Files tab

PSY 315 Week 5 Hypothesis Testing Paper

Resource: Instructor approved research issue, problem, or opportunity
in the field of psychology

Prepare a 1,400- to 1,750-word
paper in which you formulate a hypothesis based on your selected research
issue, problem, or opportunity.

• Describe
your selected research issue, problem, or opportunity.

• Formulate a
hypothesis statement concerning your selected research issue, problem, or
opportunity.

• Determine
your population and describe which sampling method you would use to

• Describe how
you would collect your data, the level of measurement of your data and
which statistical technique you would use to analyze the data.
Explain why you chose that statistical technique.

Include a conclusion of your
anticipated findings.

with APA guidelines.

Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

PSY 315 Week 5 Correlation Study
Worksheet

Resource: Statistics
for Psychology

Complete the
Correlation Study Worksheet.

Click the
Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

Correlation
Study Worksheet

finding the correlation of the following scenario:

Four research
participants take a test of manual dexterity (high scores mean better
dexterity) and an anxiety test (high scores mean more anxiety). The scores are
as follows:

Person                             Dexterity                         Anxiety

1                                      1                                      10

2                                      1                                        8

3                                      2                                        4

4                                      4                                      -2

Describe the
process that your research team would go through by completing the following:

1. Make a scatter diagram of the scores.

2. Describe in words the general pattern of correlation, if any.

3. Figure the correlation coefficient.

4. Figure whether the correlation is statistically significant
(use the .05 significance level, two-tailed).

5. Explain the logic of what you have done, writing as if you are
speaking to someone who has never heard of correlation (but who does
understand the mean, standard deviation, Z scores, and hypothesis testing).

6. Give three logically possible directions of causality,
indicating for each direction whether it is a reasonable explanation for
the correlation in light of the variables involved (and why).