Expert Answers

Expert Answers

1. Valerie's mother noted that she shows no interest in the play of other children. What play behavior should she expect to see next in Valerie's social development?
A. She watches her siblings play but doesn't join in.
B. She participates in organized and goal-directed play with other children.
C. She plays with other children in some activity that's somewhat disorganized.
D. She plays with the same toys as peers but doesn't interact .
2. The age at which the fetus is considered viable, or would have the potential to live outside the womb, is approximately
A. no sooner than 32 weeks.
B. between 3 and 8 weeks.
C. after 23 weeks. 
D. 15 to 18 weeks.
3. Statistically determined standard age levels for developmental milestones are referred to as
A. measurable changes.
B. possibilities.
C. norms.
D. ranges.
4. Tim's parents are wondering how tall and strong he will become. Which of the following is the most important factor?
A. Their own height
B. Timmy's grandparent's height
C. Their own height combined with the effects of traumatic events in childhood
D. Familial height in general and environmental influences such as nutrition
5. Which of the following is a correct statement about maturation?
A. Maturation is physical growth, as opposed to cognitive development.
B. Maturation is one's ability to express a succinct opinion.
C. Maturation is a sequence of biological changes.
D. Maturation is remaining healthy despite growing old.
6. Which of the following is a correct statement about the placenta?
A. The placenta is a fleshy mass made up of villi or projectiles, which insert themselves into the lining of the uterus.
B. The placenta is not necessary for the fetus to survive.
C. The placenta is the cord that joins the bloodstream of the embryo at the child's abdomen to the bloodstream of the mother via the uterine lining.
D. The placenta is a bag, made pliable by encapsulated fluid, which protects the vulnerable embryo from physical shocks. X
7. One stage of prenatal development is known as the embryonic stage. During this time,
A. following conception, the fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube and eventually attaches to the wall of the uterus.
B. beginning in the third week of pregnancy, cell differentiation produces a central nervous system, a digestive system, and a circulatory system.
C. beginning in the ninth week and lasting through the ninth month, each system undergoes rapid growth and increasing complexity.
D. the egg is fertilized.
8. Which of the following is true of Sarah, who is small but unusually thin (less than fifth percentile) and has feeding difficulty?
A. Her weight deviance requires immediate nutritional intervention.
B. She is likely to develop along the same pattern as other children who have the same body type at her age.
C. This deviation may be genetic.
D. This ratio is likely to remain static all her life.
9. Jed was born with a congenital heart defect that results in a weak pulse. His mother is constantly worried about his health. Which of the following is the most sound basis for her concern?
A. The weakened heart may not provide adequate pressure to circulate blood throughout Jed's body.
B. The heart provides the body with carbon dioxide, necessary for cell function.
C. Jed's heart will fail to function properly if he plays hard.
D. Jed's heart doesn't circulate blood through the lungs.
10. Communication is a complex symbol system that includes all of the following except
A. written words.
B. sign language.
C. spoken words.
D. short sightedness
11. Gross motor skills include all of the following except
A. holding a pencil.
B. crawling.
C. walking.
D. sitting.
12. At what age do children generally begin to babble using C-V combination sounds?
A. 1 month
B. 4 months
C. 12 months
D. 6 months
13. The proximal-distal pattern of development is the sequence of motor skills in which control
A. occurs upward from the feet to the head.
B. occurs progressively downward from head and neck, to the trunk, hips and legs, and finally to the feet and toes.
C. progresses from the center of the body outward toward the extremities.
D. is initially concentrated on small muscle groups (writing) and then on large muscle groups (walking).
14. Jane first started to babble today, while playing with a toy on the floor. Approximately how old is she most likely to be?
A. 4 monthsX
B. 7 months
C. 9 months
D. 5 months
15. Social training on gender is so powerful that
A. girls and boys develop similar behaviors and attitudes regardless of explicit expectations of their respective sex roles.
B. it has no influence on children.
C. children learn to label their own and other's gender before they're able to label objects or tasks that aren't gender related.
D. influences such as toy selection, play activities, playmates, adult modeled behavior, and exposure to television don't affect the degree of compliance to sex role expectations.
16. The replacement of disorganized behavior with more advanced developmental skills is known as
A. consolidation.
B. myelinization.
C. transition.
D. temperament.
17. One stage of prenatal development is known as the ovum. During this time,
A. following conception, the fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube and eventually attaches to the wall of the uterus.
B. hair and nails begin to grow.
C. beginning in the ninth week and lasting through the ninth month, each system undergoes rapid growth and increasing complexity.
D. beginning in the third week of pregnancy, cell differentiation produces a central nervous system, a digestive system, and a circulatory system.
18. Jason was born prematurely and suffers chronic respiratory problems. Which of the following is a correct statement about his physical growth and development?
A. Due to lack of oxygenation, he will likely suffer brain damage.
B. His heart will likely become increasingly weaker.
C. A cardiac deficiency is likely to further compromise his respiratory development.
D. He will likely have a high level of oxygen in his blood.
19. In a rural area of an undeveloped country, an infant is born with lungs that aren't fully developed, and the chances of survival are limited. In the absence of adequate medical intervention, what is the most probable consequence?
A. The child would die of lack of nutrition.
B. There would be a toxic build-up of waste products in the intestines.
C. There would be a surplus of growth hormones.
D. The child wouldn't be able to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide.
20. While theorist's have widely varying views of language development, there's general agreement in the field of linguistics that
A. children generally use words before they understand the meanings of those words.
B. the ability to learn language is learned.
C. children from different cultures have different patterns of language development.
D. the ability to learn language is innate.


1. Which of the following describes cerebral palsy that affects one side of the body only?
A. Paraplegia
B. Quadriplegia
C. Hemiplegia
D. Diplegia 
2. Generalized seizures are those that
A. always result in a retention of consciousness.
B. involve activation of both cerebral hemispheres .
C. commence from one portion of one cerebral hemisphere.
D. don't cause a loss of consciousness.
3. Maggie's muscles are flaccid and weak. Which of the following describes her condition?
A. Mixed tone
B. Hypotonia
C. Hypertonia
D. Spasticity
4. An absence seizure is characterized by
A. rigid muscular contraction followed by the appearance of clonic activity.
B. sudden, brief, shock-like muscle contractions.
C. sudden interruption of ongoing activity and the assumption of a blank stare.
D. repetitive movements such as lip smacking, rocking, or chewing.
5. When infants experience hypoxia or ischemia during labor or delivery, the greatest risk is to the _______ system.
A. neurological
B. renal
C. respiratory
D. cardiac
6. The greatest risk of a prolapsed cord during delivery is that the
A. presenting baby may squeeze the cord in delivery and cut off oxygen supply.
B. fetus is born too early.
C. cord wraps around the baby's throat and causes asphyxia.
D. cord is too short and the baby can't be fully delivered vaginally. 
7. When a brain fails to consistently stimulate breathing, this condition is called
A. apnea.
B. respiratory distress syndrome.
C. neuro-respiratory failure.
D. bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
8. Measures taken to decrease the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity include
A. retina transplants.
B. minimizing oxygen supplement.
C. increasing use of artificial surfactant.
D. maintaining blood sugar levels.
9. Each seizure has the potential for
A. causing further brain injury due to depletion of neurological metabolites.
B. triggering breath-holding.
C. damaging the heart muscle.
D. increasing behavior problems.
10. Of the following, the greatest risk of secondary apnea is
A. homeostasis.
B. muscular atrophy.
C. bleeding in the brain.
D. lung damage. 
11. An immature cardiovascular system in premature infants leads to problems because
A. infant hearts are unable to pump with sufficient pressure.
B. the bone marrow produces too many red blood cells.
C. the right ventricle of the heart is usually too large.
D. fragile blood vessels break easily, leading to bleeding in the brain.
12. Riley has fetal alcohol syndrome. During which period did the cause of this disability occur?
A. Postnatal
B. Neonatal
C. Natal
D. Prenatal  
13. During labor, several conditions can be categorized as a dysfunction of labor or delivery. Which of the following is one of these conditions?
A. The baby presents head first.
B. The baby is born outside of a hospital setting.
C. The maternal contractions are painful.
D. The fetus is breech or transverse.
14. Kyle was born with cerebral palsy, and his muscle tone is described as floppy. What is the technical term for this tone?
A. Dystonia
B. Hypertonia
C. Hypotonia
D. Athetosis 
15. The chemical that's produced in amounts too small to support the activity of a premature infant's lungs is
A. hemoglobin.
B. surfactant.
C. oxygen.
D. alveoli.
16. Which of the following is a nonprogressive brain injury sustained during early development and affecting muscle tone and movement?
A. Cerebral palsy
B. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
C. Epilepsy
D. Xerosis 
17. When a mother's antibodies attack the blood of any fetus that had a different blood type (following the initial exposure) the fetus will suffer profound anemia. This condition is known as
A. abruptio placenta.
B. toxemia of pregnancy.
C. Rh sensitization.
D. placenta previa.
18. Which of the following describes cerebral palsy that primarily affects the lower extremities?
A. Paraplegia
B. Diplegia
C. Hemiplegia
D. Quadriplegia
19. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by all of the following except
A. hyperactivity.
B. inattention
C. impulsivity.
D. extended attention. 
20. When Peggy smokes crack during her pregnancy, she and her unborn child experience
A. liver complications.
B. hallucinations.
C. hypertension and reduced oxygen flow.
D. diabetes.
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