BUSI 313 quiz 2 Liberty University complete answers

BUSI 313 quiz 2 Liberty University complete answers

Buy this one and get an A grade for sure! Complete all different versions!

LUO TA and liberty university professor guide versions all the solutions are here.

 

Question 1 A typical responsibility matrix will include not only those responsible for a specific task but can also include those who supply support and assistance.

Question 2 Integrating a project's work packages within the organization's management structure is known as work breakdown structure.

Question 3 If the project time should be accepted, then the project must be completed on time.

Question 4 In reviewing the project plan, Susan sees that the first prototype must be completed by October 12. This would be best classified as a

Question 5 Which of the following is a good example of a Process Breakdown Structure?

Question 6 There are 5 steps involved when defining a project; which of the following is the first?

Question 7 The final stage in defining a project is coding the organization breakdown structure or OBS for the information system.

Question 8 For large companies, the organization breakdown structure is used rather than the work breakdown structure.

Question 9 The highest element in the hierarchical breakdown of the WBS is the first major deliverable for the project and the lowest element is a work package.

Question 10 Accounting would be an example of which of the following costs typically found in a project?

Question 11 Estimates are supposed to be based on normal conditions. While this is a good starting point, it rarely holds true in real life.

Question 12 Cost, time, and budget estimates are the lifeline for control; they serve as the standard for comparison of the actual and the planned throughout the life of the project.

Question 13 Refining estimates may be necessary for a number of reasons. For example, people working on prototype development needing time to interact with the design engineers after the design is completed is a good example of

Question 14 A good starting point for developing time and cost estimates is

Question 15 The ideal approach to estimating project time and costs is to use both the top­down and the bottom­up approach.

Question 16 Top­down estimates usually are derived from someone who uses experience and/or information to determine the project duration and total cost.

Question 17 Past experience is almost always used primarily in the initial phases of estimating.

Question 18 The requirement for a freshly poured foundation to cure before beginning construction is an example of which of the following type of lag?

Question 19 Tom is responsible for ordering hardware for a custom home his company is building. The contractor installing the hardware is scheduled to start in 5 working days, but the hardware is on backorder and will not arrive for another 9 working days. Fortunately, Tom has 10 days of slack; however, he shares this slack with the hardware installer. He will have to let the contactor know that the hardware will be ready 4 days later than expected and that the slack for the installer has been reduced by 4 days. Tom and the installer share 10 days of

Question 20 The critical path is the shortest path through a network and indicates activities that cannot be delayed without delaying the project.

Question 21 Which of the following will correctly calculate the total slack in an activity?

Question 22 A merge activity is one that merges with other activities into a succeeding activity.

Question 23 Different activities along the same path can have different total slack.

Question 24 It is acceptable for arrows to cross one another in a network diagram.

Question 25 Which of the following can be used without coordinating with managers of succeeding activities?

 

Question 1 Process breakdown structures are used when the size and the scope of the project do not warrant an elaborate WBS or OBS.

Question 2 The ability of a 911 emergency system to identify the caller's phone number and location is considered to be a

Question 3 There are 5 steps involved when defining a project; which of the following is the first?

Question 4 One of the primary jobs of a project manager is to manage the trade-offs associated with the project. Which of the following is NOT one of the basic classifications of project priorities?

Question 5 Integrating a project's work packages within the organization's management structure is known as work breakdown structure.

Question 6 Which of the following is a good example of a Process Breakdown Structure?

Question 7 "To construct a high-quality, custom home within five months at costs not to exceed $150,000" is best classified as

Question 8 If a project criterion should be optimized if at all possible, it is classified as being constrained.

Question 9 The project scope statement indicates that the client is responsible for training the people who will be using the equipment and that the project team will train the client's trainers. This is an example of

Question 10 Project estimates should be broken down into as much detail, and with as much accuracy, as possible.

Question 11 Estimating the total cost of a project by multiplying each major function by a complexity factor is an example of the apportion method of estimating costs.

Question 12 Richard is collecting estimates for a house that he will have the funding to build in 12 months. Which of the following factors does Richard need to consider in regard to the quality of these estimates?

Question 13 The salary of the project manager would be an example of what type of cost found in a project?

Question 14 Ed is looking over the actual results of projects and comparing them to what was estimated. He notices that the projects that took six months or longer to complete were noticeably more off the estimates. Which of the following factors is he recognizing?

Question 15 Phase estimating is used when a project cannot be rigorously defined because of the uncertainty of design or the final product.

Question 16 Estimates that are typically based on estimates of elements found in the work breakdown structure are called bottom-up estimates.

Question 17 Jose is forecasting project time and cost for constructing a new building by multiplying the total square footage by a given dollar amount. Which of the following methods is he using?

Question 18 The backward pass determines project duration.

Question 19 The requirement for a freshly poured foundation to cure before beginning construction is an example of which of the following type of lag?

Question 20 Only activities that occur at the end of a chain of activities can have free slack.

Question 21 System documentation cannot end until three days after testing has started. This is an example of which kind of lag?

Question 22 Activities which can take place at the same time are termed

Question 23 An activity can include only one work package.

Question 24 Which of the following correctly calculates the early finish for an activity?

Question 25 It is possible for a project network to have more than one critical path.

 

 

1. How is project scope defined?

2. Jose is looking at a document that outlines the specific deliverables and subdeliverables required to complete the writing of a technical support manual. He is most likely viewing the

3. There are 5 steps involved when defining a project; which of the following is the first?

4. Linda has just been assigned manager of a project to develop a new advertising campaign for an established product. Her first step should be to

5. Which of the following is NOT true regarding scope creep?

6. An expected output over the life of a project would be classified as

7. The first step of project scope definition is to

8. In reviewing the project plan, Susan sees that the first prototype must be completed by October 12. This would be best classified as a

9. The ability of a 911 emergency system to identify the caller's phone number and location is considered to be a

10. Which of the following is NOT one of the items that would appear on a project scope statement or checklist?

11. "To construct a high-quality, custom home within five months at costs not to exceed $150,000" is best classified as

12. There are 5 steps involved when defining a project; which of the following is the second? A. Analyze the strategic plan

13. One of the primary jobs of a project manager is to manage the trade-offs associated with the project. Which of the following is NOT one of the basic classifications of project priorities?

14. After reviewing the project scope statement, the owner specifies that costs MUST stay within $400,000. This criterion is classified as

15. Scott has just been given a project that has a specific completion date. After a discussion with top management he finds that while the date is important the cost is more important and a slip in delivery would be acceptable if required to meet the cost targets. The completion date is best classified as

16. The _________ is used to assist in making project trade-offs among schedule, budget, and performance objectives.

17. The lowest element in the hierarchical breakdown of the WBS is

18. The highest element in the hierarchical breakdown of the WBS is

19. All of the following are ways the WBS helps in managing projects EXCEPT

20. All of the following are usually included in a work package EXCEPT

21. The integration of the lowest level of the WBS with the organizational units responsible for performing the work is known as

22. There are 5 steps involved when defining a project; which of the following is the last?

23. When work packages are integrated with organizational units, a control point is created called a

24. The WBS is best suited for projects that have a tangible outcome. Which of the following is used when the final outcome of the project is less tangible or is a product of a series of steps or phases?

25. If a project is small and does not require an elaborate system to assign tasks, which of the following is a good choice?

26. The project scope statement indicates that the client is responsible for training the people who will be using the equipment and that the project team will train the client's trainers. This is an example of

27. The tendency for the project deliverables to expand over time—usually by changing requirements, specifications, and priorities—is called

28. Which of the following is a good example of a Process Breakdown Structure?

29. Which of the following is least likely to be included in a work package?

30. Having a strong communication plan can go a long way toward mitigating project problems. A communication plan should address all of the following EXCEPT

31. A selective outline of the project that ensures the identification of all tasks and an understanding of what is to be done is called a(n) ___________.

32. The first step in planning any project is to ___________.

33. The definition of the end result or mission of your project, or what you expect to deliver to your customer when the project is complete is the project ___________.

34. Significant events in a project that occur at a specific point in time, are natural control points, and are easily recognized by project participants are known as ___________.

35. The need for a functioning computer in countries having different electrical systems is an example of a ________.

36. The agreement that training will be the responsibility of the customer and not the team is an example of a project ________.

37. The last element of a project scope statement or checklist ensures an understanding and agreement of expectations. This is known as ____________.

38. In regard to project priorities, if a project parameter such as the completion date or the cost of a project is fixed and must be met it is considered ____________.

39. Taking advantage of opportunities to reduce costs or accelerate the schedule are examples of project criteria classified as ____________.

40. In making project trade-offs, a criterion that is allowed not to meet the original target, for example, allowing the schedule to slip, is classified as ___________.

41. A technique that clearly establishes priorities with customers and top management so as to create shared expectations and avoid misunderstandings is developing a(n) ___________.

42. The result of subdividing the work of a project into smaller and smaller work elements is called a(n) __________.

43. The most detailed element in the hierarchical breakdown of the project work to be accomplished is known as the __________.

44. The intersection of work packages and the organizational unit creates a project control point called a(n) ___________.

45. When specific work packages are assigned to a particular group or person within the organization, the result is called a(n) ___________.

46. The final step in defining a project is __________ the WBS for the information system.

47. The WBS is best suited for design and construction projects that have tangible outcomes. When the final outcome of the project is less tangible or it is result of a series of steps or phases, some project managers choose to utilize a(n) ___________.

48. Once the __________ has been established, it is the basis for making trade-off decisions later in

the project.

Priorities

49. The type of information that will need to be collected during a project and who will receive this information can be found in the project __________ plan.

50. One tool that is used by project managers of small projects to summarize the tasks to be accomplished and who is responsible for what on a project is called a(n) __________.

51. A document that is issued by upper management and provides the project manager with written authority to use organizational resources for project activities is called a(n) __________.

52. Scope creep can be reduced by carefully writing a(n) __________ statement.

53. One of the primary jobs of a project manager is to manage the trade-offs among time, cost, and performance. To do so, the project manager must define and understand the ___________ of the project.

54. The gradual expansion of project requirements, specifications and priorities during the execution of project is known as ____________.

55. Scope creep occurs when your project is completed over-budget.

56. There is a strong correlation between project success and clear project scope definition.

57. Project scope describes what you expect to deliver to your customers when the project is complete.

58. One of the items included on a project scope statement or checklist is the review with the customer.

59. An expected output over the life of a project would be classified as a target.

60. An activity that represents a major segment of work is a good example of a milestone.

61. The fact that a new home being built must meet local building codes is an example of a limit and exclusion.

62. If a project criterion should be optimized if at all possible, it is classified as being constrained. 63. If the project time should be accepted, then the project must be completed on time.

64. During the course of a project, it is possible that the project priorities may change.

65. Profit, time and performance are all basic classifications of project priorities.

66. Integrating a project's work packages within the organization's management structure is known as work breakdown structure.

67. The highest element in the hierarchical breakdown of the WBS is the first major deliverable for the project and the lowest element is a work package.

68. Process breakdown structures are used when the size and the scope of the project do not warrant an elaborate WBS or OBS.

69. Responsibility matrices are used primarily with small and medium-sized projects and have limited use in large projects.

70. A communication plan should include limits on who has access to certain kinds of information.

71. The intersection of work packages and the organizational unit creates a project control point called a cost account.

72. The project charter provides the project manager with written authority to use organizational resources for project activities.

73. For large companies, the organization breakdown structure is used rather than the work breakdown structure.

74. The hierarchical work breakdown structure provides management with information appropriate to each level.

75. The final stage in defining a project is coding the organization breakdown structure or OBS for the information system.

76. "Reviews with customer" only refers to projects with external customers who are paying for the project.

77. A typical responsibility matrix will include not only those responsible for a specific task but can also include those who supply support and assistance.

 

Information to develop a project network is collected from the

Which of the following represents an activity on an activity-on-node (AON) project network

Tom is responsible for ordering hardware for a custom home his company is building. The contractor installing the hardware is scheduled to start in 5 working days, but the hardware is on back-order and will not arrive for another 9 working days. Fortunately, Tom has 10 days of slack; however, he shares this slack with the hardware installer. He will have to let the contractor know that the hardware will be ready 4 days later than expected and that the slack for the installer has been reduced by 4 days. Tom and the installer share 10 days of

The minimum amount of time a dependent activity must be delayed to begin or end is referred to as

The requirement for a freshly poured foundation to cure before beginning construction is an example of which of the following type of lag

Concurrent engineering, which has dramatically reduced the development time for new products, relies on what kind of lag

If testing cannot be completed any earlier than four days after the prototype has been built, what type of lag exists

When completing a backward pass, you carry the LS to the next preceding activity to establish the LF, unless the next preceding activity is a burst activity, in which case you select

System documentation cannot end until three days after testing has started. This is an example of which kind of lag

An element in the project that consumes time is a(n)_____

The activity time estimates used to build a project network are derived from _____

An activity that has more than one predecessor is a ____ activity

The delaying of any activity on the ____ will delay the completion of the project by the same amount

Activities that can take place at the same time if the manager wishes them to are called ____ activities.

A(n) ____ calculates project duration

A(n) ____ activity has more than one successor activity

A(n) _____ calculates how late an activity can start and finish

*In a project network, recycling through a set of activities or ____ is not permitted

In a project network, ____ indicate activity dependency and project flow

____ slack must be coordinated with all participants in the activities that follow in the chain

Activities that must occur immediately before a given activity are called ____ activities

Activities that must immediately follow a given activity are called ____ activities

Activities that can occur while an activity is taking place are called ____ activities

The ____ calculates the earliest times that activities can start or finish

The ____ calculates the critical path and determines how long an activity can be delayed without delaying the project

An activity has a duration of 10 days. Its early start is 4 and its late start is 6. This activity has ____ days of total slack

____ can never be negative and applies only to the last activity in a single chain of activities

 

Arrows on an activity-on-node (AON) project network represent

When translated into a project network, a work package will become

Which of the following is provided by both the project network and the work breakdown structure

On a project network, the activity times are derived from the

Which of the following does NOT help describe a project network

An activity that has more than one dependency arrow flowing into it is termed a(n)

The critical path in a project network is the

A(n) _________ activity has more than one dependency arrow flowing from it

Which of the following can be used without coordinating with managers of succeeding activities

Activities which can take place at the same time are termed

A sequence of connected, dependent activities is termed a(n)

Bill is building a project network that involves testing a prototype. He must design the prototype (activity 1), build the prototype (activity 2), and test the prototype (activity 3). Activity 1 is the predecessor for activity 2 and activity 2 is the predecessor for activity 3. If the prototype fails testing, Bill must redesign the prototype; therefore, activity 3 is a predecessor for activity 1. This is an example of

Which of the following is NOT one of the basic rules to follow when developing project networks

___ activities must be completed immediately before a particular activity

___ activities are to be completed immediately following a particular activity

The forward pass in project network calculations determines all of the following EXCEPT

The backward pass in project network calculations determines all of the following EXCEPT

Which of the following correctly calculates the early finish for an activity

Which of the following correctly calculates the late start for an activity

The amount of time an activity can be delayed and yet not delay the project is termed

Which of the following will correctly calculate the total slack in an activity

The likelihood the original critical path(s) will change once the project is initiated is referred to as

Which of the following is true about hammock activities

If, for some reason, the project must be expedited to meet an earlier date, which of the following actions would the project manager take first

The assumption that all immediate preceding activities must be 100% complete is too restrictive in some situations. When an activity is broken down into smaller segments in order to start the succeeding activity sooner, this is called

If a project has more than one activity that can begin when the project is to start, a common start node should be used to indicate a clear project beginning on the network. Without a common start node, each path is a

A(n) ____ is the minimum amount of time a dependent activity must be delayed to begin or end

When an activity with a long duration is broken into smaller segments so that the following activities can begin sooner it is called ____

The longest path through a project network is called the _____

______ reflects the likelihood the original critical path(s) will change once the project is initiated.

A network has only one critical path and the slack for noncritical activities is high. This network would appear to have a ____ level of sensitivity

The ____ lag is the most typical type of lag that is encountered in developing networks

A(n) _____ activity is frequently used to identify the use of fixed resources or costs over a segment of the project

An activity can include only one work package

A merge activity is one that merges with other activities into a succeeding activity

The WBS identifies dependencies, the sequencing of activities, and the timing of activities

The critical path is the shortest path through a network and indicates activities that cannot be delayed without delaying the project

The cost impact of a risk event occurring as a project proceeds through its life cycle tends to

The attempt to recognize and manage potential and unforeseen trouble spots that may occur when a project is implemented is known as

Which of the following is NOT one of the steps in the risk management process

The initial step in the risk management process is to

One common mistake made early in the risk identification process is to

Organizations use ____ in conjunction with work breakdown structures to help management teams identify and eventually analyze risk

Which of the following groups should NOT be a part of the risk identification process?

After your team has successfully identified potential risks that could affect the project, what is the next step

A list of questions that address traditional areas of uncertainty on a project is termed a

____ focuses on how to respond to events that have a positive impact on a project

Tools such as a risk assessment form and a risk severity matrix are used to

Based on the following, which event should you be most concerned about

____ is a measure of how easy it would be to notice that a risk event was going to occur in time to take mitigating action, that is, how much warning you would have

Purchasing an accident insurance policy would be an example of responding to a risk by ____ it

The risk management tool that is divided into three color-coded zones representing major, moderate, and minor risks is the risk

The risk assessment form contains all of the following EXCEPT

Risks are evaluated in terms of

Adopting proven technology instead of experimental technology in order to eliminate technical failure would be an example of which risk response

 

An activity is an element of the project that always requires time

If a network has more than one critical path but noncritical activities have very little slack, the network is considered to have a high level of sensitivity

The backward pass determines project duration

An activity cannot begin until ALL preceding connected activities have been completed

In developing a project network, neither looping nor conditional statements are permitted

Experience suggests that when there are multiple starts, a common start node should be used to indicate a clear project beginning on the network. Similarly, a single project end node can be used to indicate a clear ending

Burst activities have more than one activity immediately following them (more than one dependency arrow flowing from them)

It is acceptable for arrows to cross one another in a network diagram

The forward pass through a project network determines the critical path

The backward pass through a project network determines slack or how long an activity can be delayed without impacting the completion date of the project

Different activities along the same path can have different total slack

If the project has a duration of 13 days, the project should be completed 13 days from the day it starts

It is possible for a project network to have more than one critical path

Using free slack does not delay any following activities and requires no coordination with managers of other activities

Gantt charts are popular because they represent an easy-to-understand, clear picture on a time-scaled horizon

When completing a forward pass, you carry the early finish to the next activity where it becomes its early start unless the next succeeding activity is a merge activity. In this case you select the smallest early finish number of all its immediate predecessor activities

Only activities that occur at the end of a chain of activities can have free slack

Lags can be used to constrain the start and finish of an activity

An uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on project objectives is termed a

The chances of a risk event occurring as a project proceeds through its life cycle tend to

Which of the following activities might you consider adding a time buffer to

Which of the following is NOT included in a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

A fixed price contract is an example of

Which of the following is NOT one of the potential responses to a specific risk event

A Risk Response Matrix contains all of the following EXCEPT

A key distinction between a risk response and a contingency plan is

The risk associated with the unlikelihood that one of the key members will be struck by lightning would most likely be handled by which of the following

Funds that are for identified risks that have a low probability of occurring and that decrease as the project progresses are called ______ reserves

Risks that can result in a system or process that will not work are known as

Which of the following is NOT involved in risk control

Which of the following is identified to cover major unforeseen risks and, hence, are applied to the total project

Change management systems are designed to accomplish all of the following EXCEPT

An uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on project objectives is known as a ____

The likelihood of a risk event occurring ____ as a project goes through its life cycle

The first step in the risk management process is ____

The significance of a risk is assessed in terms of the ____ and the impact of the event

A list of questions that address traditional areas of uncertainty on a project is known as a

Choosing to move a concert indoors to eliminate the threat of bad weather is an example of ____ a risk.

Flooding would be devastating to the project; however, it is very unlikely. The project manager is most likely to ____ this risk

The event or point in time when a contingency plan will be implemented is called a ____

____ reserves are identified for specific work packages and are distributed by the project manager and the team members.

____ reserves are controlled by the project manager and the owner of the project and are used to cover major unforeseen risks to the entire project

A ____ is an alternative that will be used if a possible foreseen risk event becomes a reality

____ systems involve reporting, controlling, and recording changes to the project baseline

The probability that a risk event will occur is higher during the initial stages of a project

Risk events that occur in the early stages of a project will have a greater cost impact than those that occur in later stages

Risk management is a reactive approach that is designed to ensure that surprises are reduced and that negative consequences associated with undesirable events are minimized

One common mistake that is made early on in the risk identification process is to focus on consequences and not on the events that could produce consequences

The project being delayed is an example of a major risk that should be assessed

The first step in the risk management process is risk assessment

A risk profile is a list of questions that have been developed and refined from previous, similar projects

The risk identification process should be limited to just the core project team.

While a "can do" attitude is essential during implementation, project managers have to encourage critical thinking when it comes to risk identification

Responses to all identifiable risks should be a top priority for the project manager

When considering risk value, the lower the value, the higher the level of risk

If, during risk response development, you successfully identify how you will respond to a risk, contingency planning is unnecessary

Adopting proven technology instead of experimental technology is an example of mitigating a risk

 

The measurement of how easy it would be to detect that the event was going to occur in time to take mitigating action is known as

The ____ form identifies each risk event, the likelihood of it occurring, the potential impact, when it may occur, and the degree of difficulty in detecting it

The ____ matrix is divided into red, yellow, and green zones representing major, moderate, and minor risks

According to the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Impact x Probability x Detection = ____

When considering risk response development, reducing the likelihood that an event will occur and/or reducing the impact that an adverse event would have on a project is known as ____ the risk

When considering risk response development, changing the plan to eliminate the risk or condition is known as ____ the risk

When considering risk response development, passing risk to another party instead of changing it is known as ____ the risk

When considering risk response development, assuming the risk because the chance of such an event is slim is known as ____ the risk

Testing a new project on a smaller isolated area prior to installing it for the entire organization is an example of ____ a risk

Performance bonds, warranties, and insurance are examples of ____ a risk

A risk is an uncertain event that, if it occurs, can have a positive or negative effect on project objectives

Performance bonds, warranties, and guarantees are financial instruments used to share risk.

Fixed-price contracts are an example of transferring risk from an owner to a contractor

When developing a response to a risk by scheduling outdoor work in the summer, investing in up-front safety training, or choosing high-quality materials, these are examples of retaining a risk

Budget reserves are set up to cover identified risks associated with specific segments of a project while management reserves are set up to cover unidentified risks associated with the total project

Change management systems involve reporting, controlling, and recording changes to the project baseline

Enhancing a risk is a tactic that seeks to eliminate the uncertainty associated with an opportunity to ensure that it definitely happens

Contingency funding is made up of budget reserves and management reserves

Resources are adequate, but demand varies widely over the life of the project. Delaying noncritical activities to lower peak demand on resources is known as resource

If resources are not adequate to meet peak demands, the resulting reschedule is termed

Which of the following is NOT a potential consequence of failing to identify limited resources before project implementation

In a resource-constrained project the second priority in assigning resources is usually given to activities with the

Tony has realized that two activities in his project cannot be done at the same time because not enough resources are available. Activity 3 is critical and has a duration of 5 days. Activity 4 has 2 days of slack and a duration of 2 days. How will he decide which activity should be scheduled first

Splitting an activity can result in all of the following EXCEPT

All of the following are benefits of scheduling resources before project implementation EXCEPT

These are all guidelines a project manager should consider when assigning project work EXCEPT

When a company will reduce the number of projects they have to manage internally to only core projects and send noncritical projects to contractors and consulting firms this is called

Which of the following is NOT one of the more common problems associated with scheduling multiproject resources

In a resource-constrained project the third priority in assigning resources is usually given to activities with the

Why is it necessary to have a time-phased budget baseline

Project budgets are developed by time-phasing which of the following

A project budget report is showing our project as spending $35,000 against a budgeted amount of $40,000. Which of the following is true

Delaying noncritical activities to lower peak demand and, thus, increase resource utilization is called resource ____

A(n) ________ constraint addresses the sequence in which project activities must occur even after considering resource constraints

Having one person responsible for performing several activities, all due at the same time, is an example of a(n) _____ constraint

Trying to renovate a ship compartment that is too small for more than one person is an example of a(n) _____ resource constraint

A shortage of programmers to write software is an example of a(n) _____ type of resource constraint

The shortage of computer chips to produce a circuit board is an example of a(n) ______ type of resource constraint

If three copiers are needed to produce a final report on time and only two are available, the project is facing a(n) ________ type of resource constraint

Resource dependency takes priority over the technological dependency but does not violate _____ dependencies

In order that the new product is on the shelf for the Christmas buying season, the development of the new product would be classified as a(n) ________ -constrained project

Beth has two engineers assigned to her project and does not have access

When developing a new software package, logically, the software must be designed before the code is written, and the code must be written before it is tested. These activities are dependent on each other by ______ constraints

When considering the sequence and timing of activities, which of the following is NOT one of the types of project network constraints

Sam, the project engineer, has been scheduled to run the product system test at the same time he is to build a marketing prototype. This is an example of what type of resource constraint

Susan is to conduct environmental testing but the chamber cannot hold all the equipment that she wants to test. This is an example of a constraint that could impact the sequence and timing of activities in a project network. What type of constraint is it

All of the following are types of resource constraints EXCEPT

Gene is trying to order the concrete needed to continue his project. However, the supplier will not be able to deliver it until next week. This is an example of what kind of resource constraint

A special truck that George needs on his project has been scheduled on another project. This is an example of what type of resource constraint?

Most of the scheduling methods available today require the project manager to classify the project as either _____ constrained or ______ constrained

Regina's boss has told her that her project is very important. If the critical path is delayed, she will be given whatever she needs to get it back on schedule. Her project is classified as ______ constrained

In reviewing the status of her project with top management, Shirley was told that there are only two programmers that she can use for her project. Her project is classified as _______ constrained

All resource leveling techniques involve

Technical constraints have been carefully considered when developing a project network. Which of the following is true at this point

Rachel is working on a project that technically allows three activities to be done at the same time. If they were to be implemented at the same time, she would need 5 contractors in order for the activities to be completed on time. There are only 3 available for her to use. This is an example of what type of constraint

Resource leveling or smoothing can have all the following results on a project EXCEPT

Jan is trying to reallocate resources in a time-constrained project to create smoother resource utilization. She should first identify activities with the

In a resource-constrained project, which of the following is most likely to be changed

In a resource-constrained project, the first priority in assigning resources is usually given to activities with the

to more even if the result means extending the completion date on her project. She is managing a(n) ________ -constrained project

All leveling techniques delay noncritical activities by using ________ to reduce peak demand

When scheduling activities in a resource-constrained project, typically the activity scheduled first has the ______ amount of slack

Since resource leveling or smoothing delays noncritical activities, a common result is an increase in network _____

When the work in an activity is interrupted to work on another activity and is then resumed at a later point in time, it is called ____

In scheduling resource-constrained projects, _____ are typically used rather than optimum mathematical solutions

When classifying projects, ________ constrained means that project duration is fixed and resources are flexible

When classifying projects, ________ constrained means that a specific resource is fixed and the duration of the project is flexible

Start-up and shutdown costs are major considerations when using the ______ scheduling technique

After resource leveling or smoothing one goal is that the amount of resources needed over the life of the project will be

All leveling techniques delay noncritical activities by using positive slack to smooth out the resource requirements

Since resource leveling or smoothing delays noncritical activities, a common result is a decrease in network sensitivity

Scheduling projects classified as resource-constrained focuses on completing the project as soon as possible under the given resource constraints

When resource constraints are added to technical constraints the original project network may change as well as the completion date

When scheduling activities in a resource-constrained project typically the activity scheduled first has the most amount of slack

A project budget report is showing our project as spending $35,000 against a budgeted amount of $40,000. We can assume that everything is going as planned and that we are under budget

Splitting is a scheduling technique used to get a better schedule or better resource utilization and should be used without hesitation

Without a time-phased budget a good project schedule and cost control are impossible

If resources are truly limited and activity time estimates are accurate, the resource-constrained schedule will materialize as the project is implemented, not the time-constrained schedule

Project managers should always assign the best people to the most difficult tasks

 

Many companies are ______ project work to contractors and consultants as a means of dealing with the peaks and valleys of resource allocation among projects

When a project is classified as resource-constrained and a resource constraint exists, the project duration is typically ____

In reality resource allocation generally occurs in a(n) ______ environment where the demands of one project have to be reconciled with the needs of other projects

Without a ____ budget a good project schedule and cost control are impossible

A project cost baseline is also called ____

The fact that you must pour foundation before you frame the house and that you have to frame the house before you can put on the roof demonstrates scheduling constraints

Too many parallel activities for one individual is an example of a resource constraint

The level of resources each activity will need to be completed in the given amount of time has been estimated; therefore, there are no resource constraints

Resource leveling or smoothing is only used on projects which are resource constrained

Resource bottlenecks are one of the three more common problems encountered in managing multiproject resource schedules

The inability to fit more than two earth movers on a construction site at the same time when more are needed to complete the activity on time is an example of a physical constraint

In a resource-constrained project, the completion date is most likely to change.

Having too few programmers and too many engineers is an example of a people resource constraint

If a project needs one earth mover six months from now in order to complete one activity, and the organization has four such machines, there is no equipment resource constraint

A lack of readily available engineers is a technical constraint

Resource dependency takes priority over technological dependency but it does not violate it

To determine if a project is time-constrained or resource-constrained you would consult the project priority matrix

Sequential activities hold just as much potential for resource conflicts as parallel activities.

 

1. The process of forecasting or approximating the time and cost of completing project deliverables is called

A. Budgeting.

B. Predicting.

C. Estimating.

D. Planning.

E. Guesstimating.

2. In practice, estimating processes are frequently classified as

A. Top down/bottom up.

B. Rough/polished.

C. Precise/order of magnitude.

D. Draft/final.

E. Broad/Specific.

3. What is the relationship between organizational culture and estimating?

A. There is no relationship

B. Cultural norms affect the accuracy of estimates

C. Culture determines whether estimates are made

D. Estimating alters cultural norms

E. Estimating and culture are independent

4. A good starting point for developing time and cost estimates is

A. Past experience.

B. Work packages.

C. Task analysis.

D. Time and motion studies.

E. Work breakdown structure.

5. Which of the following is NOT one of the factors that need to be considered to improve quality of estimates for project times and costs?

A. Planning horizon

B. People

C. Padding estimates

D. Profit

E. Project structure

6. Ed is looking over the actual results of projects and comparing them to what was estimated. He notices that the projects that took six months or longer to complete were noticeably more off the estimates. Which of the following factors is he recognizing?

A. Padding estimates

B. Project duration

C. Project structure

D. People

E. Organization culture

7. Janet is forecasting how much money her department needs to support a new project. She estimates that two people and $25,000 in expenses will cover her needs. Because management typically insists on reducing forecasts by 20 percent, she increases her estimates to allow for that reduction. Which of the following factors is illustrated in this situation?

A. Padding estimates

B. Planning horizon

C. Project structure

D. People

E. Organization culture

8. Which of the following is a good condition for top-down estimating?

A. Cost and time important

B. Fixed price contract

C. Customer wants details

D. Internal, small project

E. Large scale project involving several subcontractors

9. Which of the following is a good condition for bottom-up estimating?

A. When the project involves strategic decision making

B. When the project is internal and small

C. When there is a fixed price contract

D. When there is high uncertainty involved in the project

E. When there is an unstable scope

10. Richard is collecting estimates for a house that he will have the funding to build in 12 months. Which of the following factors does Richard need to consider in regard to the quality of these estimates?

A. Padding estimates

B. Planning horizon

C. Project structure

D. People

E. Project duration

11. Which of the following does NOT help describe a bottom-up estimating approach?

A. They are made by someone who uses experience and/or information from someone else to

determine overall project cost and duration

B. They establish low-cost, efficient methods for completing activities

C. They typically comes from the people actually doing the work and who are most knowledgeable

about the task at hand

D. Estimates are made at the work package level and then "rolled up" to determine estimates for

major deliverables and for the project itself

E. They can take place after the project has been planned in detail

12. Which of the following methods is NOT considered a top-down approach to estimating project time and cost?

A. Ratio

B. Template

C. Apportion

D. Function point

E. Learning curve

13. Jose is forecasting project time and cost for constructing a new building by multiplying the total square footage by a given dollar amount. Which of the following methods is he using?

A. Ratio

B. Template

C. Apportion

D. Function point

E. Learning curve

14. Sean is forecasting the time and cost of developing a customized software program by looking at the number of inputs, outputs, inquiries, files, and interfaces. Which of the following methods is he using?

A. Ratio

B. Template

C. Apportion

D. Function point

E. Learning curve

15. Laura is forecasting the time and cost of developing an intranet for a new customer. Her department has completed six such intranets for customers during the last two years. Although the proposed system is about the same size as the others, she estimates that it will take about 10 percent less time and money. Which of the following methods is she using?

A. Ratio

B. Template

C. Apportion

D. Function point

E. Learning curve

16. Learning curves are more likely to be applied in situations where most of the costs are

A. Materials.

B. Labor.

C. Overhead.

D. Evenly spread over materials, labor, and overhead.

E. Labor and materials.

17. Which of the following describes the consensus method?

A. Should be used only for projects that require the same task, group of tasks, or product to be

repeated several times

B. Uses several people with relevant experience regarding the task at hand to make time and cost

estimates

C. Uses pooled experience of senior and/or middle managers to estimate the total project duration

and cost

D. Uses the number of square feet to estimate the total cost and time of the project

E. Uses weighted macro variables or major parameters such as the number of inputs or outputs to

estimate the total cost and time of the project

18. Which of the following is NOT one of the bottom-up approaches to estimating project time and cost?

A. Parametric procedures applied to specific tasks

B. Estimates for the WBS work packages

C. Learning curve

D. Template method

E. Range estimates

19. Which of the following would be the best method for projects where the final product is not known and the uncertainty is very large?

A. Function point

B. Template

C. Learning curve

D. Phase estimating

E. Apportion

20. Rob is responsible for estimating a work package that has a significant amount of uncertainty associated with the time and cost to complete. Due to the uncertainty involved he will be making a low, an average and a high estimate. Rob is using which estimating approach?

A. Parametric procedures applied to specific tasks

B. Template method

C. Apportion method

D. Range estimating

E. Learning curve

21. Which of the following is NOT true in regard to the level of detail estimates should contain?

A. It will vary with the complexity of the project

B. Detailed estimates are crucial to project success; therefore, an effort should be made to make

estimates as detailed as possible for all projects

C. The more detailed the estimate is the more the estimate will cost to create

D. Inadequate detail might lead to estimates that fall short of their intended purpose

E. Excessive detail means unproductive paperwork and unnecessary expenditures

22. The salary of the project manager would be an example of what type of cost found in a project?

A. Labor

B. Direct

C. Direct project overhead

D. General and administrative overhead

E. Salary

23. Typical kinds of costs found in a project include all of the following EXCEPT

A. Direct costs.

B. Project overhead costs.

C. General and administrative overhead costs.

D. Labor.

E. All of these are examples of costs found in a project.

24. Accounting would be an example of which of the following costs typically found in a project?

A. Labor

B. Direct

C. Direct project overhead

D. General and administrative overhead

E. Salary

25. Which of the following would best represent direct project costs?

A. Only labor

B. Only materials

C. Only equipment

D. Both labor and materials

E. Labor, materials and equipment

26. Which of the following is NOT one of the recommended guidelines for developing useful work package estimates?

A. Estimates should be made by those responsible for the work

B. Use several people to estimate the same work

C. Estimates should be based on normal conditions

D. Estimates should include a normal level of contingency

E. Estimates should be independent of other projects

27. Companies are using which of the following for improving the estimating process for future projects?

A. Adjusting estimates based on individual forecasting abilities

B. Benchmarking and using the experience of other companies

C. Using time and motion studies

D. Creating historical databases of previous projects

E. Establishing an estimating training course for all employees

28. Reasons why estimating time and cost are important include all of the following EXCEPT

A. To schedule work.

B. To determine how long the project should take and cost.

C. To develop cash flow needs.

D. To determine how well the project is progressing.

E. To help establish a project selection process.

29. The bottom-up approach for estimating times and costs that uses costs from past projects that were similar to the current project is known as

A. Detailed WBS work package estimates.

B. Template method.

C. Function point method.

D. Time-phased cost estimates.

E. Phase estimating.

30. Which of the following top-down methods is used when projects closely follow past projects in regard to features and costs of those features, and result in costs being assigned by percentages to major segments of the project?

A. Apportion

B. Function point

C. Phase estimating

D. Learning curve

E. Consensus

31. Refining estimates may be necessary for a number of reasons. For example, resource shortages, in the form of people, equipment, or materials, can extend original estimates. This is a good example of

A. Hidden interaction costs.

B. Things going wrong on a project.

C. Normal conditions not applying.

D. Changes in project scope.

E. The customer not being clear about their expectations.

32. Refining estimates may be necessary for a number of reasons. For example, people working on prototype development needing time to interact with the design engineers after the design is completed is a good example of

A. Hidden interaction costs.

B. Things going wrong on a project.

C. Normal conditions not applying.

D. Changes in project scope.

E. The customer not being clear about their expectations.

33. Refining estimates may be necessary for a number of reasons. For example, a manager getting further into a project and obtaining a better understanding of what needs to be done to accomplish a project and meet the needs of the customer is an example of

A. Hidden interaction costs.

B. Things going wrong on a project.

C. Normal conditions not applying.

D. Changes in project scope.

E. There is never a good reason to refine estimates.

34. Refining estimates may be necessary for a number of reasons. For example, design flaws being revealed after the fact, extreme weather conditions, and accidents occurring are good examples of

A. Hidden interaction costs.

B. Things going wrong on a project.

C. Normal conditions not applying.

D. Changes in project scope.

E. None of these are correct.

35. When work package estimates are made by individuals most knowledgeable about the work being performed and these estimates are then "rolled up" to find estimated costs for major deliverables and the project itself, estimating is being used.

36. When someone uses experience and/or information from others to determine the project duration and total cost, estimating is being used.

37. The estimating factor that considers the decreasing accuracy of estimates as one forecasts activities that are further into the future is known as .

38. The estimating factor that considers the skill level of participants doing the estimating is known as the factor.

39. The estimating factor that considers the tendency to overestimate project time and cost in order to improve the likelihood of meeting the estimates is known as the factor.

40. The estimating factor that considers the prevailing belief in some firms that detailed estimating takes too much time and is not worth the effort is an example of the factor.

41. The preferred method for situations involving strategic decision making, projects with a high degree of uncertainty, and projects with an unstable scope is the approach to estimating project time and costs.

42. The preferred method for situations where the cost and time estimates are important, in a fixed contract situation, and when the customer wants a lot of detail is the approach to estimating project time and costs.

43. The information necessary to conduct a bottom-up estimate of project time and costs starts with the .

44. Jose is forecasting project time and cost for constructing a new building by multiplying the total square footage by a given dollar amount. He is using the method of top-down estimating.

_

45. Rose is working on estimates for a project that is very similar to a previous project, in that it has many of the same features and those features have similar costs. Each feature or deliverable will represent the same percentage of the total cost as it did for the previous project. Rose is using the method of top-down estimating.

46. The top-down method for estimating project time and cost that uses weighted variables based on major parameters and is frequently used in the development of software is known as the method.

47. The top-down method of estimating project time and costs that is useful for projects requiring the same task, group of tasks, or product repeated several times, especially if it is labor intensive, is the .

48. The bottom-up method of estimating where work package time and costs for past projects are used as a starting point for a new project and adjustments are made based on differences in the new project is known as the method.

49. The top-down method of estimating when the pooled experience of senior and/or middle managers are used to estimate the total project duration and cost is the method.

50. The approach to estimating project time and cost that begins with an overall estimate for the project and then refines estimates for various stages of the project as it is implemented is known as .

51. The estimating approach that is best to use on projects where there is an unusual amount of uncertainty surrounding the project and when it is impractical to estimate times and costs for the entire project is known as .

52. A way to improve estimates on future projects is to collect and archive data on past project estimates and actuals. Creating a for estimating is a way to achieve this goal.

53. Project costs such as labor and materials are typically classified as costs.

54. The salary of the project manager and temporary rental space for the project team would be classified as costs.

55. Estimates should be made based on conditions, efficient methods, and a normal level of resources.

56. Costs that are associated with time devoted to the coordination in meetings and briefings as well as time necessary to resolve disconnects between tasks are known as costs.

57. Costs that are not directly related to a specific project, such as advertising, accounting, and senior management's salary, are classified as costs.

58. Project estimates should be broken down into as much detail, and with as much accuracy, as possible.

59. Cost, time, and budget estimates are the lifeline for control; they serve as the standard for comparison of the actual and the planned throughout the life of the project.

6 0 . Past experience is almost always used primarily in the initial phases of estimating.

61. After averaging out the underestimates and overestimates, a long-duration project is more likely to be on target than a short-term, small project.

62. The process of forecasting or approximating the time and cost of completing project deliverables is called planning.

63. The project management structure chosen to manage the project will have little impact on the quality of estimates.

64. As long as everyone in a project adds a little padding to reduce risk, the project duration and cost estimates will be more accurate.

65. Organization culture can significantly influence project time and cost estimates.

66. If a project is internal to the company and relatively small, the bottom-up approach to estimating time and costs for the project is the best choice.

67. If time and costs are important to a project the top-down approach to estimating time and costs for the project is the best choice.

68. The ideal approach to estimating project time and costs is to use both the top-down and the bottom-up approach.

69. Estimates that are typically based on estimates of elements found in the work breakdown structure are called bottom-up estimates.

70. Top-down estimates usually are derived from someone who uses experience and/or information to determine the project duration and total cost.

71. Estimating the total cost of a house by multiplying the total square feet by cost per square foot is an example of the apportion method of estimating costs.

72. Estimating the total cost of a project by multiplying each major function by a complexity factor is an example of the apportion method of estimating costs.

73. Phase estimating is used when a project cannot be rigorously defined because of the uncertainty of design or the final product.

74. All task time estimates need consistent time units.

75. One guideline to follow when estimating time, cost and resources is to use several people to make the estimate for a task.

76. The consensus method of estimating costs is a bottom-up technique.

77. The salary of the project manager and her administrative assistant is classified as direct labor costs.

78. General and administrative costs are usually allocated as a percent of the total of a direct cost which includes labor, materials, or equipment.

79. Work package estimates should include allowances for contingencies.

80. Estimates are supposed to be based on normal conditions. While this is a good starting point, it rarely holds true in real life.

 
Powered by