Devry JADM350 Final Exam 2015

Devry JADM350 Final Exam 2015 Multiple Choice QuestionsQuestion 1.1. (TCO 1) The Old French word “recerchier” means (Points : 3)an intense search for knowledge (Sample Answer)survey researchknowledge is powerto studyto learnQuestion 2.2. (TCO 1) A method that uses a written questionnaire or formal interview to gather quantitative data on the backgrounds, behaviors, beliefs, or attitudes of a large number of people or agencies is called (Points : 3)survey researchexperimentationsamplingnonreactive researchall of the aboveQuestion 3.3. (TCO 1) During the Enlightenment, people believed in (Points : 3)logical reasoningemphasis on experiences in the material worlda belief in human progressa questioning of traditional religious authorityall of the aboveQuestion 4.4. (TCO 1) Disinterestedness is (Points : 3)the scientific norm mandating that researchers should strive to be impartial and open to unexpected findings and new ideas (Sample Answer)the scientific norm that producing knowledge is a public act and the finding should be available for all to use; in order for it to be accepted into the community, it must be rigorously reviewed.the scientific norm that demands utmost honesty in all aspects of the research process; dishonesty, fraud, or cheating are major taboosthe scientific norm that says research should be judged only on the basis of scientific merita process of judging the merits of a research report in which the peer researchers do not know the identity of who conducted a study and the researcher does not know the identity of the evaluators in advanceQuestion 5.5. (TCO 2) A person with an I.Q. of 80–90 is usually considered to be (Points : 3)very superiorsuperiorbright normalaveragedull normalQuestion 6.6. (TCO 2) A random sample, in which a researcher creates a sampling frame and uses a pure random process to select cases so that each sampling element in the population will have an equal probability of being selected, is called (Points : 3)a sampling probabilitya sampling errora random samplea simple random samplesampling frameQuestion 7.7. (TCO 2) The ______________ is a mathematical relationship that states: whenever many random samples are drawn from a population, a normal distribution is formed, and the center of the distribution for a variable equals the population parameter. (Points : 3)central limit theoremsystem samplingconfidence intervalssampling intervalsampling theoremQuestion 8.8. (TCO 2) A sampling interval is (Points : 3)a random sample in which the researcher first identifies a set of mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories, divides the sampling frame by the categories, and then uses random selection to select cases from each categorya range of values, usually a little higher or lower than a specific value found in a sample, within which a researcher has a specified and high degree of confidence that the population parameters liethe inverse of the sampling ration that is used when selecting cases in systematic samplinga random sample in which a researcher selects every kth (e.g., 12th) case in the sample frame using a sampling intervala type of random sample that uses multiple stages, and is often used to cover wide geographic areas in which aggregated units are randomly selected (with samples then drawn from the sampled aggregated units or clusters)Question 9.9. (TCO 2) Snowball sampling is (Points : 3)a nonrandom sample in which the researcher begins with one case, and then, based on information about interrelationships from that case, identifies other cases, and repeats the process again and againa sample in which the sampling elements are selected using something other than a mathematically random processa nonrandom sample in which the researcher first identifies general categories into which cases or people will be selected, and then selects cases in order to reach a predetermined number of cases in each categorya nonrandom sample in which the researcher selects anyone he or she happens to come acrossa nonrandom sample in which the researcher uses a wide range of methods to locate all possible cases of a highly specific and difficult-to-reach populationQuestion 10.10. (TCO 3) When data are collected in such a way that the people being studied are unaware that they are part of a study, this is called (Points : 3)direct observationsystematic observation“snooping”nonreactive dataindirect observationQuestion 11.11. (TCO 3) A collection of documents or artifacts that a researcher can use as data is called (Points : 3)physical tracesarchival materialfossilshistorycultural remainsQuestion 12.12. (TCO 3) In their research on shoplifting, researchers found that people between the ages of ________ were the most likely to steal. (Points : 3)15 and 2425 and 3435 and 4445 and 55above 56Question 13.13. (TCO 3) A code book is (Points : 3)the systematic reorganization of raw data into a format that is computer readablea set of rules stating that certain numbers are assigned to variable attributesa document describing the coding procedure and the location of data for variables in a format that computers can use (Sample Answer)the act of writing the code categories directly on the questionnairea data fieldQuestion 14.14. (TCO 3) Precoding is (Points : 3)the systematic reorganization of raw data into a format that is computer readablea set of rules stating that certain numbers are assigned to variable attributesa document describing the coding procedure and the location of data for variables in a format that computers can usethe act of writing the code categories directly on the questionnairea data fieldQuestion 15.15. (TCO 3) The mean is (Points : 3)a distribution of scores where the three measures of central tendency do not equal one anotherthe largest and smallest scores within a distribution of scoresthe middle point of a distribution of scores (½ fall below and ½ fall above the median)the most common or frequently occurring number in a distribution of scoresthe arithmetic average of a distribution of scoresQuestion 16.16. (TCO 4) Academic periodicals that publish peer-reviewed research and essays are called (Points : 3)literature reviewsscholarly journalsdissertationsnone of the aboveall of the aboveQuestion 17.17. (TCO 4) An error in explanation in which the causal relationship is empirically untestable because the causal factor does not come earlier in time than the result, or because the causal factor is a vague, general force that cannot be empirically measured, is a(n) (Points : 3)spurious relationshipreductionismtautologyteleologyecological fallacyQuestion 18.18. (TCO 4) The name of a symbol system used to show parts of an experiment and to make diagrams of them is called (Points : 3)symbolsdesign notationdesign symbolsymbolic symbolalgebraic notationQuestion 19.19. (TCO 4) A model of standardized survey research in which there are no communication problems and respondents’ responses perfectly match their thoughts is called (Points : 3)a proper methodology“getting lucky”a naïve assumption modela “perfect fit”non-bias data collectionQuestion 20.20. (TCO 5) Sociological field research in the United States began at (Points : 3)the University of Illinoisthe University of Californiathe Marshall Universitythe University of Iowathe University of ChicagoQuestion 21.21. (TCO 5) Knowledge that people rarely acknowledge and may not be explicitly aware of is called (Points : 3)ethnographyexplicit knowledgecommon knowledgetacit knowledgecommon senseQuestion 22.22. (TCO 5) Systematically collecting historical materials and analyzing those materials for the purpose of constructing a descriptive and/or theoretical account of what has happened in the past is called (Points : 3)historical researchcomparative researchhistorical-comparative researchbilateral researchQuestion 23.23. (TCO 5) Existing statistical research based on files, records, or documents that are maintained in a relatively consistent matter over a long period of time is called (Points : 3)running researchcomparative researchindividual researchout of date researchrecollectionsQuestion 24.24. (TCO 6) This is considered a central objective of the ethnographic field research that requires a deep empathy with those being studied and their culture: (Points : 3)building rapportverstehenapplying for dual citizenshipacquiring a macabre sense of empathyQuestion 25.25. (TCO 6) The principle that researchers should examine events as they occur in natural, everyday ongoing social settings refers to which of the following: (Points : 3)artificialismreflexivitytemporalismnaturalismethnographyQuestion 26.26. (TCO 6) Which method would be best used amalgamating a large body of interdisciplinary data? (Points : 3)Qualitative document analysisAcademic legal researchTheoretical synthesis researchNone of the aboveQuestion 27.27. (TCO 6) A Latin legal concept that means that once a legal precedent has been made by a court, all subsequent judicial decisions should follow that precedent unless there is a compelling reason not to, is called (Points : 3)mens reaactus reusstare decisisthe law of ordercase lawQuestion 28.28. (TCO 7) A second stage of coding of qualitative data, in which a researcher organizes the codes, links them, and discovers key analytic categories, is called (Points : 3)axial codingopen codingcodingselective codingQuestion 29.29. (TCO 7) A first coding of qualitative data, in which a researcher examines the data to condense them into preliminary analytic categories of codes, is called (Points : 3)axial codingopen codingcodingselective codingQuestion 30.30. (TCO 7) A(n) ____________ is a statement that two objects, processes, or events are similar to each other. (Points : 3)hypothesistheoryanalogycontrastdistinctionQuestion 31.31. (TCO 7) An early step in the writing process during which a writer organizes notes, makes lists of ideas, outlines thoughts, and makes certain that bibliographic citations are complete, is called (Points : 3)freewritingprewritingdraft writingpost writingoriginatingQuestion 32.32. (TCO 7) A summary of a research project’s findings placed at the beginning of a report for an applied, nonspecialist audience, usually a little longer than an abstract, is called (Points : 3)the executive summaryeditingrevisingsketchingfreewritingQuestion 33.33. (TCO 8) Calculate the mode from this list of numbers: 6, 5, 7, 10, 9, 5, 3, 5. (Points : 3)6.255–10505.55Short Answer QuestionsQuestion 1. 1. (TCO 1) Explain the knowledge/power dynamic. (Points : 5)Question 2. 2. (TCO 1) What are the four errors of personal experience that reinforce one another in a person’s life? (Points : 5)Question 3. 3. (TCO 2) What are the four ways to improve statistical reliability? (Points : 5)Question 4. 4. (TCO 2) Provide an example of how quota sampling would work. (Points : 5)Question 5. 5. (TCO 3) Explain a graphed positive statistical relationship and what it means. (Points : 5)Question 6. 6. (TCO 3) In three lines or less, describe a scattergram. (Points : 5)Question 7. 7. (TCO 4) In three lines or less, explain the Zimbardo Prison Experiment. (p. 119) (Points : 5)Question 8. 8. (TCO 4) Provide a short explanation of the role a field researcher adopts when he or she does not disclose to the research subjects the purpose or objective of the study. (Points : 5)Question 9. 9. (TCO 5) List three of the seven deadly sins of memory. (Points : 5)Question 10. 10. (TCO 5) What are the first three of seven steps in conducting legal research? (Points : 5)Question 11. 11. (TCO 6) What do you call an open-ended interview with one person who describes his or her entire life? Provide an example when this could be used. (Points : 5)Question 12. 12. (TCO 6) What do you call a special qualitative research technique in which people are informally interviewed in a small group discussion setting? Provide an example when this could be used. (Points : 5)Question 13. 13. (TCO 7) List three of the six core elements of a narrative. (Points : 5)Question 14. 14. (TCO 7) Your text states “clear writing is best achieved” by practicing five techniques. List three of those. (Points : 5)Essay QuestionsQuestion 1. 1. (TCO 1) Explain the mission and structure of the National Institute of Justice. (Points : 7)Sample Answer:National Institute of Justice is a body where research, development, and evaluation agencies operate from. It is however, created with a sole mission that involved of advancing scientific research, development and evaluation so as to improve the administration of justice and public safety of the citizens…..Question 2. 2. (TCO 2) What are the three types of reliability? Explain each in detail. (Points : 7)Question 3. 3. (TCO 2) Explain how the National Crime Victimization survey is conducted. (Points : 7)Question 4. 4. (TCO 3) What is the difference between manifest coding and latent coding? (Points : 7)Question 5. 5. (TCO 3) What is standard deviation? (Points : 7)Question 6. 6. (TCO 4) What is the difference between voluntary consent and informed consent? (Points : 7)Question 7. 7. (TCO 4) What are the five characteristics of a causal hypothesis? (Points : 7)Question 8. 8. (TCO 5) List and explain the first three of six different levels in an access ladder. (Points : 7)Question 9. 9. (TCO 5) Explain three advantages and three disadvantages of conducting mixed methods research. (Points : 7)Question 10. 10. (TCO 6) Explain what Jeff Ferrell was doing when he admitted to “going native” and what his research was about. (Points : 7)Question 11. 11. (TCO 6) What do you call the special language or terminology used by the members of a subculture or group that interacts regularly? Explain. (Points : 7)Question 12. 12. (TCO 7) Explain the differences in the four types of “coding” in the chapter. (Points : 7)Question 13. 13. (TCO 7) According to the conclusion to the book, what should be the ultimate purpose of criminal justice/criminology research? Explain. (Points : 7)Page: 1 2 3Essay QuestionsQuestion 1. 1. (TCO 1) Explain the mission and structure of the National Institute of Justice. (Points : 7)Question 2. 2. (TCO 2) What are the three types of reliability? Explain each in detail. (Points : 7)Question 3. 3. (TCO 2) Explain how the National Crime Victimization survey is conducted. (Points : 7)Question 4. 4. (TCO 3) What is the difference between manifest coding and latent coding? (Points : 7)Question 5. 5. (TCO 3) What is standard deviation? (Points : 7)Question 6. 6. (TCO 4) What is the difference between voluntary consent and informed consent? (Points : 7)Question 7. 7. (TCO 4) What are the five characteristics of a causal hypothesis? (Points : 7)Question 8. 8. (TCO 5) List and explain the first three of six different levels in an access ladder. (Points : 7)Question 9. 9. (TCO 5) Explain three advantages and three disadvantages of conducting mixed methods research. (Points : 7)Question 10. 10. (TCO 6) Explain what Jeff Ferrell was doing when he admitted to “going native” and what his research was about. (Points : 7)Question 11. 11. (TCO 6) What do you call the special language or terminology used by the members of a subculture or group that interacts regularly? Explain. (Points : 7)Question 12. 12. (TCO 7) Explain the differences in the four types of “coding” in the chapter. (Points : 7)Question 13. 13. (TCO 7) According to the conclusion to the book, what should be the ultimate purpose of criminal justice/criminology research? Explain. (Points : 7)
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