SCI 250 Entire Course

SCI/250

MICROBIOLOGY

 

The Latest Version A+ Study
Guide


 

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SCI 250 Entire Course Link

https://uopcourses.com/category/sci-250/

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SCI 250 Week 1 Cell Division Template

Examine cell division in bacteria to determine how it
relates to growth.

Complete Appendix A to explain the following in your own
words:


  • The phases
    of growth in a bacterial culture

  • Methods used
    to measure bacterial growth

  • Physical and
    nutritional factors affecting bacterial growth

  • The
    processes of sporulation

  • The function
    of bacterial endospores

  •  

  • Appendix A –
    Cell Division in Bacteria

  •  

  • After
    reading Ch. 6 in Microbiology:
    Principles and Explorations
    , fill in the following matrix.

  •  






List the four phases of bacterial growth and briefly
describe what happens in each phase.





 




List and describe at least four methods used to measure
bacterial growth.





 




List at least two physical factors that influence bacterial
cell growth. Briefly describe how bacterial growth responds to changes in
those factors.





 




List at least two nutritional factors that influence
bacterial cell growth. Briefly describe how bacterial growth responds to
changes in those factors.





 




List and describe at least two events that occur during
the process of endospore formation (sporulation).

Note:
Visit Chapter 6 of Microbiology: Principles and Explorations in
WileyPlus to view the Endospore Formation Animation found
under the Animated Concepts Section.




 
 
 
 
 




What is the function of a bacterial endospore? Explain
in your own words.





 




 

 

SCI 250 Week 1 Staining Lab and Quiz

Review Ch.
3 of Microbiology.

Review “Staining
Bacteria: The Gram Stain” simulation.

Complete the
open book quiz. The quiz will be provided by your instructor.

 

 

SCI 250 Week 1 Identifying Bacteria

Review Figure
6.25 and Table 9.5 of Microbiology.

Complete Appendix
B to classify bacteria and identify a strain of bacteria responsible for a
simulated food poisoning outbreak.

Appendix B – Identifying Bacteria

 

Bacteria
identification is accomplished in a number of ways. Two common tools
microbiologists use to identify unknown bacteria include dichotomous key and
biochemical tests. The dichotomous key is useful when a microbiologist only
needs to know which group an unknown microbe belongs to on a general level.
When a microbiologist needs to identify a specific bacterium, biochemical tests
are used.



PART ONE: GENERAL
BACTERIA IDENTIFICATION



Review the dichotomous key in Figure A, the bacterial shapes in Figure
B, and the Gram stain information below. You will use all three to determine to
which major group unknown bacteria belong.

 




Figure A: A dichotomous key for classifying major groups of
bacteria.


[Figure
9.4 in Microbiology text]















 




Figure B: The most common bacterial shapes.
[Figure
4.1 in Microbiology text]










 
Shape Types:
 
Comma, or
Club-shaped, rods = Vibrio
Rods =
Coccobacillus, Bacillus
Spherical =
Coccus
Spiral or
Helical = Spirillium, Spirochete
 




Gram Stain Results:

 

Purple = Gram positive

Red = Gram negative

Neither purple nor red = No cell wall (neither Gram positive nor Gram
negative)

 

 

 

Review Figure C on the following page. Use Figure C to identify the type
of arrangement displayed by the unknown bacteria. Read through the Sample
Identification on the following page for an example of how to identify
bacterial groups and arrangements using Figures A, B, C, and the Gram stain
results.




Figure C: Arrangement of Bacteria




Rods
and Clubs





 
Single
 
 
Strepto-




Cording
 


Snapping
 
 
Palisades
 
 
 
Chinese
Letters


 





Cocci




 
 
Single
 
Diplo-



Tetrad





Sarcinae









Staphylo-






Strepto-
 


 





Sample
Identification


 

After performing a Gram stain, you observe the following under a
microscope:

 



(Cells are stained red.)

 

·        
Begin with item 1 on the dichotomous key (Figure
A). Because the organisms are red, they are not Gram-positive. According to the
key, continue to item 3.

·        
Because the organism is red (not clear or another
color), it is indeed Gram-negative according to item 3. The key directs you to
item 5.

·        
Consider the shape of individual cells for item 5.
According to Figure B, the shape type is closest to spherical. (Note: spherical
is circular.)

·        
The bacteria belong to the Gram-negative cocci group.

·        
Now use Figure C to describe arrangement of bacteria.
(The bacteria are not rod- or club-shaped, so focus on the cocci arrangements.)
Identify the arrangement that is most prominent.

·        
The bacteria are arranged in a diplo- fashion.

·        
Enter the group and arrangement in the table.

 

Application

 

Use Figures A, B, C, and Gram stain results to identify group and
arrangement of bacteria. Continue to Part Two after completing the table.

 

 

 

 







View from Microscope


Group of Bacteria


Arrangement




 
(stained red)


Gram-negative cocci


Diplo-





(stained purple)


 


 





(stained purple)


 


 





(stained red)


 


 





(stained red)


 


 





(stained purple)


 


 





(stained purple)


 


 







 



PART TWO: CAse study
scenario: identify specific bacteria through biochemical testing





To gain an understanding of the processes involved with identifying bacteria
through biochemical tests, access Chapter 6 of the text in WileyPlus located on
the Week One course page. Once in WileyPlus (Chapter 6), select the “Bacterial
Identification by API” link located under the heading, Take Another Look. Once selected, review the information and watch
the Flash-animated movie (animation) located within this link. Then, review the
following scenario and answer the questions that follow.

Case Study

A recent outbreak of food poisoning has occurred
in a community. One possible source of contamination may be the produce that is
grown and distributed locally at a farmer’s market. A test sample of some of
the produce revealed evidence of bacterial contamination. The bacteria sample was
tested in a microbiology lab and showed the results that follow. The laboratory
also performed a Gram stain of the isolated bacteria and ran a number of
biochemical tests to aid identification. The biochemical tests were assayed
using the Analytical Profile Index (API) 20E system for identification of Enterobacteriaceae
and other gram-negative bacteria.

Figure 1.
Microbiology laboratory results – Unknown bacteria present on produce (API
Results)




Figure 2.
API Results of Unknown Bacteria in Text Format







Gram
stain:



Gram-negative


ONPG


ADH


LDC


ODC


CIT


H2S


URE


TDA


IND


VP


GEL


GLU




Bacteria: Unknown


+


-


+


+


-


-


-


-


+


-


-


+






 






MAN


INO


SOR


RHA


SAC


MEL


AMY


ARA




+


-


+


+


-


+


-


+






Based
on Gram stain results and the knowledge that this bacterium caused food
poisoning, the laboratory is able to narrow down the possibilities to three
bacterial strains. Figure 3 shows the API results:

Figure 3.
API Results of Known Bacterial Strains in Text Format







Gram
stain:

Gram-negative


ONPG


ADH


LDC


ODC


CIT


H2S


URE


TDA


IND


VP


GEL


GLU




Bacteria: Salmonella


-


-


+


-


-


-


-


-


-


-


-


+






 






MAN


INO


SOR


RHA


SAC


MEL


AMY


ARA




+


-


+


-


-


+


-


-






 

 

 






Gram
stain:

Gram-negative


ONPG


ADH


LDC


ODC


CIT


H2S


URE


TDA


IND


VP


GEL


GLU




Bacteria: Shigella


-


-


-


-


-


-


-


-


-


-


-


+






 






MAN


INO


SOR


RHA


SAC


MEL


AMY


ARA




-


-


-


-


-


-


-


-






 






Gram
stain:

Gram-negative


ONPG


ADH


LDC


ODC


CIT


H2S


URE


TDA


IND


VP


GEL


GLU




Bacteria: E. coli


+


-


+


+


-


-


-


-


+


-


-


+






 






MAN


INO


SOR


RHA


SAC


MEL


AMY


ARA




+


-


+


+


-


+


-


+






 

Application

Compare
the API biochemical test results in Figure 2 (unknown bacteria from produce)
with API test results in Figure 3 (known bacterial strains identified in the
gray boxes on the left). The bacterial strain in Figure 3 that matches Figure 2
will identify the bacterial strain causing illness. Based upon your
observations, which of the bacteria in Figure 3 is the most likely cause of the
food poisoning outbreak?

 

 

SCI 250 Week 2 Parasitology Matrix

Complete Appendix C to differentiate among parasites, fungi,
helminths, and arthropods.

Appendix
C – Parasitology


 

After
reading Ch. 11 in Microbiology: Principles
and Explorations
, complete the
following matrices to compare and contrast different parasitic organisms. You
may need to use the index to help you locate some of the information needed.

 

PROTOZOA/MASTIGOPHORANS




Organism


Common
Name



Location
in Host



Mode of
Transmission



Geographic
Location





Trypanosoma (Ch. 24)


 


Nervous system


Tsetse fly


 




Giardia
 (Ch. 22)


 


 


Ingestion of fecal matter that contains motile
trophozoites


Worldwide




Trichomonas
(Ch. 20)


Vaginal inflammation


 


 


Worldwide




Select one of the organisms in this section. Describe the disease it
causes, then compare similarities or contrast differences in modes of
transmission of the selected organism with any other organism in any other
section in this document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that
make disease transmission successful:
 
 
 




 

SPOROZOANS




Organism


Common
Name



Location
in Host



Mode of
Transmission



Geographic
Location





Plasmodium (Ch. 11
& 23)


 


Red blood cells


 


Tropical areas




Toxoplasma
gondii


(Ch. 23)


Toxoplasmosis


 


 


Worldwide




Select one of the organisms in this section. Describe the disease it
causes, then compare similarities or contrast differences in modes of
transmission of the selected organism with any other organism in any other
section in this document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that
make disease transmission successful:
 
 
 




 

 

FUNGI




Organism


Common
Name



Location
in Host



Mode of
Transmission



Geographic
Location





Candida
albicans

(Ch. 19)


 


 


Can be sexually transmittted


Worldwide




Trichophyton

(Ch. 19)


 


 


Poor hygiene or suppressed immune system


Worldwide




Histoplasma
(Ch. 21)


 


 


Inhalation


Central and eastern United States and major river
valleys worldwide




Select one of the organisms in this section. Describe the disease it
causes, then compare similarities or contrast differences in modes of
transmission of the selected organism with any other organism in any other
section in this document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that
make disease transmission successful:
 
 
 




 

HELMINTHS/FLUKES




 
Organism


Common
Name



Location
in Host



Mode
of Transmission



Geographic
Location





Schistoma
japonicum

(Ch. 23)


 


Lungs, liver, and
urinary bladder


 


Worldwide




Describe the disease caused by Schistoma japonicum, then compare
similarities or contrast differences in modes of transmission of the organism
in this section with any other organism in any other section in this
document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that make disease
transmission successful:
 
 
 




 

TAPEWORMS




Organism


Common
Name



Location
in Host



Mode
of Transmission



Geographic
location





Taenia
saginata

(Ch. 22)


Tapeworm disease


 


Uncooked beef


 




Describe the disease caused by Taenia saginata, then compare
similarities or contrast differences in modes of transmission of the organism
in this section with any other organism in any other section in this
document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that make disease
transmission successful:
 
 
 




 

 

 

 

ADULT ROUNDWORMS




Organism


Common
Name



Location
in host



Mode of
transmission



Geographic
location





Wucheria
bancrofti
(Ch. 23)


 


 


Mosquitoes


Tropical areas




Describe the disease caused by Wucheria
bancrofti
, then compare similarities or contrast differences in modes of
transmission of the organism in this section with any other organism in any
other section in this document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors
that make disease transmission successful:
 
 
 




 

ROUNDWORM
LARVAE





Organism


Common
Name



Symptoms
in host



Mode of
transmission



Geographic
location





Borrelia
burgdoreri
(Ch. 23)


 


 
Skin lesions and flu-like symptoms, later arthritis and
heart damage
 


Ticks


Parts of the United
States, Australia,
and Europe




Rickettsia
rickettsii
(Ch. 23)


 


Fever, headache, rash


 


 




Rickettsia
prowazekii
(Ch. 23)


 


 


Lice


Worldwide




Select one of the organisms in this section. Describe the disease it
causes, then compare similarities or contrast differences in modes of
transmission of the selected organism with any other organism in any other
section in this document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that
make disease transmission successful:
 
 
 




 

ANTHROPODS/ARACHNIDS




Organism


Common
Name



Location
in Host



Mode
of Transmission



Geographic
Location





Trichinella
spiralis

(Ch. 22)


 


Larvae in striated
muscle


 


Worldwide




Describe the disease caused by Trichinella spiralis, then compare
similarities or contrast differences in modes of transmission of the organism
in this section with any other organism in any other section in this
document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that make disease
transmission successful:
 




 

 

 

SCI 250 Week 2 Epidemiology
Presentation

Define epidemiology, in your assigned Learning Team, explaining
its purpose and methods of study.

Select an emergent disease to research.

Create a 7- to 10-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation that includes the following
details within speaker’s notes:


  • An explanation of
    the purpose and methods of study for epidemiology

  • A thorough
    description of the selected infectious agent

  • Incubation period

  • Signs and symptoms

  • Related diagnostic
    tests

  • Precautions that
    should be taken against the

  • A summary slide



 

SCI 250 Week 3 Virus Matrix

Watch the
“Viruses” animation.

Describe the
characteristics of viruses by filling out the matrix in Appendix D.

Appendix
D - Viruses


 

Review
Chapter 10 of Microbiology: Principles
and Exploration
and the following Virus Animation to help you complete the
matrix below.

http://higheredbcs.wiley.com/legacy/college/black/0471420840/animations/ch10/ch10_Viruses/index.html

 

 




Review
Figure 10.1 of Microbiology: Principles
and Explorations
. Determine what the functions of the following
components are:




Component        


Function




Capsid


 




Envelope


 




Nucleic
acid


 




Spikes
(glycoproteins)


 




Respond
to Critical Thinking Question 1 in Ch. 10 of Microbiology: Principles and Explorations in the space that
follows.




 




Using
two or three sentences, explain in your own words how viruses are classified
by type of nucleic acid, capsid shape, and presence of envelope.




 


Explanation




Nucleic
acid


 




Capsid
shape


 




Presence
of envelope


 




Review
Ch. 10 of Microbiology: Principles and
Explorations
. Briefly describe each of the stages of viral reproduction.




Stage


Description




Absorption


 




Penetration


 




Synthesis


 




Maturation


 




Release


 




Respond
to the following question from Ch. 10 of Microbiology:
Principles and Explorations
in the space that follows. Looking at the
five steps in viral replication, can you identify some promising ways to
prevent or control viral infections?




 




Respond
to the following question from Ch. 10 of Microbiology:
Principles and Explorations
in the space that follows. Would you classify
viruses as living, nonliving, or semiliving? Explain your answer.




 




Review
Table 10.7 of Microbiology: Principles
and Explorations
. Define the following types of viruses and viruslike
agents.




Virus/Viruslike agent


Definition




Satellites


 




Viroids


 




Prions


 




Respond to the following questions in the
space that follows. Can viruses cause cancer? Does it matter if the virus is
composed of DNA or RNA? Explain your answers.




 




 

 

SCI 250 Week 4 Innate Defenses Matrix

Complete the matrix in Appendix E to contrast types of innate host
defenses. Be sure to include specific information about how each can affect the
human body.

Appendix E – Innate Defenses

 

Part One and Part
Two focus on various types of innate defenses against infection. Use Ch. 16 in
your text to help you complete both parts.



PART ONE: Puncture
wound multimedia activity



After completing the Inflammatory Response multimedia activity located at
http://corptrain.phoenix.edu/hhs/SCI250/innate_defenses.html

complete the table below. List the four events of the inflammatory
response covered in the activity in the correct order of occurrence. As you re-write
the events in your own words, add more detail and use terms from Ch.16 of the
text.

 

EVENTS IN AN INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE

 




Event


Description
of event (from activity)



Detailed
description of event 





1st


Type first event here. Copy this word-for-word from the
multimedia activity.


Rephrase the event in your own words, using greater detail
and terms from Ch. 16.




2nd


Type second event here. Copy this word-for-word from the
multimedia activity.


Rephrase the event in your own words, using greater detail
and terms from Ch. 16.




3rd


Type third event here. Copy this word-for-word from the
multimedia activity.


Rephrase the event in your own words, using greater detail
and terms from Ch. 16.




4th


Type fourth event here. Copy this word-for-word from the
multimedia activity.


Rephrase the event in your own words, using greater detail
and terms from Ch. 16.






PART TWO: TYPES OF
INNATE DEFENSES



The table presents
various innate, nonspecific immune responses to pathogen exposure. Use Ch. 16
to help you identify and describe the type of defense in the Event column.




Event


Type
of Innate Defense



What
is happening in the body during the defense?





It is a very windy day, and you have
inhaled all kinds of particles – from dust to potentially harmful pathogens –
but a quick sneeze prevents you from coming down with an illness.


Physical Barrier


The nose contains mucous, which helps to
flush out microbes and particles when a person sneezes.




A man at a restaurant ingests food
contaminated with microbes that could potentially cause disease. The microbes
do not survive very long in his stomach, so he does not get sick.


 


 




A child gets a small cut on her foot while
running barefoot on the beach. The wound becomes slightly red and swollen.
Her wound does not get infected, but it hurts a little, and it feels a bit
warm.


 


 




Yesterday, you suspected you might be
getting sick. Today, you feel very tired. When you take your temperature, the
thermometer reads 100.2ºF.


 


 




Flesh-eating bacteria are present on your
leg. You do not have any wounds, so you do not become infected in spite of
exposure.


 


 




Your teenage brother has developed a zit
on his forehead. (Hint: Identify two types of defenses, since infection has
occurred.)


 


 




 

 

SCI 250 Week 4 Immunity Activity

Using the template in
Appendix F define the following in your own words:


  • The
    difference between adaptive and innate immunity

  • The
    difference between cellular and humoral immunity

  • The factors
    that stimulate an immune response

  • The
    difference between active and passive immunizations

  • Appendix
    F – Immunity Activity

  •  

  • After
    reading Ch. 16-18 in Microbiology:
    Principles and Explorations
    , fill in the following matrix.

  •  






Answer the
following Checklist Exercise from Ch. 17 of Microbiology: Principles and Explorations: Distinguish between
active and passive immunity. Give examples of each.





 




Answer the
following Checklist Exercise from Ch. 17 of Microbiology: Principles and Explorations: Distinguish between
innate and acquired immunity. Give examples of each.





 




Answer the
following Checklist Exercise from Ch. 17 of Microbiology: Principles and Explorations: Distinguish between
cellular and humoral immunity.





 




In your own words,
briefly explain what happens in a primary immune response. Be sure to
incorporate the following terms into your explanation: antigen, B-cell,
antibody, plasma, and memory cell.





 




In your own words,
briefly explain what happens in a secondary immune response. Incorporate the
following terms in your explanation: memory cell and antibodies.

 




 




In your own words,
briefly explain why a secondary immune response is much faster than a primary
immune response.

 




 




In your own words,
briefly explain what the difference is between active and passive
immunization. Incorporate the following terms in your answer: vaccine,
antigen, attenuated, primary immune response, antibodies, serum, and
immediate immunity.





 




Answer the
following Checklist Question from Ch. 17 of Microbiology: Principles and Explorations: What are some hazards
of vaccines?





 




Respond to the
following question from Ch. 17 of Microbiology:
Principles and Explorations
: If you were born without T cells, would you
have normal B cell functioning? Why or why not?





 




 

 

SCI 250 Week 5 Integumentary System Lab
and Quiz

Complete the
Integumentary System Lab.

Complete the
open book quiz about diseases of the integumentary system. The quiz will be
provided by your instructor.

Integumentary System Lab – Week Five



Introduction



The integumentary system consists of skin, hair, nails, and
nerves. As you learn about the various diseases that affect the integumentary
system, it is important for you to understand the structures that can be
affected by disease. Complete this lab to become familiar with a healthy system
and to
identify diseases related to the skin.



PART ONE: basic
functions



Provide brief answers
to the following questions to help you get acquainted with the basic functions
of a healthy integumentary system. Refer to Ch. 19 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations.

 

1.    
How
does the integumentary system prevent disease?

2.    
How do
sweat, sebaceous (oil), and mucus secretions help prevent disease?

3.    
Which
types of bacteria are considered normal skin microflora?

4.    Suppose a sample of bacteria was taken from your skin. If
you were to perform a Gram stain on the sample, what is the likely Gram
reaction – positive or negative? Explain your answer.



PART two: basic
structures



Identify the selected integumentary
system structures in the following diagram:

 

 

 

 

 

 




     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 







PART three: investigate
and apply



Access
the Public Diseases & Conditions A-Z Index on the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention website at http://www.cdc.gov/DiseasesConditions/. Research
one microbe-related skin disease (excluding sexually transmitted diseases) and
complete the following activity.

 

Read
the information on the CDC site and provide a brief, one- to two-paragraph
summary of the skin condition. Include the following in your description:

 

·        
The skin condition

·        
The microbe causing the condition

·        
Which structures of the integumentary system
are affected—Use one or more structures included in Part Two.

·        
Who is at risk

·        
How serious the disease is

 

[Type
your paragraph in the space below]

 

 

1.  Staphylococcus
aureus
causes all of the following except

A) 
scalded skin syndrome

B) 
carbuncles

C) 
impetigo

D) 
erysipelas

 

2. 
The most common bacteria to cause infections from soaking in a hot tub
is__________.

A)  Escherichia
coli


B)  Pseudomonas
aeruginosa


C)  Staphylococcus
epidermidis


D)  Staphylococcus
aureus


 

3. 
The flesh-eating bacteria are

A)  Staphylococcus

B)  Streptococcus

C)  Pseudomonas

D)  Propionibacterium

 

4. 
Which of the following staphylococcal infections are matched correctly
with infection sites?

A) 
folliculitis – deep internal pus-filled infection

B) 
furuncle – massive lesion on neck and upper back

C) 
boil – an exterior pus-filled infection

D) 
abscess – base of an eyelash

 

5. 
All of the following statements refer to German measles except

A) 
they may cause rubella syndrome

B)  a
vaccine has reduced the incidence of rubella birth defects

C) 
mild virus infection with exanthema

D) 
only girls are immunized with the rubella vaccine

 

6. 
Smallpox

A) 
was eradicated worldwide

B) 
could be used in biological warfare

C) 
vaccine is a live non-virulent smallpox virus

D) 
two of the above

 

7. 
Genital warts are caused by

A) 
moluscum contagiosum

B) 
human papillomavirus

C) 
cowpox

D) 
HZV

 

8. 
What is the difference between rubella and rubeola?

A) 
only rubeola causes exanthema (skin rash)

B) 
rubella causes skin rash and rubeola crosses the placenta

C) 
both cause skin rashes but only rubella can cross the placenta

D) 
no difference; they are simply different names for same viral skin
disease

 

9. 
Which pair of fungal skin infections is matched incorrectly?

A) 
Tinea cruris—jock itch

B) 
Tinea unguium—ringworm of the nails

C) 
Tinea capitis—scalp ringworm

D) 
Tinea corporis—ringworm of the face

 

10. 
Pediculosis is an infestation of

A) 
lice

B) 
ticks

C) 
chiggers

D) 
mites

 

 

 

SCI 250 Week 5 STD Informational
Pamphlet – Appendix G

Resources: An information pamphlet from a doctor’s
office and Appendix G

Create a tri-fold pamphlet,
such as one you would find at a doctor’s office, about a sexually transmitted
disease of your choice using the template provided in Appendix G located on the
student website.

Address each of the elements in
the grading form provided in the document titled Appendix G Rubric located on
the student website, and answer the following questions:


  • Is the
    disease transmitted exclusively through sexual contact or can it be spread
    nonsexually?

  • What are its
    symptoms, and how can it can be diagnosed? (Be sure to compare a healthy
    system to one affected by the infection or disease.)

  • What
    epidemiological and clinical impact does the disease or infection have?

  • How can the
    infection or disease be prevented?



Note. Feel free to modify the template by
changing font sizes and colors and adding graphics or pictures. If, however,
you use graphics or pictures, please be sure to cite their sources according to
APA standards. Formatting help is available at http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/default.aspx

 

 

SCI 250 Week 6 Respiratory System Lab
and Quiz

Complete the
Respiratory System Lab.

Complete the
open-book quiz about the respiratory system and associated diseases. The quiz
will be provided by your instructor.

Respiratory System Lab – Week Six



Introduction



The respiratory system consists of the upper respiratory
tract (the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi) and the lower
respiratory tract (the lungs). As you learn about the various diseases that
affect the respiratory system, it is important for you to understand the
structures that can be affected by disease. Complete this lab to become
familiar with a healthy system and to
identify diseases related to both the upper and lower
respiratory tracts.




PART ONE: basic
functions



Provide brief answers
to the following questions to help you get acquainted with the basic functions
of a healthy respiratory system. Refer to Ch. 21 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations.

 

1.    
How do body reflexes like coughing and sneezing
help prevent or fight infection?

2.    
What role do cilia play in maintaining a
healthy respiratory system?  

3.    
Compare normal microflora of the upper
respiratory tract with normal microflora of the lower respiratory tract.



PART two: basic
structures



Visit
Chapter 21 of Microbiology: Principles
and Explorations
in WileyPlus to
view an in-depth presentation of a healthy respiratory system by completing the
following steps:

 

·      Select the Chapter 21
WileyPlus reading link located on your student Web page.

·      Locate the heading Chapter Review.

·      Select the Anatomy Overview: The Respiratory System link.

·      Complete this lab as you
explore the Respiratory System multimedia piece.

 

Overview

 

Roll
over each component of the Conducting and Respiratory portions of the Respiratory
System multimedia piece. Take note of how the preserved trachea and lung
photograph on the left compares to the illustrated diagram on the right.

 

Upper Respiratory
System (Conducting Portion: Nasal Cavity)


 

Roll
over and click either the nasal cavity
or pharynx components of the Conducting portion of the Respiratory System multimedia piece to navigate to the Nasal
Cavity. Refer to Nasal Cavity component
of the multimedia piece and Ch.
21, Figure 21.8 in Microbiology:
Principles and Explorations
to label the structures in the following diagram
of a healthy upper respiratory system.

 



 

Lower Respiratory
System (Respiratory Portion: Lungs)


 

Click
the icon in the upper left corner of the Nasal Cavity diagram to return to the
main menu in the Respiratory System multimedia
piece. Click the lungs component of
the Respiratory Portion to navigate
to the Lung diagram. Refer to Lung diagram of the multimedia piece and Ch.
21, Figure 21.1 in Microbiology:
Principles and Explorations
to label the structures in the following diagrams
of a healthy lower respiratory system. Please note: The first diagram that
follows is found only in Ch. 21, Figure 21.1, and not in the Lung component of
the multimedia piece.

 





 

 



PART three:
investigate and apply



Visit
the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Access the Public Diseases
& Conditions A-Z Index at http://www.cdc.gov/DiseasesConditions/ Scroll down
to the section titled Top Requested Diseases & Conditions. Review the list
of diseases about that the general public is most frequently requesting
information about. You will notice some familiar diseases from your assigned
readings. Click on at least one microbe-related respiratory system disease and
complete the following activity.

 

Read
the information on the CDC site and provide a brief, 1-2 paragraph summary of
the respiratory illness. Include in your description:

 

·        
The respiratory illness

·        
The microbe causing the illness

·        
Which structures of the respiratory system
are affected—Use one or more structures included in Part Two.

·        
Who is at risk

·        
How serious the disease is

 

[Type
your paragraph in the space below]

 

 

Section:
Matching (Highlight or indicate the correct response)   .25 points each question


 

1.    
Catarrhal
stage with fever, sneezing, vomiting, and mild cough; paroxysmal stage with
ropy mucus and violent cough; convalescent stage with mild cough


  • Whooping
    cough

  • Classic
    pneumonia

  • Legionnaires'
    disease

  • Tuberculosis

  • Influenza

  • Respirator
    syncytial virus infection

  • Hantavirus
    pulmonary syndrome

  • Acute
    respiratory disease

  • Histoplasmosis

  • Cryptococcosis

  • Aspergillosis



2.    
Inflammation
of bronchi or alveoli of lungs with fluid accumulation and fever


  • Whooping
    cough

  • Classic
    pneumonia

  • Legionnaires'
    disease

  • Tuberculosis

  • Influenza

  • Respiratory
    syncytial virus infection

  • Hantavirus
    pulmonary syndrome

  • Acute
    respiratory disease

  • Histoplasmosis

  • Cryptococcosis

  • Aspergillosis



3.    
Inflammation
of the lungs, fever, chills, headache, diarrhea, vomiting, and fluid in lungs


  • Whooping
    cough

  • Classic
    pneumonia

  • Legionnaires'
    disease

  • Tuberculosis

  • Influenza

  • Respiratory
    syncytial virus infection

  • Hantavirus
    pulmonary disease

  • Acute
    respiratory disease

  • Histoplasmosis

  • Cryptococcosis

  • Aspergillosis



 

4.    
Tubercles
in lungs and sometimes in other tissues; organisms can persist in walled-off
lesions and be reactivated


  • Whooping
    cough

  • Classic
    pneumonia

  • Legionnaires'
    disease

  • Tuberculosis

  • Influenza

  • Respiratory
    syncytial virus infection

  • Hantavirus
    pulmonary syndrome

  • Acute
    respiratory disease

  • Cryptococcosis

  • Aspergillosis



5.    
Viruses
subject to antigenic variation, with new strains causing epidemics;
inflammation of oropharyngeal membranes, fever, malaise, muscle pain, cough,
nasal discharge, and gastroenteritis


  • Whooping
    cough

  • Classic
    pneumonia

  • Legionnaires'
    disease

  • Tuberculosis

  • Influenza

  • Respiratory
    syncytial virus infection

  • Hantavirus
    pulmonary syndrome

  • Acute
    respiratory disease

  • Histoplasmosis

  • Cryptococcosis

  • Aspergillosis



6.    
Febrile
disease of the respiratory tract; can cause viral pneumonia


  • Whooping
    cough

  • Classic
    pneumonia

  • Legionnaires'
    disease

  • Tuberculosis

  • Influenza

  • Respiratory
    syncytial virus infection

  • Hantavirus
    pulmonary syndrome

  • Acute
    respiratory disease

  • Histoplasmosis

  • Cryptococcosis

  • Aspergillosis



 

7.    
Fever,
kidney abnormalities; in severe cases shock, bleeding, and pulmonary edema


  • Whooping
    cough

  • Classic
    pneumonia

  • Legionnaires'
    disease

  • Tuberculosis

  • Influenza

  • Respiratory
    syncytial virus infection

  • Hantavirus
    pulmonary syndrome

  • Acute
    respiratory disease

  • Histoplasmosis

  • Cryptococcosis

  • Aspergillosis



8.    
Mild
cough and nasal discharge; can cause viral pneumonia


  • Whooping
    cough

  • Classic
    pneumonia

  • Legionnaires'
    disease

  • Tuberculosis

  • Influenza

  • Respiratory
    syncytial virus infection

  • Hantavirus
    pulmonary syndrome

  • Acute
    respiratory disease

  • Histoplasmosis

  • Cryptococcosis

  • Aspergillosis



9.    
Granulomatous
lesions in lungs and spleen in susceptible individuals; can cause pneumonia


  • Whooping
    cough

  • Classic
    pneumonia

  • Legionnaires'
    disease

  • Tuberculosis

  • Influenza

  • Respiratory
    syncytial virus infection

  • Hantavirus
    pulmonary syndrome

  • Acute
    respiratory disease

  • Histoplasmosis

  • Cryptococcosis

  • Apsergillosis



 

10. 
Usually
a mild pulmonary disease; pneumonia and dissemination to meninges can occur


  • Whooping
    cough

  • Classic
    pneumonia

  • Legionnaires'
    disease

  • Tuberculosis

  • Influenza

  • Respiratory
    syncytial virus infection

  • Hantavirus
    pulmonary syndrome

  • Acute
    respiratory diesease

  • Histoplasmosis

  • Cryptococcosis

  • Aspergillosis



 

 

SCI 250 Week 6 Cardiovascular System
Lab and Quiz

Complete the
Cardiovascular System Lab.

Complete the
open-book quiz about the cardiovascular system and associated diseases. The
quiz will be provided by your instructor

Cardiovascular System Lab – Week Six



Introduction



The cardiovascular system consists of blood,
blood vessels, and the heart. As you learn about the various diseases that
affect the cardiovascular system, it is important for you to understand the
structures that can be affected by disease. Complete this lab to become
familiar with a healthy system and to identify
diseases related to this system.



PART ONE: basic
functions



Provide brief answers
to the following questions to help you get acquainted with the basic functions
of a healthy cardiovascular system. Refer to Ch. 23 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations.

 

5.    
What
are the main functions of the cardiovascular system?

6.    
Which
types of bacteria are considered normal cardiovascular system microflora?

7.    
Which
structure of the cardiovascular system is particularly susceptible to bacterial
infection?



PART two: basic
structures



Refer to Ch. 23 in Microbiology:
Principles and Explorations
to help you identify the selected
cardiovascular system structures in the following diagram.











 

 

 






Visit
Chapter 23 of Microbiology: Principles
and Explorations
in WileyPlus to
view an in-depth presentation of a healthy cardiovascular system by completing
the following steps:

 

·     
Select the
Chapter 23 WileyPlus reading link located on your student Web page.

·     
Locate the
heading Chapter Review.

·     
Select the Anatomy Overview: The Cardiovascular System
link.

·     
Complete this lab
as you explore the Cardiovascular System multimedia piece.

 

Cardiovascular
System: The Heart


 

Roll
over each component of the Cardiovascular System multimedia piece. Roll over
and click the heart. Refer to the Heart component of the multimedia piece and
Ch. 23 in Microbiology: Principles and
Explorations
to label the structures in the following diagrams of a healthy
cardiovascular system.

 



 



PART three:
investigate and apply



Select
one of the following diseases related to the cardiovascular system, discussed
in Ch. 23 of Microbiology: Principles and
Explorations
:

 

·        
Rheumatic fever

·        
Bacterial endocarditis

 

Describe
the causal agent of the selected disease, mode of transmission, disease
characteristics, and the component(s) of the cardiovascular system that are
damaged by the disease.

 

[Type
your response below]

 

Section:
Multiple Choice


 

1.    
The
normal microflora of the heart includes species of ________


  • Gram-positive
    bacteria.

  • Gram-negative
    bacteria.

  • fungi.

  • viruses.

  • None
    of the above



2.    
What
causes septic shock?


  • Staphylococcus
    aureus

  • Any
    organism growing in the bloodstream

  • Lipopolysaccharide
    from Gram-negative bacteria

  • Teichoic
    acids from Gram-positive bacteria

  • None
    of the above



3.    
What
organism can cause cutaneous infections and can be transmitted by endospores?


  • Staphylococcus
    aureus

  • Pseudomonas
    aeruginosa

  • Yersinia
    pestis

  • Bacillus
    anthracis

  • Streptococcus
    pyogenes



4.    
A
pathogen of both humans and cattle that causes undulant fever is a member of
the genus ________


  • Yersinia.

  • Borellia.

  • Brucella.

  • Pediculus.

  • Streptococcus.



5.    
Both
deer and black-legged ticks are involved in the transmission of the agent of
Lyme disease, which is caused by ________


  • Ixodes
    scapularis.

  • Borrelia
    burgdorferi.

  • Rickettsia
    akari.

  • Bartonella
    bacilliformis.

  • Yersinia
    pestis.



 

 

 

6.    
A
tumor of the jaw and viscera (Burkitt's lymphoma) occurs approximately six
years after a primary infection with what virus?


  • Yellow
    fever virus

  • Rift
    Valley fever virus

  • Ebola
    virus

  • Dengue
    virus

  • Epstein-Barr
    virus



7.    
Filoviruses
have an unusual shape that may be U- or fishhook-shaped. One disease caused by
a filovirus is ________


  • yellow
    fever virus.

  • Rift
    Valley fever virus.

  • Epstein-Barr
    virus.

  • Ebola
    virus.

  • dengue
    virus.



8.    
A
childhood disease (fifth disease) is caused by ________


  • Epstein-Barr
    virus.

  • Coxsackie
    viruses.

  • Streptococcus
    pyogenes.

  • Staphylococcus
    aureus.

  • Erythrovirus
    B19.



9.    
The
presence of a single gene for sickle-cell anemia protects individuals against
malaria by ________


  • neutralizing
    the toxin produced by malarial parasites.

  • preventing
    malarial parasites from growing in erythrocytes.

  • stimulating
    the individual to produce an excess of red blood cells.

  • interfering
    with the ability of mosquitoes to detect individuals.

  • coding
    for antibodies against the malarial parasite.



10. 
Mild
lymph node inflammation in adults; can cross placenta and cause serious damage
to nervous system of fetus; also causes damage in small children and
immunosuppressed patients


  • Dengue
    fever

  • Yellow
    fever

  • Infectious
    mononucleosis

  • Malaria

  • Toxoplasmosis



 

 

 

SCI 250 Week 7 Nervous System Lab and
Quiz

Complete the
Nervous System Lab.

Complete the
open-book quiz about the nervous system and associated diseases. The quiz will
be provided by your instructor.

Nervous System Lab – Week Seven



Introduction



The nervous system has two components: the
central nervous system, which consists of the brain and spinal chord; and the
peripheral nervous system, which is composed of nerves. As you learn about the
various diseases that affect the nervous system, it is important for you to
understand the structures that can be affected by disease. Complete this lab to
become familiar with a healthy system and to identify diseases related to the brain, spinal chord, and nerves.



PART ONE: basic
functions



Provide brief answers
to the following questions to help you get acquainted with the basic functions
of a healthy nervous system. Refer to Ch. 24 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations.

 

4.    
How do the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid
(CSF) function together in a healthy nervous system; what are their roles?

5.    
What is the blood-brain barrier?  

6.    
What normal microflora reside in the nervous
system?



PART two: basic
structures



Visit
Chapter 24 of Microbiology: Principles
and Explorations
in WileyPlus to
view an in-depth presentation of a healthy nervous system by completing the
following steps:

 

·      Select the Chapter 24
WileyPlus reading link located on your student Web page.

·      Locate the heading Chapter Review.

·      Select the Anatomy Overview: The Nervous System link.

·      Complete this lab as you
explore the Nervous System multimedia piece.

 

Nervous System: The
Brain


 

Roll
over each component of the Nervous System multimedia piece. Click on the brain. Refer to the Brain component
of the multimedia piece to label the structures in the following diagram of a
healthy brain.




 

Nervous System: The
Spinal Cord


 

Click
the icon in the upper left corner of the Brain diagram to return to the main
menu in the Nervous System multimedia piece. Click the Spinal Cord component to navigate to the Spinal Cord diagram. Refer to the Spinal Cord diagram of the multimedia piece to
label the following structures of a healthy spinal cord.



 



PART three:
investigate and apply



Several
different pathogenic bacteria can cause bacterial meningitis, an infection and
inflammation of the meninges. Select any form of bacterial meningitis discussed
in Ch. 24 of Microbiology: Principles and
Explorations
, and answer the following:

                                                       

1.    
Which form of bacterial meningitis did you
select and what is its causal agent?

2.    
What symptoms are typical of this form of
meningitis?

3.      
Which age group or population is most susceptible
to this form of meningitis and do typical activities within that age group have
any influence on a person contracting the disease?

 

SCI250 Week 7 Chapter 24 Nervous
System Quiz each question worth .25 point (10
questions x .25 point per question = total 2.5
points


10/10 Correct








Section:
Multiple Choice


 

1.    
Which
of the following is associated with serious infection of the meninges?


  • Clogging
    of blood vessels

  • Increased
    pressure within the skull

  • Decreased
    cerebrospinal fluid flow

  • Impaired
    central nervous system function

  • All
    of the above



2.    
Which
of the following is a common cause of meningitis in non-immunized young
children?


  • Streptococcus
    pneumoniae

  • Escherichia
    coli

  • Staphylococcus

  • Haemophilus
    influenzae

  • None
    of the above



3.    
Which
of the following bacteria that may cause meningitis is Gram positive and
therefore does not cause endotoxin shock in infected individuals?


  • Escherichia
    coli

  • Neisseria
    meningitidis

  • Listeria
    monocytogenes

  • Haemophilus
    influenzae

  • None
    of the above



4.    
An
immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) has replaced the older test for the
presence of inclusions in neurons (Negri bodies) for the detection of
infections caused by ________


  • Neisseria
    meningitides.

  • Enteroviruses.

  • Mumps
    virus.

  • Rabies
    virus.

  • Haemophilus
    influenzae.



5.    
What
viruses most likely cause encephalitis?


  • Togaviruses

  • Enteroviruses

  • Mumps
    virus

  • Rabies
    virus

  • Hepatitis
    viruses



 

6.    
What
is the only bacterium known to damage peripheral nerves?


  • Naegleria
    fowleri

  • Mycobacterium
    leprae

  • Streptococcus
    pneumoniae

  • Neisseria
    meningitidis

  • Haemophilus
    influenzae



7.    
Preventing
African sleeping sickness is nearly impossible because ________


  • the
    trypanosomes change their surface glycoproteins evading the host immune
    response.

  • the
    tsetse fly has a wide range and eradication is difficult.

  • vaccines
    must target many antigens.

  • All
    of the above

  • A
    and B



8.    
A
major difference between infections with prions and other agents is that
infections with prions:


  • Do
    not lead to an inflammatory response

  • Are
    not transmissible

  • Do
    not cause an increase in the size of astrocytes

  • Are
    not fatal

  • All
    of the above



9.    
Invades
nerves and brain; headache, fever, nausea, partial paralysis, coma, and death
ensue unless patient has immunity


  • Bacterial
    meningitis

  • Listeriosis

  • Rabies

  • Encephalitis

  • Hansen's
    disease

  • Tetanus

  • Botulism

  • Pliomyelitis

  • Transmissable
    spongiform encephalopathies

  • Chagas'
    disease



 

10. 
Shrinkage
and lysis of neurons of the central nervous system; headache, fever, and
sometimes brain necrosis and convulsions


  • Bacterial
    meningitis

  • Listeriosis

  • Rabies

  • Encephalitis

  • Hansen's
    disease

  • Tetanus

  • Botulism

  • Poliomyelitis

  • Transmissable
    spongiform encephalopathies

  • Chagas'
    disease



 

 

SCI 250 Week 7 Final Exam

 

Complete the final exam. The final exam will be provided
by your instructor.

 

SCI250 Week 7 Final Examination –
each question worth .5 point (20 questions x .5 point totals 10 points)


20/20
Correct









Section:
Multiple Choice


 

1.    
Which
of the following is NOT true of microorganisms?


  • They
    produce antibiotics.

  • They
    are used in the production of many types of food and beverages.

  • They
    decompose dead animals.

  • They
    all cause disease in humans.



2.    
Which
of the following is NOT one of the phases of bacterial growth?


  • lag
    phase

  • stationary
    phase

  • doubling
    phase

  • log
    phase



3.    
Which
of the following is NOT a differential stain?


  • Gram
    stain

  • Schaeffer-Fulton

  • acid-fast
    stain

  • flagellar
    stain



4.    
In
a properly executed Gram stain, Gram positive organisms appear ______ while
Gram negative organisms appear ______


  • pink,
    clear.

  • pink,
    purple.

  • purple,
    pink.

  • purple,
    blue.



5.    
Classification
is necessary to _________


  • establish
    criteria for identifying organisms.

  • arrange
    related organisms into groups.

  • provide
    information about how organisms evolved.

  • All
    of the above



6.    
An
organism that lives at the expense of another organism is a ________


  • host.

  • commensal.

  • parasite.

  • symbiont.



7.    
Undercooked
pork is most likely to pass along ________


  • Schistosoma.

  • Tania.

  • Wuchereria.

  • Trichinella.



8.    
Arthropods
are responsible for transmitting _____ pathogens.


  • viral

  • bacterial

  • protozoan

  • viral,
    bacterial, and protozoan



9.    
All
of the following are true of the relationship between microorganisms and
diseases EXCEPT:


  • Sickle
    cell anemia patients are resistant to malaria.

  • Bacterial
    infections can lead to endocarditis.

  • Viral
    infections invariably lead to nutritional deficiency.

  • Infections
    in the brain can result in mental disease.



10. 
Which
of the following represents the correct order of steps in a typical viruses
replication cycle?


  • Maturation,
    adsorption, penetration, release

  • Adsorption,
    penetration, release, maturation

  • Adsorption,
    penetration, synthesis, maturation

  • Adsorption,
    penetration, maturation, synthesis



11. 
What
special group of chemical substances are used to treat diseases by microbes?


  • Antibiotics

  • Synthetic
    drugs

  • Semi-synthetic
    drugs

  • Antimicrobial
    agents

  • Chemotherapeutic
    agents



12. 
Which
of the following is NOT considered a mode of action by antimicrobial agents?


  • Action
    as an antimetabolite

  • Inhibition
    of protein synthesis

  • Inhibition
    of cell wall sysnthesis

  • Inhibition
    of membrane permeability

  • Disruption
    of selective toxicity



13. 
All
of the following characteristics are components of nonspecific host defenses
EXCEPT:


  • Fever

  • Mucus

  • Antibodies

  • Interferon

  • Inflammation



14. 
What
name is given to a substance that is recognized by the body as foreign and
normally produces an immune response?


  • Antibody

  • Antigen

  • Agglutinin

  • Antitoxin

  • Apoptosis



15. 
There
are a number of different species that can live on the skin as resident
microflora. Which of the following is NOT considered resident microflora of the
skin?


  • Staphylococcus

  • Corynebacterium

  • E.
    coli

  • Demodex

  • All
    of the above



16. 
Defense
mechanisms in the urogenital system are numerous and include ________


  • normal
    flora complete with opportunists.

  • sphincter
    muscles.

  • flushing
    action of fluids.

  • low
    pH.

  • All
    of the above



17. 
Food
poisoning can be caused by a variety of microbes. Which of the following pairs
is incorrect?


  • Clostridium
    botulinum — enterotoxin which is heat liable

  • Staphylococcus
    aureus — enterotoxin which is heat stable

  • Pseudomonas
    cocovenenans — bongkrek disease

  • Bacillus
    cereus — toxin is an emetic

  • Clostridium
    perfringens — enterotoxin and wound infection



18. 
Group
B Streptococcal disease include ________


  • early
    onset neonatal sepsis and meningitis.

  • late
    onset neonatal meningitis.

  • etiology
    is Streptococcus agalactiae

  • All
    of the above

  • Only
    A and C



19. 
In
closed environments, such as military bases, dormitories, and day-care centers,
90% of the population can be carriers of this organism, yet only 1 per 1000
develops the meningitis. What is the etiology?


  • Neisseria
    meningitidis

  • Haemophilus
    influenzae

  • Haemophilus
    influenzae

  • Streptococcus
    pneumoniae

  • Listeria
    monocytogenes



20. 
Food
contamination occurs as a result of ________


  • unsanitary
    practices by food handlers.

  • improper
    storage.

  • importation.

  • All
    of the above

  • Only
    A and B

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