PHL 320 Entire Course

PHL 320 Entire Course

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PHL/320

CRITICAL THINKING AND DECISION MAKING IN BUSINESS

 

The Latest Version A+ Study Guide

 

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PHL 320 Entire Course Link

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PHL 320 Week 1 Critical Thinking Memorandum
 

Purpose of Assignment

Critical thinking is an important part of problem solving, decision making, and everyday life.  So, what is critical thinking and why is it so important?

Assignment Steps

Prepare a 250-word memo to yourself on critical thinking including the following:

 

 

 

Explain critical thinking.
 

 

Provide an example from your personal experience of critical thinking applied to a business decision.
 

 

Discuss the importance and benefits of using critical thinking.
 

 

Relate the importance and benefits of critical thinking to the example provided.
 

 

Discuss ways you might use critical thinking in your current job or chosen career path.
 

 

Format your assignment consistent with APA guidelines.

Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

 

 
 

 

 

PHL 320 Week 2 Rhetorical Strategies and Fallacies Worksheet
 

Purpose of Assignment 

For this assignment, the student will identify the rhetorical strategies and fallacies on the worksheet.

Assignment Steps 

Review the “Rhetorical Strategies and Fallacies” section in Chapters 5 & 6 of Critical Thinking. 

Complete the Rhetorical Strategies and Fallacies Worksheet.

Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

Rhetorical Strategies and Fallacies Worksheet

 

The following are some common rhetorical strategies:

 

 

 

 

Innuendo: a leading suggestion
 

 

 

 

 

Stereotype: generalized statements relating to a group of people
 

 

Loaded questions: questions based on unjustified assumptions
 

 

Hyperbole: an extreme exaggeration
 

 

 

Identify the rhetorical strategy in each of the following statements.

 

 

 

 

I did not say the meat was tough. I said I did not see the horse that is usually outside (W. C. Fields). _________________
 

 

 

 

 

 

Have you stopped beating your wife? _____________
 

 

 

 

 

 

The Maserati is the best car in the world! _________________
 

 

 

 

 

 

All men love football; all women love the ballet. ______________
 

 

 

The following are some common rhetorical fallacies:

 

 

 

 

Slippery slope: If A happens, then B–Z will follow. Therefore, to prevent B–Z from happening, do not allow A to occur.
 

 

Hasty generalization: rushing to form a conclusion based on assumptions; not based on clear evidence
 

 

Post hoc ergo propter hoc: If A occurs after B, then B caused A.
 

 

Either/or: looking at a situation from only two sides, or oversimplifying the situation
 

 

Ad hominem: attacking the person rather than attacking the argument
 

 

Red herring or smoke screen: introducing an unrelated topic as a diversionary tactic
 

 

 

Identify the rhetorical fallacy in each of the following statements.

 

 

 

 

We can either stop using plastic, or destroy the Earth ______________
 

 

 

 

 

 

I ate tuna for lunch and now I do not feel well, so the tuna made me ill. ___________
 

 

 

 

 

 

If you enjoy a social drink, it could lead to you becoming an alcoholic, so you probably should never drink. __________
 

 

 

 

 

 

Even though this is the first week of class, I can tell this is going to be a very easy course. ______________
 

 

 

 

 

 

We know that smoking can affect your health, but how else will tobacco farmers earn a living? ______________
 

 

 

 

 

 

As the candidate for mayor, he has some good ideas, but we know that all politicians are dishonest.___________
 

 

 

 

 
 

 

PHL 320 Week 3 Problem Identification
 

Purpose of Assignment 

For this assignment, the Learning Team conducts basic research related to a business problem. This allows students to use critical thinking in their research to identify problems and discuss how to develop potential solutions. This will build a foundation for the rest of the Learning Team’s assignments. 

Assignment Steps 

Select a business situation such as reorganization, office closure, expansion, etc. 

Locate 1 to 2 articles from the University Library about the subject. 

Prepare a 700-word discussion of the business situation. The discussion should include the following: 

 

 

 

Summarize the issue
 

 

Identify the problem
 

 

Explain why this is the underlying problem
 

 

Relate the research to the problem
 

 

Explain how a clearly defined problem could help with solutions
 

 

Format the assignment consistent with APA guidelines.

Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

 

 

PHL 320 Week 3 Decision Making, Learning, Creativity, and Entrepreneurship Worksheet
 

Purpose of Assignment 

For this assignment, the student will identify the true or false statements and select the correct multiple choice response on the worksheet.

Assignment Steps 

Review Chapters 7 & 9 of Contemporary Management. 

Complete the Decision Making, Learning, Creativity, and Entrepreneurship Worksheet.

Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

Decision Making, Learning, Creativity, and Entrepreneurship Worksheet

 

 

**Highlight the True or False answer for questions 1-6**

 

 

 

 

Decision making in response to threats occurs when managers search for ways to improve organizational performance to benefit customers, employees, and other stakeholder groups. 

A. True
 

 

False
 

 

 

 

 

 

Nonprogrammed decision making is a routine, virtually automatic process. 

A. True
 

 

False
 

 

 

 

 

 

The likelihood of a manager making an error in judgment is much greater in programmed decision making than in nonprogrammed decision making. 

A. True
 

 

False
 

 

 

 

 

 

When uncertainty exists, the probabilities of alternative outcomes cannot be determined and future outcomes are unknown. 

A. True
 

 

False
 

 

 

 

 

 

The classical decision-making model assumes that managers require very little or no information in order to make an optimum decision. 

A. True
 

 

False
 

 

 

 

 

 

The key to a good assessment of the alternatives is to define the opportunity or threat exactly. 

A. True
 

 

False
 

 

 

**Highlight the correct answer for questions 7-15**

 

 

 

 

Decisions that are based on rules and guidelines are known as:  
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A.
brainstormed decisions.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.
heuristic decisions.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C.
programmed decisions.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D.
intuitive decisions.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E.
creative decisions.
 

 

 

 

 

 

Programmed decision making is a(n) ______ process.  
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A.
novel
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.
routine
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C.
intuitive
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D.
unusual
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E.
creative
 

 

 

 

 

Jordan, the manager of JT’s Tasty Treats, has to decide whether to introduce a new frozen dessert that has never been sold previously. What type of decision would this represent?  
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A.
Automatic
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.
Rule-based
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C.
Predetermined
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D.
Nonprogrammed
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E.
Inconsequential
 

 

 

 

 

_____ is present when managers know the possible outcomes of a particular course of action and can assign probabilities to them.  
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A.
Uncertainty
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.
Incomplete information
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C.
Risk
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D.
Ambiguity
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E.
Cognitive limitation
 

 

 

 

 

 

Which of the following is a reason for incomplete information?  
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A.
Ambiguity
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.
Complexity
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C.
Specificity
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D.
Heuristic ability
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E.
Satisficing ability
 

 

 

 

 

 

The first step in the managerial decision-making process is to:  
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A.
choose between alternatives.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.
assess alternatives.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C.
implement the chosen alternative.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D.
recognize the need for a decision.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E.
conduct a retrospective analysis.
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

_____ is a measure of how well an organization’s input resources are used to produce its outputs.
 

 

 

 

 

 

Efficiency
 

 

Quality
 

 

Reliability
 

 

Flexibility
 

 

Responsiveness
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Six Sigma shares with TQM its focus on improving value chain processes to increase _____. 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A.
productivity
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.
quality
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C.
innovation
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D.
flexibility
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E.
employee involvement
 
 
 

 

 

 

Which of the following is true of the impact of high-quality products? 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A.
High product quality results in high operating costs.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.
High product quality results in high employee productivity.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C.
High product quality lowers efficiency.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D.
High product quality reduces profits.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E.
High product quality lowers customer retention.
 

 

 

 
 

 

PHL 320 Week 4 Problem Solutions
 

Purpose of Assignment 

For this assignment, the Learning Team will identify two possible solutions identified from Week 3. During this discussion, consider the methods used to think of creative solutions. Describe how critical thinking was used in the group discussion to identify these solutions, and explain how the team overcame barriers. The assignment should demonstrate how the team used the four key factors with their business decision. 

Assignment Steps 

Select two potential creative solutions for the problem you identified in Week 3.

Create a 700-word discussion of potential solutions and the team’s decision-making process. 

 

 

 

Identify two potential solutions.
 

 

Summarize the methods the team used to develop creative solutions.
 

 

Describe ways the team overcame barriers to creativity to identify solutions.
 

 

Discuss how critical thinking was applied to come up with potential solutions and to motivate change.
 

 

Explain how the team used the four key factors to make the suggested business decisions. 
 

 

Cite a minimum of two sources. 

Format the assignment consistent with APA guidelines. 

Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

 

 

PHL 320 Week 4 Credibility and Moral Value Worksheet
 

Purpose of Assignment 

For this assignment, the student will identify the probably true, probably false statements or requires further documentation statements and select the correct moral value, nonmoral value, or no value at all statements on the worksheet.

Assignment Steps 

Review Chapters 4 & 12 of Critical Thinking. 

Complete the Credibility and Moral Value Worksheet.

Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment

Credibility and Moral Value Worksheet

**Highlight answers 1-10 as either: probably true, probably false, or requires further documentation**

 

 

 

Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. 

 

Huddie Ledbetter (“Leadbelly”) was not only a writer and performer of songs but also an unusually powerful man. Alan Lomax, the historian of American folk music, wrote that “in the Texas Penitentiary he was the number one man in the number one gang on the number one farm in the state—the man who could carry the lead row in the field for 12 or 14 hours a day under the broiling July and August sun.” He could pick a bale of cotton in a day—that’s 500 pounds!

—Adapted from liner notes to the record Leadbelly (Everest recording FS-202)
 

 

Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. 

“NASA [the National Aeronautics and Space Administration] says private investors, not taxpayers, will fund its newest manned space vehicle. If you believe that, you probably think little green men inhabit Mars.”

—Forbes
 

 

Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. 

 

“My cat has fewer brains than a hubcap!”

—Spoken by one of the authors of the text after his cat had spent three days on his housetop
 

 

Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. 

 

“A few years ago AT&T did two surveys showing that technically trained persons did not achieve as many top managerial jobs in the company as liberal arts graduates did.”

—New York Times
 

 

Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. 

 

“In the near future look for floods in Britain which will culminate in the flooding of Parliament.”

—A prediction made by Maitreya Swami, “The World Teacher,” in the News Release of the Tara Center, N. Hollywood, Calif.
 

 

Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. 

 

“Smoking more than triples the likelihood of premature facial wrinkling.”

—Dr. Donald Kadunce, lead author of a group of University of Utah scientists, reporting in Annals of Internal Medicine
 

 

Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. 

You’ve taken your car in to the local branch of a nationwide chain of brake and muffler shops for an advertised “free brake inspection.” After the inspection, the service manager tells you: “I’m afraid your linings are almost completely gone and the drums need turning. You need a complete brake overhaul.”
 

 

Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. 

Comment from an acquaintance: “I saw Bigfoot with my own eyes! It was huge!”
 

 

Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. 

According to Funk & Wagnalls Hammond World Atlas, the three longest rivers in the world are the Nile, the Amazon, and the Yangtze.
 

 

Assess the following as probably true, as probably false, as requiring further documentation before judgment, or as a claim that cannot properly be evaluated. Consider both the nature of the claim and the source. 

“By age 30, roughly a quarter of men and women have discernibly graying hair. Even so, only 28 percent of us ever become completely white haired.”

—Lowell Ponte, Reader’s Digest
 

 

**Highlight answers 11-20 as either: moral value or nonmoral value; or no value at all**

 

 

 

State whether the following item expresses moral value or nonmoral value; or no value at all. 

Twenty past ten. We should go home.
 

 

State whether the following item expresses moral value or nonmoral value; or no value at all. 

It is wrong for the United States to intervene in local wars outside U.S. territory.
 

 

State whether the following item expresses moral value or nonmoral value; or no value at all. 

You should get rid of your dog’s fleas so that it won’t be miserable.
 

 

State whether the following item expresses moral value or nonmoral value; or no value at all. 

 

Alicia has not been entirely honest with her husband; that much is clear.
 

 

15. State whether the following item expresses moral value or nonmoral value; or no value at all. 

 

Everybody should be as fair as Mario tries to be.
 

 

State whether the following item expresses moral value or nonmoral value; or no value at all. 

The regime in China is harshly repressive.
 

 

State whether the following item expresses moral value or nonmoral value; or no value at all. 

It is too my turn to deal!
 

 

State whether the following item expresses moral value or nonmoral value; or no value at all. 

The judge in this case is a very informed person.
 

 

State whether the following item expresses moral value or nonmoral value; or no value at all. 

The last set of essays was much better written than the first set.
 

 

State whether the following item expresses moral value or nonmoral value; or no value at all. 

Allison’s necklace is very old.
 

 

 

 
 

 

 

PHL 320 Week 5 Ethics and Social Responsibility
 

Purpose of Assignment

This assignment is designed to identify how decisions impact a business. Corporations have an obligation to be ethical at all times. For this assignment; the student will identify potential ethical implications surrounding the decision, and how this may impact the decision-making process. From there, corporate social responsibility will be explained and how it can impact the outcome of decision-making for an organization.

Assignment Steps

Identify a business in your local community. This can be your current place of employment or a business with which you are familiar.

Develop a 13-15 slide presentation including detailed speaker notes of the ethics and social responsibility practices within the organization (this means 13-15 pages of content. This does not include the title or reference pages).

Include the following in your examination:

 

 

 

Select a business decision within the organization.
 

 

Identify the potential ethical implications associated with this decision.
 

 

Determine the effect this may have on the decision making process.
 

 

Identify how the organization applies corporate social responsibility to the business.
 

 

Evaluate the influence that corporate social responsibility has on the organization.
 

 

Discuss the application of critical thinking to corporate social responsibility.
 

 

Format the assignment consistent with APA guidelines.

Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.
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