This is for Islamic civilization class. Please read your primary source(s) carefully before you

This is for Islamic civilization class. Please read your primary source(s) carefully before you start writing your paper. Produce a thoughtful historical question (or questions) and work with your primary sources to discuss this question. Examples for such questions include (but are not limited to): Why was this source written? What is the position the author is trying to defend? How does this affect the source itself? Why does the source talk about certain issues or omit others? What pieces of factual evidence can we gather from this text? Is this a reliable source for factual evidence? What does it tell us about the historical context in which it was produced?. The purpose of this exercise is to make you read the primary sources and think about them historically. Therefore, you are expected to analyze your source(s) by asking questions and presenting evidence from the material, instead of simply repeating its contents. Do not include general statements or anything that you cannot support by evidence presented in the sources. Do not repeat the content of the source by quoting or paraphrasing unless you absolutely need to, and do not forget to give proper reference.

1.      Your paper must be double-spaced, 12-font, with adequate margins on all sides.

Do NOT use lengthy quotes from books or articles.


1.      Organization and analysis: The way you analyze your source(s) and the cogency with which you organize and present your analysis.

1.      Evidence: The degree to which your analysis is supported by historical evidence in the source(s).

1.      Style: Clarity of your prose, proper grammar and syntax, punctuation, spelling and other writing mechanics.

2.      How does the constituion of medina define leadership? what was the atmosphere at the time? why was the source written? Who is it written for? what is the messsage from the primary source? please use words such as umma which means community in arabic. The professor wants analysis not assumptions. please do further research if necessary in order to use correct words. Also, please write the question in essay and explain that you are answering them.