Assignment 04: Searching, Sorting, and Algorithm Analysis


Requirements
You are allowed to write everything in one file this time, so long it is organized and the file is not too long. If the file gets too long, please split it into multiple .h and .cpp files, and have a main.cpp that #includes the .h files, and can be used to call the functions prototyped in them.

All the files you produce must be able to exist within a single project. You will submit these files via github as normal.

Setup
Write a function named print_vector that takes a const std::vector<int & as an argument, and outputs the contents (separated by whitespace) to stdout (followed by a newline).
Write the main function. It doesn't need to do anything right now, but as you write the functions below, you should put code in main to test them.
Selection Sort
Write a function named selection_sort that takes a std::vector<int & as an argument, and sorts it in-place. The algorithm is as follows:

For the index of each element in the array (the "current index")
Find the index of the minimum element at or after the current index.
Swap the element at the current index with the smallest element found.
For a more thorough explanation, google around, or see the relevant Wikipedia entry.

Merge Sort
Write a function named merge_sort that takes as an argument a const std::vector<int & and returns a std::vector<intcontaining all the elements of the vector that was passed as an argument, in ascending order. The algorithm (which is recursive) is as follows:

If the vector contains only 1 element, return the vector unchanged.
Otherwise, split the vector into two halves, named left and right.
Recursively sort each half (i.e. call merge_sort(left); and merge_sort(right);).
Merge left and right into a new vector named sorted, in the following manner:

As long as left and right both have elements not in sorted, compare the smallest such elements of each list, take the smaller of the two, and append it to sorted.
Once all of the elements of either left or right are in sorted, take the leftover elements and append them to sorted.
Return sorted.
For a more thorough explanation, google around, or see the relevant Wikipedia entry.

You may need to search around for the best way to split a vector into two smaller vectors. Here's one way from stackoverflow.

Requests
Please try to do this in groups, and try to use Google, etc., only for answers to questions about the language (as opposed to questions about this problem).
Assumptions
(None)

Style
Place your solution in a solution--YOURNAME subdirectory (where YOURNAME is your GitHub username).
Include your copyright and license information at the top of every file, followed by a brief description of the file's contents, e.g.

/* ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Copyright © 2016 Ben Blazak <[email protected]
* Released under the [MIT License] (http://opensource.org/licenses/MIT)
* ------------------------------------------------------------------------- */

/**
* A short program to print "Hello World!" to standard output.
*/
Use "include guards" in all .h files. Be sure to give the preprocessor variable a name corresponding to the file name. For example, in point.h:

#ifndef POINT_H
#define POINT_H
// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

// ... everything besides the copyright information and file description

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
#endif // POINT_H
main() must have its own .cpp file. I suggest calling it main.cpp.
Classes must have both .h and .cpp files, with member functions defined in the .cpp files unless they are truly trivial. If it makes sense, you may put multiple classes into one pair of .h and .cpp files.
Declare member functions and function arguments as const when appropriate (in general, whenever possible).
Document and format your code well and consistently. Be sure to clearly document the source of any code, algorithm, information, etc. that you use or reference while completing your work.
Wrap lines at 79 or 80 columns whenever possible.
End your file with a blank line.
Do not use using namespace std;. You may get around typing std:: in front of things or with, e.g., using std::cout;.
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